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The menstrual cycle: a general concept of its norm, regularity, failures and irregularities

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Monthly bleeding from the vagina, are a normal phenomenon of the female body. By the regularity, abundance and nature of discharge, a woman can judge her health. After the formation of the sexual sphere, which occurs about a year after the onset of menstruation, the girl has her own individual cycle. Usually, the duration of the month is set within 3-7 days, but there are exceptions. What about this doctors say? What is the duration can be considered the norm, and what - a deviation? Experts will tell the answers to these and other questions related to the physiology of the female body.

Average

Monthly or menstruation is a natural biological process that occurs regularly in the female body. If this process is disturbed by a hormonal disruption or an infectious disease, the woman will immediately begin to experience painful sensations. Moreover, no girl of childbearing age is considered healthy if her menstrual cycle is broken. An important indicator of health and excellent well-being is the volume of blood lost during menstruation. Wherein,

the duration of the cycle of menstruation, as well as the blood loss for each woman, are individual.

But still in the world of gynecology, it is considered that the cycle duration is considered normal if this period does not exceed 35 days and is not less than 21 days. During this period, the woman's body manages to mature the egg, exit the ovary and fertilize. If the latter does not occur, the contents of the egg, together with the endometrium, are rejected and excreted. The result of this process, each woman observes once a month in the form of menstruation. According to doctors, the contents of the genital tract should go from 3 to 7 days.

Deviations from the norm

If we consider the duration of the month according to medical standards, you can easily determine the time of occurrence of deviations. So, if bleeding continues for less than two days or more than seven, you should go to a doctor to find out the reasons for this condition. Pay attention to the intensity of bleeding. The most abundant menstruation occurs on the second or third day, with a tendency to a gradual decrease in volume. If the discharge is scarce or excessive, this is also a reason for going to a gynecologist. When increasing or decreasing the cycle, for no apparent reason, it is necessary to consult with a specialist. Violation of the duration is considered a clear sign of the incidence of a woman.

First menstruation

With the onset of the first menstruation, the girl is recommended to keep a diary, which indicates the day of the beginning and end of bleeding. Thanks to this method, it is very easy to find out the duration of your cycle. We note immediately that the first 12-14 cycles may be irregular. This is the normal process of the formation of the female body. Genital organs and hormones need time to stabilize all the processes that were started with the onset of the first menstruation. How in this case to consider duration of a menstrual cycle? Gynecologists believe that in the period of formation a girl can only track the dates of the beginning and end of menstruation, without thinking about regulation.

After childbirth

Not all young mothers know how to count the duration of a monthly cycle after the birth of a baby. It must be remembered that hormones that regulate all processes in

female body. This means that after the birth period, which is occupied by breastfeeding, is also regulated by female hormones. From here it is easy to conclude that after birth the cycle may be slightly disturbed. Moreover, during the period of breastfeeding, the woman may have no menstruation, which is the norm. The length of menstruation after childbirth may vary slightly and be established after two, three, and in some cases, 6-8 cycles.

Menopause period

With the onset of 40-45 years of age, women mark the first signs of the approaching extinction of sexual activity. This period is called premenopause. At this stage, the duration of menstruation is normal, may remain normal, and may be subject to fluctuations in the direction of decrease. In the premenopausal period, the woman begins to experience the first sensations of reducing sexuality and libido.

At the end of the first period, which can last from one year to eight years, the time of the last menstruation comes. After this, there comes a final period, characterized by the abolition of menstruation and the complete extinction of the reproductive function. It is believed that from this point on a woman enters the stage of old age.

When can a cycle be broken?

If the duration and nature of the menstrual period has changed, the woman should be aware that the following circumstances may lead to such a process:

  • The presence of chronic severe illnesses.
  • Improper nutrition.
  • Lack of vitamins.
  • Work in difficult, hazardous conditions.
  • Frequent unbearable physical exertion.

If there are any of these causes, irregularities in the menstrual cycle are unavoidable.

At the end

Every woman, starting with the first menstruation, should know what the duration of the cycle is considered

the norm. Gynecologists recommend taking as a basis the average, which is 21-35 days. During this period, the woman's body undergoes the necessary processes that involve conceiving and carrying a child. If this does not happen, in the same period endometrium rejection begins and the contents are taken out. This process is called monthly, which should last from 3 to 7 days. Other cycle indicators are not the norm and are considered abnormalities that require appropriate treatment.

The first phase is menstruation itself.

So, on the very first day of menstruation, the endometrium of the uterus begins its process of detachment. This is manifested in the bleeding from the vagina. Normally, blood loss should occur within 4-6 days. The highest peak of blood loss always falls on the first 2 - 3 days of menstruation.

The following symptoms are often present these days:

  • Spasms and abdominal pain,
  • Spasms in the pelvic region,
  • Cramps in the legs,
  • Backache,
  • General malaise.

Spasmodic pains can be expressed in weak, medium and acute forms. Such spasms are uterine contractions, by which the body helps the endometrium to be rejected from the walls of the uterus.

Follicular phase

When the follicular (proliferative) phase begins, the egg cell leaves the ovary. This phase begins in the first weeks after the start of menstruation. Therefore, to believe their own calculations, for protection from pregnancy, is not recommended.

As a rule, one egg participates in one menstrual cycle. This process is reflected in how long the cycle will be: the process of the egg's release can be longer or shorter. And at the same time, the female uterus starts the process of building up a new endometrium in order to prepare for the onset of pregnancy.

And now the most interesting thing: there is such a thing as a fertile window - this is 5 days of your follicular phase plus 1 day of ovulation itself. It is during this period there is the highest probability of pregnancy. To accurately determine this period is very difficult. This can be done only with the help of special diagnostic methods.

Premenstrual phase

But the first day of ovulation itself is, at the same time, the beginning of the next phase - premenstrual (luteal). On this day, the egg is selected from the ovarian follicle. Exact numbers in this case can not be called, since for all women it can happen in different ways. In addition, various factors can influence this: nervous shocks, lack of sex, lactation and much more. But it happens in the period from the 7th to the 22nd day of the usual menstrual cycle of a woman.

The process of ovulation itself may well be accompanied by the presence of some symptoms:

  • Weak bleeding (daub),
  • Pulling pain in lower abdomen
  • General discomfort,
  • Weakness and fatigue.

All these signs are considered normal and do not talk about any diseases.

If the egg has gone through the process of fertilization during this period, pregnancy begins. Her term is calculated precisely from the first day of the menstrual cycle (the beginning of the last menstrual period). If fertilization does not occur, gradually, the endometrium begins to exfoliate and reject - then menstruation occurs.

At the age when the menstrual cycle is established (after adolescence and up to 40 years old), the luteal phase of a healthy woman is predictable. Its normal duration is considered a period of 13 -15 days (it is considered from the day of ovulation to the beginning of the new menstrual period).

The degree of profusion of menstruation

As regards the abundance of secretions, the following rule is considered normal: on the days of the largest excretions (1st - 2nd day), use a gasket or 1 tampon for 3 to 4 hours.

And now we give the signs of too heavy blood discharge:

  • Filling a pad or tampon in 1 to 2 hours or less of this period,
  • The inability to spend one night with the lining of the night type (wide, long and with a high degree of absorption), the flow of blood on the bedding.

If such cases occur extremely rarely, it is not scary. But regular violations in the form of the duration of menstruation for more than 7 days and their increased profusion are considered pathological. Such a violation is called menorrhagia. This may be a sign of various diseases. These include various gynecological diseases and serious bleeding disorders.

What could be the pain?

Normal (normal) pain during menstruation can be:

  • Mild,
  • Average
  • Strong.

With menstruation, pain affects the lower abdomen, is felt in the depths of the pelvis (pressure sensation, pulls, aching) and in the lower back. The nature of the pain can be constant or pulsating. So, normally, the pain may appear some time before the beginning of the menstrual period and should disappear along with bleeding.

Pain, with every woman throughout her life, remains constant (more or less). That is, the strength and intensity of pain varies with each woman. The nature of menstrual pain changes only with certain changes in the body (the appearance of a permanent sexual partner, childbirth, the installation of a spiral).

Severe pain as a symptom of the disease

It happens that the pain is so severe that it makes a woman completely unsuitable for normal life activity during this period. Severe pain often indicates a violation and is called dysmenorrhea.

This diagnosis is confirmed if, along with pain, there are still signs such as:

  • Headache,
  • Dizziness,
  • Nausea,
  • Loss of consciousness,
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation or diarrhea.

The presence of such signs, clearly, is the reason for the immediate appeal to a gynecologist. Than it threatens, consider below.

Pain during menstruation. When do I need to see a doctor?

So, in the presence of severe pain during menstruation, you should seriously think about your health.

Pain can signal a number of illnesses:

  • Uterine fibroids,
  • Endometriosis,
  • Uterine cancer,
  • Polyps of the uterus.

In addition, you need to pay attention to the changes that are happening to you recently.

So, in the case of the presence of the following signs in you, an urgent need to contact a gynecologist:

  1. Menstruation has become more painful than before
  2. Abdominal pain is very strong (you are constantly taking painkillers),
  3. In addition to the pain, the excretions themselves became more abundant (one gasket lasts less than 2 hours),
  4. Along with pain, there are other disorders (weight loss, violation of the cycle, the inability to get pregnant).

The duration of the menstrual cycle

The duration of the cycle depends on the characteristics of the organism and its duration is purely individual. Throughout life, it can change.

The normal monthly cycle lasts 28 days, but can reach 35 days. The period of menstruation lasts 5 days. Sometimes there is a delay. It is believed that such a lack of bleeding in women up to 10 days is not a pathology and does not require medical treatment. But if the retention of menstruation exceeds this indicator, and the pregnancy test is negative, you should consult a gynecologist. He will not only conduct an inspection and find out the reason for the absence of menstruation, but also tell you how to calculate your monthly cycle correctly, why it can change and what is its average duration.

What factor affects the duration?

If the cycle of menstruation has increased or, conversely, between the bleeding, the period of time has decreased, this may be due to any infection in the genitals or pathology. Also, how long the cycle lasts can be influenced by such factors:

  1. Diabetes,
  2. Pelvic infections
  3. Diseases of various etiologies,
  4. Obesity or body mass deficiency (during anorexia, menstruation disappears altogether),
  5. Inflammation of the appendages,
  6. Long journeys and travels,
  7. Constant stress, hysteria and nervosa,
  8. Changing of the climate.

As you can see, on when it begins and how many days the cycle of menstruation in women lasts, external factors and the lifestyle itself are strongly influenced. So, with physical and psychological overvoltages, poor ecology, unusual climate, discharge can be retained. Do not immediately panic and run to the doctor. Try to eliminate the impact factor, for example, relax, take sedatives or wait for acclimatization.

This is important to know!If factors of influence on the duration are not identified, and between the months it takes a little / a lot of time, unusual painful sensations appeared in the pelvis, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist!

Phases of the monthly cycle

All women have a normal cycle has several phases that are different in duration. During each of these, certain changes occur in the ovaries and endometrium.

There are such phases:

  1. Follicular. The duration norm is 14-16 days. In some cases it can reach three weeks. During this period, follicles grow and mature, which is controlled by FSH. When one of the follicles becomes dominant (its size reaches 14 mm), the remaining eggs regress and slowly collapse. It is believed that it is in this phase that the dead endometrium is removed, which leaves the uterus in the form of bleeding. After the end of the menstrual period, the development of a new layer begins, and already before ovulation, the endometrium is able to receive a mature egg,
  2. Ovulatory. When the follicle has become dominant, its size continues to increase. Soon he becomes ready for ovulation and begins his gradual break. In this case, the matured egg cell moves into the fallopian tube, and the luteinizing hormone rises. Further, there may be two options:
  • Direct fertilization of the egg by the sperm. Pregnancy. No bleeding,
  • The conception did not take place and the death of the unfertilized egg occurs,

  1. Luteal (yellow body phase). The duration norm is 12-16 days. After a ruptured ripened follicle, its cells increase the amount of lipids and lutein pigment. During this period, it becomes yellow in color and develops into a yellow body, which prepares the uterus for conception, pregnancy and fetus bearing. If fertilization does not take place, the cells of the corpus luteum are destroyed, endometrial edema occurs. Soon he leaves the uterus in the form of bloody discharge.

How to calculate the duration of the menstrual cycle?

As mentioned earlier, the cycle length is the time interval between the onset of menstruation and the first day of the next uterine bleeding in women. Simply put, how many days passes between two periods.

Calculate how long the cycle lasts is not difficult. For example, if a woman's last menstruation was on August 28, and the next menstruation began on September 26, then the length of her cycle is considered to be 30 days and is normal. In this example, 28.08 is the first day, and 25.09 is the last, since 26.09 the next period of menstruation begins.

It must be remembered that the length of the cycle is not affected by how much the spotting itself lasts (3, 5 or 7 days). The main thing to remember is the day they started.

Determination of cycle duration by symptoms

Most women determine the beginning and end of the menstrual cycle, paying attention to changes in the body, well-being and discharge. For example, focusing on these symptoms, you can easily recognize ovulation:

  1. Changes in the amount and nature of discharge (can be abundant and painful)
  2. Increase in basal temperature
  3. Increased sexual desire.

It is also not difficult to determine the end of the monthly cycle, which is expressed in premenstrual syndrome. Signs of approaching menstruation begin about a week before the end of the cycle and are clearly felt:

  1. Breast swelling, breast sensitization. Sometimes the appearance of pain, feelings of "rastiraniya"
  2. Emotionality, mood swings, tearfulness,
  3. The appearance of acne and blackheads on the face, back,
  4. Bloating, swelling,
  5. Headache,
  6. Чувство усталости.

Возможные нарушения

Длительность менструального цикла меняется на протяжении всей жизни. After childbirth, it becomes unstable, there are "jumps" in menstruation, and during breastfeeding it is completely absent. The cause of this violation is the hormone prolactin, which is responsible for the production of breast milk. After the cessation of breastfeeding, the cycle is gradually restored. This process is not a pathology and does not require any intervention.

How long the cycle lasts in women and its course is affected by many diseases. It can be:

  1. Endometriosis. The presence of inflammatory endometrial tissues,
  2. Algomenorrhea. During bleeding, it contributes to the appearance of pain of varying intensity. Sometimes causes vomiting,
  3. Tumor, uterine myoma,
  4. Polycystic
  5. Dysmenorrhea. Manifested in the form of the beginning of the month before or after the date,
  6. Ovarian inflammation,
  7. Oligomenorrhea. Spotting scarce and rarely occur,
  8. Amenorrhea. Monthly absent for more than 6 months. The development of infertility is possible.

Treatment of violations of the duration of the cycle

First of all, the gynecologist conducts an examination and is interested in the length of the previous menstrual cycle, the presence of painful sensations, heavy discharge, diseases, including chronic ones. An important role is played by medication. Some of them have a strong influence on women's health and contribute to the appearance of changes in the pelvic organs.

To accurately identify the cause of the disorder and to establish the correct diagnosis of the patient, a series of tests can be prescribed (pelvic ultrasound, smear, blood, etc.). The results obtained make it possible to choose the right method of treatment.

Often the doctor prescribes hormone treatment and prescribes the appropriate drugs. They eliminate the imbalance of hormones, restore their normal balance and regulate the onset of menstruation.

If the violation of the cycle of menstruation is caused by any disease, you must be supervised by a specialist. This will help avoid the development of serious complications.

When a girl begins her period

Puberty of children today is significantly different from what it was, for example, 20 - 25 years ago. If our grandmothers and mothers can tell stories, how their periods began at 14 and 16 years old, but now this is an exception rather than a pattern.

On average, the first menarche in girls comes at the age of 10 - 13 years. Menstruation is the stage of puberty. Up to this point, the teenager should have other signs: appropriate hair growth (in the armpits, pubic hair), enlarged chest. Also, for some time before menstruation (for a year, sometimes more) mucous-white discharge from the vagina begins.

Factors that affect the age of onset of menstruation:

  • Hereditary predisposition If mother, grandmother, sister learned about menstruation only for about 15 years, you should not wait for them at 10 - 11. This is a genetic program that the body implicitly performs.
  • Constitution girls. The fuller the girl, the earlier, as a rule, her menses begin. This is due to the fact that adipose tissue is hormonally active. With an increase in the number of its cells, the content of estrogen in the blood increases - female sex hormones. Accordingly, puberty is progressing at a faster pace.
  • Nationality girls. In women living in a hot climate (Africa, UAE, Egypt, etc.) puberty occurs much earlier. Therefore, if such a relationship is traced, it is likely that the menarche will be early.
  • Psycho-emotional overload may delay the onset of the first menstruation.

Normal cycle: duration, regularity

Many believe that the monthly cycle is considered normal when it is 28 days long. However, this is misleading. Such regularity is ideal, and the norm range is much wider. The duration of bleeding should not exceed 10 - 14 days, which is also individual and depends on many factors.

Features in adolescent girls

During the first two years after menarche, the average monthly cycle can normally fluctuate within fairly wide limits. The body must “tune” its systems in a new way. It is quite rare to observe that the cycle immediately becomes regular. In most cases there are breaks of several months. This can happen several times. But after two years, the cycle must acquire some kind of rhythm. In the opposite case, you need to look for pathology.

Also, girls may vary slightly the duration of critical days. But the monthly should not be excessively abundant, or continue for more than 10 - 14 days. And in this case, most of the time they should be smearing.

The regularity and duration of the menstrual cycle in girls should pay special attention. When psycho-emotional overload, stress, excessive mental and physical exertion in a still fragile organism, failures occur, which is expressed in juvenile uterine bleeding. In case of delayed treatment for medical care, sometimes it is necessary to resort to blood transfusion.

Cycle regularity

The normal length of the monthly cycle is from 21 to 35 days. It is important to understand how to be considered. The first day of the cycle is the beginning of any bleeding, regardless of their profusion. The last day is “clean” on the eve of critical days. With a cycle duration of 21 days, sometimes it can happen that monthly come twice a month - at the beginning and at the end. This greatly confuses women, they begin to suspect various diseases. But if the interval between the monthly fits into the range of the norm - any worries are absolutely groundless.

Ideally, the body works “like a clock,” and the woman’s monthly rate is always a constant figure. But this is rare.

The woman's menstrual cycle is very variable. At first glance, insignificant changes in ordinary life can lead to failure. The factors most often causing deviations:

Classic presentation

Normally (ideally) critical days should be no more than 3 to 5 days. They should not be preceded by a long (several days) brown or scarlet daub. The bleeding gradually increases, reaching a maximum of 2 to 3 days. Then they subside. And at night there should not be excessively heavy discharge.

It is considered normal to change the gasket-maxi no more than once. The end of menstruation can be both sudden and gradual. Sometimes the discharge may be absent up to 6 - 8 hours, and then reappear, but less intense. Long-term spotting should not occur even after critical days, this indicates a pathology (often all about endometriosis).

But as well as the duration of the cycle, all of the above factors may affect the duration, leading to the fact that critical days do not go as usual. Additionally change the duration can the following:

  • Sex during critical days. Sex at the beginning and end of menstruation can cause them to increase slightly, but reduce the number of days. This is explained by the fact that during sexual intercourse oxytocin is released, which causes a contraction of the uterus, and this leads to the fastest cleansing of its cavity. Sex during heavy discharge, as a rule, causes even greater gain.
  • The intrauterine device, being in the uterus, in many women contributes to an increase in the amount of discharge and the length of the critical days up to 14 days. It is considered normal to smear a few days before and after menstruation. It all depends on the individual properties of the organism.
  • While taking oral contraceptives, the nature of menstruation changes significantly. In most cases, the number of days is reduced to 2 - 4, and the discharge can be only smearing throughout their length.

Critical blood loss rates

How should normal menstruation take place? Ideally, in 5–7 critical days a woman can take up to 150–200 ml of blood without harm to her health with secretions. On average, it is 50 - 70 ml per day. With this cycle, usually one pack of gaskets is enough for 5 - 6 drops per month, provided that they are almost completely filled.

As for bunches, they may be small, in a few mm, especially after a night's sleep or a long stay in an upright position. But if they are “like chunks of the liver,” they reach 5–7 cm or more — this is an obvious pathology.

What can affect blood loss during menstruation?

  • Infectious diseases, especially viral, and anti-inflammatory drugs taken during treatment. The fact is that the microorganisms themselves and drugs also affect blood clotting. As a result, the discharge after the illness or during it is more than usual, often with clots, women describe it as "it just pours out of me." In such cases, additional measures should be taken to reduce bleeding - cold to the lower abdomen, ethamsylate, vikasol, tranexam inside.
  • If a woman has a spiral in the uterus, then the period with clots should not surprise her either. But this is not a "monthly miscarriage", as many believe. The spiral affects the contractile abilities of the walls of the uterus, and also contributes to the excessive growth of the endometrium - hence the clots.
  • Heavy physical labor during critical days also leads to increased secretions.
  • Thermal procedures - hot baths, bath, sauna - it is better to postpone during menstruation. They will contribute to the expansion of blood vessels, increasing bleeding.

What does the pain during menstruation

Normally, a healthy woman's periods should not cause any pain. Only minor pulling manifestations in the lower abdomen, which do not lead to disruption of the normal rhythm of life, are allowed.

In any case, for painful menstruation should be examined by a gynecologist. If the cause is not clarified, or only under its assumption, it is recommended to take analgesics before the onset of the attack. For example, if every time on the first day of menstruation a stomach ache is severe, pills should be taken the day before as soon as a slight discharge begins.

It is important to choose a drug that removes the attack as much as possible. Here we have to act by the method of "trial and error", choosing the medicine that acts, and take it exactly every time. Someone helps no-shpa, others - ketones. When selecting, you can ask for advice from a gynecologist. Now you can find painkillers of different groups, respectively, of a different principle of action. Often, taking oral contraceptives helps to completely get rid of the pain during menstruation.

We recommend to read an article about abdominal pain during menstruation. From it you will learn about the mechanism of pain development in the days of menstruation, diseases that cause discomfort during this period, pathological causes, as well as ways to eliminate pain.

A woman should know in detail the work of her body: what kind of monthly delay is considered normal, how much and how should critical days go, etc. All this will allow as soon as possible to identify the pathology in the event of its first symptoms. And this affects the effectiveness of treatment and possible consequences for the organism as a whole. A gynecologist, whose regular check-ups should not be ignored, will always help in understanding this.

Menstrual cycle

The period of puberty in girls, as you know, begins a few years earlier than in boys. The day of the onset of the first menstruation is called "menarche." This is evidence that the ovaries are healthy and fully functionally ripe. But, despite the hormonal background that has formed, the girl is not yet ready to become pregnant and bear the child, because her uterus and reproductive tract are completely matured only by the age of eighteen.

Preparing for menstruation

Mom will help you to find out how many months the girls are going with, and a specialist, of course, is better. There are a huge number of factors that influence when the first periods begin. In particular, this is determined by the level of hormones that each girl has an individual. It is under his influence that the reproductive system begins to develop. And also big values ​​have:

  1. The amount of physical activity affecting metabolism. If a girl goes in for sports regularly, then her body develops much faster. Because of this, these girls almost never have any irregularities with the menstrual cycle.

  2. Climatic conditions in the place of residence, as well as nationality in many ways accelerates the beginning of menstruation. People in regions where the climate is warm and the sea, get a lot of sunlight and various trace elements, which speeds up the metabolism. That is why the sex glands are formed much earlier (by the age of thirteen).
  3. The absence of diseases and proper nutrition does not affect the development and growth of the girl. But it is still necessary to eat healthy food so that the body can form ovarian functions in time. Teens should avoid stressful situations, do not limit their menu and physical activity.
  4. Genetics plays a role in many ways. Usually, the girl's menstrual cycle may coincide with the cycles of the mother or grandmother.

If most factors coincide, then menstruation will begin on time. After a certain period of time, monthly periods become regular in nature, as well as in duration.

Changes occurring in the body

Approximately one or two years before the menarche begins, the level of hormones begins to rise. The onset of ovarian maturation occurs after the brain sends a signal to release specific substances. For slightly swollen genital lips and breasts, it can be assumed that critical days will come soon:

  1. The inner uterine membrane and eggs begin to grow under the influence of estrogen (sex hormones). They are in the blood since birth, but until a certain point blocked by special receptors.

  2. Due to the fact that there is a sharp hormonal jump, one of the layers of the uterus (internal) with the egg cell is rejected. Due to the immaturity of the system, the duration of menstruation is only about three days.
  3. In most cases, menarche occurs at night. Then hormonal changes occur. The abundance of such secretions is small, only a few drops or a small spot. Character - smear.
  4. Normal clots should not be present. The blood has a dark color and thick consistency.

Mom during this period should reassure her daughter, explain everything to her in detail and teach her how to use special hygiene products intended for menstruation (pads or tampons). And most importantly - the girl must follow the rules of personal hygiene (wash several times a day - after each change of gasket or tampon).

Mom's actions

As it has already become clear, a mother at this time should become a kind of child psychologist, because she is the closest person for a child who can understand everything and calm her down. And also she should check the nature of the discharge (normally they have a dark red hue). And if there are any strange symptoms, then you need to consult a pediatric gynecologist.

Some girls have only three pads per day, and someone can use almost the entire pack (about eight pieces). Such a phenomenon does not always indicate the presence of a disease, usually it is just individual characteristics. Therefore, an exact answer to the question of how many pads per day is the norm for menstruation does not exist.

End the conversation is how to correctly determine the beginning of the cycle. Some people mistakenly believe that the counting should start at the end of menstruation, which is fundamentally wrong and should be done exactly the opposite. The second periods can only come in a few months. About a year later the cycle will go back to normal.

Menstruation in adult women

The duration and nature of the menstrual discharge becomes normal by the age of eighteen, which suggests that the body is already ready to bear and give birth to a child. The cycle can be broken if a woman has recently experienced a strong shock or has had a disease.

Sometimes the duration of menstruation is reduced to two days, or, conversely, menstruation takes too long. And it often happens that the monthly does not come six months. If they do not occur longer than usual time, then this may indicate the presence of infertility.

From year to year, ovarian activity fades away. Contributes to this overall aging of the whole organism. Every year a woman's ability to have a child decreases, and as a result, menstruation gradually changes and eventually disappears.

Changes in the body

Fully formed sexual functions contribute to the cyclical development of eggs in the ovaries. All these processes are controlled by the ovaries themselves and, of course, the brain. Due to this, the body is prepared for pregnancy. Due to some changes in the immune and blood systems, the body heals wounds to the mucous membrane faster:

  1. Maturation of the inner layer of the uterus and egg occurs under the influence of progestins, estrogens.

  2. When the body understands that there is no pregnancy, it removes all unnecessary. This is done with the aim of replacing old cells with new ones.
  3. Следующим шагом является резкий гормональный скачок в мозгу и удаление внутреннего маточного слоя с последующим разрушением капиллярных сосудов.
  4. Наступают месячные, начинается новый цикл.

Продолжительность критических дней

Due to the fact that menstrual blood is poorly folded, critical days in most cases last four or seven days. Someone - two days. If this blood did not have such a property, then small clots would form inside the vagina and uterus, making it difficult to discharge. The nature of the monthly normal, if:

  1. The volume of blood secreted does not exceed sixty milliliters. By the way, most of this indicator comes at the beginning of the cycle.
  2. There are no clots in it, the consistency is uniform, there may be streaks.
  3. Color is brown or dark red.
  4. Menstruation is often accompanied by symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, nausea, but most often - pain in the lower abdomen.

Only a gynecologist can answer how many days the monthly period should go. Therefore it is worth visiting sometimes.

Proper hygiene

After the first "menarche" it is necessary to teach the girl how to properly carry out hygienic procedures. This will help the mother, and at an older age - a gynecologist. It is necessary to wash away after each change of laying during all monthly periods, even when there is very little discharge. After all, it is at this time that there is a risk of catching an infection.

Water treatments (washing away) carried out using intimate soap and ordinary warm water. The total number of such events should not be less than two. During the period of critical days, it is not recommended to visit saunas and baths, as they increase bleeding. Bathing in a normal bath is also better to postpone.

Gaskets or tampons are used only after washing. Their choice depends on the amount of discharge. They are different in absorbability and size. You can not wear one pad for more than four hours, since the blood that is released during menstruation, is an ideal medium for the reproduction of microorganisms. And no matter how many years menstruation lasts, it is worth carrying out frequent and thorough hygienic procedures.

Menstruation during pregnancy

When a large number of women become pregnant, menstruation disappears, but often they reappear, just in time, as a result of which the woman may not even understand that she has become pregnant. The menstruations that came during the first month of pregnancy are explained by the fact that the fertilization of the egg took place at the end of the cycle, that is, at the time when the inner layer of the uterus was already slightly exfoliated. The nature of such secretions is scanty.

It rarely happens that in each ovary one egg starts to develop. One was successfully fertilized, and the other was removed by the body. Minor bleeding continues for only a day or two.

When a small amount of blood is periodically released from a woman during the first few months of pregnancy, this may indicate that hormone production is not stopped in the ovaries. But you can not pay attention to it. You must visit a gynecologist, because such symptoms may be precursors to miscarriage or manifest due to violations in the endocrine system.

No monthly postpartum

If a woman immediately after birth starts to breastfeed the baby, then during this entire period she will not have periods. However, if for some reason the child had to be transferred to artificial feeding, then the critical days will come approximately three months after the birth of the child.

If there are no complications, the cycle returns to normal and even becomes more stable than before. Indicators change and come close to normal, the pain disappears. This is attributed to the fact that changes occur in the position of the uterus, improves the flow of secretions.

End of menstruation

Complete cessation of menstruation occurs at about fifty years of age when menopause occurs. Passing the threshold in forty years, the body reduces the production of hormones in the ovaries and gradually ceases to create new eggs. Ovulations periodically disappear, and this affects the nature of menstruation: they become irregular and their duration is reduced.

Norms tsykla

The establishment and regularity of the cycle is finally completed after the first menstruation (or menarche) and is saved for a long time throughout the entire fertile age of the woman.

It is important to know that all these changes in the body depend on the action of sex hormones and flow into two phases: the first is the phase of maturation and the “preparation” of the egg in the ovary, it obeys the hormone estrogen, the second is the phase of release of the egg from the ovary (ovulation) and the formation of yellow body, it depends on the hormone progesterone. After these two phases, if the egg does not fertilize, then as a result, the functional layer of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) is rejected, in other words, menstruation occurs and then all these phases are repeated.

Girls should consult a gynecologist if their monthly periods are less than two days or do not stop more than a week.

Menstrual bleeding (or menstruation) is nothing more than repeated bleeding from the genital tract at regular or irregular intervals during the entire childbearing age of a woman outside of pregnancy and lactation. Reduce the duration of this process can be a drug.

Menarche (or the first menstruation) - occurs in the period of puberty of a young girl, normally occurs at the age of 10-14 years, as a rule, scanty have the form of "smear" or a few drops of red blood, last for a short time for 1-3 days. As a rule, a normal and regular cycle after menarche sets in 1-1.5 years, although it is possible earlier.

Normal cycles should be repeated regularly throughout the reproductive age with a gradual decrease in its intensity by the period of menopause and should stop altogether during menopause.

Like any process, normal menstrual cycles have their own parameters:

  • continue within 21-35 days (28 days in 60% of women),
  • menstruation continues within 2-7 days (3-5 on average),
  • bleeding should be more intense in the early days, and should gradually be reduced by the last day of menstruation,
  • the amount of blood loss should vary between 40-60 ml for the entire cycle.

Climax (from the Greek “level”) is a physiological period in a woman’s life, based on a gradual decrease in fertility, a decrease in the amount of hormones in the blood and a violation of the frequency of the cycle and a decrease in the number of menstruations. According to statistics, menopause on average begins at 50 years.

Menopause usually consists of two stages: premenopause and menopause:

  • premenopause - This is the time from the beginning of the decline in ovarian function to the complete disappearance of menstruation. The duration of this period is usually from 2 to 8 years.
  • menopause - This is the time of the last menstruation, then there is postmenopause, which continues until the end of a woman’s life

  • irregular periods,
  • change of time of flow of menstruation and its quantity, at the same time both reduction and its increase are possible,
  • the occurrence of hot flashes (heat in the chest and face, sweating),
  • insomnia, headaches,
  • pressure change
  • body aches, fatigue, etc.

Menstrual irregularities

But, unfortunately, there are cases when women experience irregularities in the menstrual cycle due to certain pathological processes. And, speaking of menstruation, often women are confronted with such concepts as amenorrhea, hypermenorrhea, polymenorrhea (hypermenorrhea), oligomenorrhea, algomenorrhea, and they all need to know, because “forewarned, meaning armed!”.

Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation for half a year or more. By the nature of it can be divided into four groups:

  • Physiological - This is the time in a woman’s life when the absence of menstruation is considered normal (pregnancy, lactation and before puberty, menopause),
  • Pathological - menstruation is absent for six months or more in a previously menstruating woman (with diseases of the endocrine organs, ovarian pollykistosis, Asherman syndrome, against the background of dramatic weight loss, psychogenic amenorrhea), and the absence of menarche after the age of 16,
  • False (pseudo-amenorrhea) - this is the absence of menstruation with anatomical defects of the reproductive tract (zastochenie cervical canal of the uterus, abnormal development of the genitals),
  • Medicinal - the absence of periods when taking certain medications (antiestrogens).

Polymenorrhea (hypermenorrhea) - is a dangerous pathology, which often carries a danger to the health of a woman and proceeds under the guise of a large number of diseases. This concept implies an increase in the amount of blood lost (more than 60 ml) while the duration of menstrual rare cases remains within the normal range, or increases over 7 days. The causes are varied: fibroids, uterine cancer, endometriosis, polyps, thyroid diseases, hormonal imbalances in the postpartum period, after menarche, against the background of menopause, as well as under normal conditions, hypermenorrhea can occur when taking contraceptives.

Oligomenorrhea - Is one of the forms of pathological disorders of the duration of the menstrual cycle, which leads to a reduction in the duration of menstruation less than 3 days, this condition is usually accompanied by hypomenorrhea - a decrease in the number of menses less than the physiological norm (less than 50 ml). Causes of oligomenorrhea: hormonal dysfunction of the ovaries, pituitary, acute and chronic inflammatory gynecological diseases, tumors, sudden weight loss, emotional overstrain, abrupt climate change.

Algomenorrhea - These are repeated painful sensations of varying intensity accompanying menstruation. As a rule, algodysmenorrhea does not affect the reduction in the duration of menstruation. The frequency of occurrence in various countries ranges from 8 to 80% of women. It occurs more often in young girls, a few years after menarche, which have a reduced body weight, with an elevated emotional background and concomitant vegetative-vascular dystonia. In older women, the frequency of occurrence of algodysmenore and decreases and its main causes - inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system, anatomical disorders after childbirth, abortion.

It must be remembered that the appearance of any changes in the state of health is a reason to consult a doctor! Your health is only in your hands! Thank you for attention!

In this case, natural is considered the duration of menstruation from three to seven days. . cycles that are displayed on the duration of bleeding.

Monthly - is the cyclic period of the female body (menstrual cycle), during which the function of childbirth is activated.

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