Disruption of the menstrual cycle is now observed much more often than it was 20 years ago. The reason for this is poor ecology, poor-quality food with GMOs and chemical additives, a large physical and psychological workload of a woman. The modern pace of life makes women run a household, bring up children, monitor appearance, make money. But on their own health always remains a minimum of time. Violation of the monthly cycle occurs frequently. Monthly go ahead of time or delayed. The nature of menstruation is changing. Discharges appear scanty or abundant. To understand the reasons is quite difficult. After all, failure can occur without obvious pathologies and gynecological diseases.
Regular monthly cycle
Regular periods - the dream of every woman. Always on time, constantly on time. The absence of deviations suggests a good female health. And women among themselves say that menstruation goes like a clock. Normally, the monthly cycle consists of 28-30 days. During this time, manages to mature egg, out of the follicle, undergo fertilization or rejection in case of menstruation. However, the female body system is complex. It is influenced by many factors. Even such a common phenomenon as food intake, diet can prolong or shorten the cycle. Thus, the norm is considered a deviation in one direction or the other for 7-10 days.
The duration of menstruation is normal from 3 to 7 days. At the same time should be allocated from 50 to 150 ml of blood for the entire period of menstruation. All that goes beyond the norm is considered a deviation, a violation of the menstrual cycle.
External causes of violation of the monthly cycle
There are situations when the failure of the cycle from the point of view of physiology is fully justified and is generally not considered pathology. This occurs after abortion, childbirth, in the period of the menstrual cycle, during menopause. In women of reproductive age, external causes are associated with menstrual disorders.
- Effect of hormonal contraception
The purpose of birth control pills is to prevent fertilization. All efforts are aimed at inhibiting the function of the ovaries, and the inability of the uterus to form an endometrial layer. The latter is necessary for the attachment of a fertilized egg, the preservation of pregnancy. The second part of the menstrual cycle the uterus forms the endometrium, and in the absence of fertilization, it does everything to reject it. The genital organ performs contractile movements, the endometrial layer is removed along with monthly bleeding. The first day of the month is considered the beginning of a new cycle.
Contraceptives change hormonal balance. The lack of hormones required for the reproductive system makes it impossible for the egg to mature, ovulate, and inhibits the growth of the endometrium. As a result, there is a delay of menstruation or their absence. Or they last for a very long time, the discharge of blood does not stop until the next critical days. This situation is generally considered the norm. Though along with scanty monthly there can be even bleeding. If within 3 months the situation does not change, then measures should be taken. Violation of the menstrual cycle occurs with the abolition of hormonal drugs with prolonged use. The absence of menstruation for about 6 months or more is already considered pathology.
- Effect of Nervous System Disorder
All transformations of the menstrual cycle are controlled by the central nervous system. Under its influence, the desired level of hormones is produced, and the endometrium layer is formed. If it fails, it affects the menstrual cycle. Avoid stress, depression, nervous tension, depletion of the nervous system. Such phrases a woman hears constantly, but does not attach much importance to this. Meanwhile, it is the deviations in the work of the CNR is a common cause associated with menstrual irregularities. Soothe preparations, normalization of sleep, rest, work will help to bring the body in order. With the exclusion of adverse factors, the situation may improve in the next menstrual cycle.
- Medication intake
Drugs that are used to treat various diseases of internal organs, systems can affect the nature of menstruation. For example, some of them change the composition of the blood, the ability to clot. In this case, there may be bleeding or discharge in the form of ointments. With the abolition of drugs, the situation should improve by itself. Treatment with hormonal drugs, for example, allergies, should be carried out under the supervision of a physician. Because hormonal imbalance is directly related to the menstrual cycle.
With the violation of the menstrual cycle food is associated. Or rather, the level of vitamins, minerals that are necessary for the full flow of menstruation. In the process of formation of the menstrual cycle, energy costs are required, and some vitamins and trace elements directly affect the nature of the menstrual cycle. So a lack of iron leads to bleeding. A large amount of vitamin C can cause menstruation, both cause and delay. Hard diets exhaust the body. The rapid loss of excess weight leads to a decrease in the level of hormones. Because these components are concentrated in the body fat. This situation can not pass without a trace. There are bleeding or menstruation does not occur at all. Endometrium is formed in insufficient quantities. In the period when menstruation must come, there is nothing to reject.
Both the delay and the premature appearance of critical days can signal the presence of pregnancy. Monthly ahead of time is implant bleeding. When the fertilized egg is introduced into the uterine cavity. Menstruation with a delay can be a signal of spontaneous miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy.
These are the main causes associated with irregular menstruation. However, there are still different kinds of diseases and pathologies that change the nature of menstruation.
Pathological causes of the violation
Endocrine diseases and diabetes mellitus leads to changes in hormonal levels. As a result - failure of critical days. Viral infections, catarrhal diseases and the flu also make menstruation fail. More often there is a delay and scanty discharge, rather than bleeding. In addition, gynecological diseases directly affect this process.
- Ovarian disease,
- Uterine fibroids,
- Cervical erosion,
- Genital inflammation,
- Endometrial polyposis,
- Diseases of the adrenal glands, liver, gastrointestinal tract,
- Blood clotting disorder.
If the situation repeats for 2 cycles in a row, there is pain in the lower abdomen, nausea, discomfort in the genitals, unusual discharge, fever, you should seek medical help. Independently determine the cause of indisposition is difficult. A woman has to undergo an examination and therapy. The situation when the bleeding opens requires an emergency reaction.
What is considered the norm
To determine the signs of failure of the menstrual cycle, you need to understand what is included in the concept of the norm. For each woman - it is individual, but there are limits, in violation of which you need to look for pathology.
- Cycle time The average is a period of 28 days. Doctors are guided by it when they calculate the phases of the cycle, the day of ovulation, menstruation. But cycles of 21 to 35 days also fit into the normal parameter.
- Monthly. Menstrual bleeding accounts for an average of four to five days of the total cycle time. But it can be a three-seven menstruation. The main condition is the same duration every month.
- The amount of bleeding. Blood loss should not exhaust the body. Physiological is considered to be bleeding, not exceeding 100 ml. There are special tables or graphical schemes by which you can calculate your blood loss, focusing on the appearance of the pads and their number per day.
- Ovulation. Normally occurs in the middle of a cycle. Only in young girls with unsteady cycles and in women before menopause most of the menstrual periods without ovulation. In healthy women, cycles without maturation of the egg can also be, but much less.
- Highlight. Physiological leucorrhoea is not more than 20 ml per day of whitish mucus. Before ovulation, its amount increases. The appearance of bleeding, unpleasant odor, an increase in volume should be alerted.
Disorders of the menstrual cycle: types
Violations of the ovarian-menstrual cycle can be both in the direction of its reduction and increase. And sometimes the bleeding in general ceases to observe any rhythm and comes every time at a new time. In the international classification of ICD-10, menstrual irregularity fits into the heading N92. It covers frequent, copious, irregular menses. This includes bleeding in puberty (N92.2), during ovulation (N92.3) and before menopause (N92.4).
Each type of violation has its own name. In hypermenstrual syndrome, when there is an increase in the duration or volume of blood loss, the following types of pathological menses will be distinguished:
- polymenorrhea - prolonged bleeding during menstruation, which passes into the uterine,
- hypermenorrhea - a large amount of blood loss during menstruation,
- Projumenorrhea - frequent, long and abundant periods.
Changes in the smaller side unite in hypomenstrual syndrome. It includes the following concepts:
- oligomenorrhea - short menstrual bleeding one or two days,
- hypomenorrhea - scanty discharge during menstruation,
- opsomenorrhea - 40-50 days pass between bleeding,
- amenorrhea - no monthly for six months or more.
Reasons for change
Causes of failure of the menstrual cycle can be both external and internal. Female hormones depend on the general level of health, emotional state, because there is a subtle connection with the cortical structures of the brain. Levels of serotonin and melatonin, the concentration of adrenaline can affect sex hormones and lead to changes in the cycle. But with each failure the pathology development mechanism will differ, which will require different approaches to treatment.
Acute or chronic infectious diseases of the pelvic organs can lead to serious consequences. Menstrual bleeding may be more intense, the intervals between them are irregular. With chlamydia, chronic gonorrhea, there is a change in the state of the endometrium, it becomes more loose, edematous. Therefore, the separation of the endometrium during the period of menstruation is delayed for a longer period, pains appear, the bleeding becomes abundant. In chronic infections of the reproductive tract, monthly retention and dyscirculatory uterine bleeding may occur.
Endometrial foci have their own hormonal activity, but they are subject to the same cyclical changes as normal tissue. If endometriosis struck the body of the uterus, the foci grow into the depths of the muscles and form cavities resembling honeycombs. They are emptied longer than the uterus itself, so the menstruation lasts a long time, the blood becomes dark at the end.
With endometriosis, an increase in the number of pain receptors around the lesions occurs. Monthly and the intervals between them are accompanied by pain. An increased amount of estrogen leads to endometrial hyperplasia, so it can also bleed between periods.
Failure of the menstrual cycle in uterine myoma of a small size is associated with a violation of the ratio of hormones. If the neoplasm has grown to a large size, it deforms the uterus, the myometrium contractility is impaired, the mucous membrane is worse separated. Interstitial or submucosal nodes increase the area of the inner surface of the uterus. Endometrium grows significantly more; it will take 10-12 days for his department, not five to seven days.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a hormonal disease in which the final maturation of the follicle does not occur. They remain on the surface of the ovary in the form of small cysts. Lack of ovulation does not lead to an increase in progesterone, the endometrium does not undergo the necessary transformations. Therefore, menstruation occurs rarely, with long delays.
Violation of the menstrual cycle with menopause occurs due to the gradual inhibition of ovarian function. The synthesis of estrogen decreases, so the intervals between menstruation increase, there are delays. Gradually monthly come every few months and at one point cease altogether. If bleeding does not appear throughout the year, then the date of the last menstrual period is taken as the time of menopause.
Abortion and childbirth
Termination of pregnancy, regardless of the method and time is severe stress for the body. The longer the period in which an abortion was performed or a miscarriage occurred, the higher the probability of failure. Pregnancy is a complex process of restructuring the entire body. If a woman has an abortion, then the hormonal system loses its benchmarks. In the short term, the removal of the ovum and trophoblast leads to a sharp decrease in progesterone. This requires a reaction from the pituitary gland — stimulating the production of estrogens to restore the endometrium and begin to grow a new follicle. Sometimes this process is delayed, the cycle is lost.
After birth, the restoration of hormonal background also takes some time. And if the birth was accompanied by massive blood loss, then there is a risk of developing Sheehan syndrome. This is a pathology that is associated with a sharp decrease in blood flow in the pituitary gland and a decrease in hormone production. Manifestations of the syndrome are diverse, but there is often a lack of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), which makes the onset of ovulation and subsequent pregnancies impossible.
All endocrine glands are interconnected. Therefore, disorders of the thyroid gland lead to changes in the menstrual cycle. When hyperfunction is often observed shortening of the cycle, abundant and long periods. But there may be delays, spotting in the middle of the cycle. Hypofunction often leads to lack of ovulation and hypomenstrual syndrome.
The value of the adrenal glands. Hypercortisolism is accompanied by the formation of an excess of androgens and a failure in the hormonal background. Amenorrhea and infertility often develop.
Against the background of diabetes, there may be anovulatory cycles, spotting, delayed menstruation. The stronger the severity of the underlying disease, the worse the reproductive system.
For women's health is dangerous as overeating, leading to obesity, and drastic weight loss, which depletes the reserves of adipose tissue. It is a hormonally active formation. In the fat cells there is an additional formation of estrogen from androgens. But an excess of female hormones is as bad as a disadvantage.
Hard diets, which lead to abrupt weight loss, are accompanied by a lack of lipids and cholesterol, which are the basis for the synthesis of sex hormones. Hypovitaminosis, a deficiency of vitamins A and E, affects hormones.
Stress and stress
Stress hormones, which are produced with a strong mental stress, heavy physical exertion disrupt the production of pituitary kinins. Therefore, there is no stimulation of the ovaries, the maturation of the egg is disrupted.
Some mental disorders and diseases are accompanied by a violation of the production of endogenous amines. This leads to improper production of sex hormones.
Medicines can also cause failure. For some drugs, this is one of the side effects. Delay may occur while taking antidepressants, hemostatic. Contraceptive pills (OK) at the stage of addiction can lead to spotting during the period of intended ovulation. And the correct reception of OK is often accompanied by a decrease in the amount of discharge.
Iatrogenic cycle disorder can occur if glucocorticoid hormones are not prescribed correctly. At the same time, Itsenko-Cushing syndrome develops, and menstruation stops.
How can I influence the cycle
Treatment of menstrual disorders depends on the causes of the disease. Therefore, a qualitative diagnosis is needed, which includes:
- medical examination,
- hormone tests
- Ultrasound of the pelvis.
Additional methods depend on the data obtained at the initial stage. The treatment uses an integrated approach.
- Pills . Medications prescribed for violation of the menstrual cycle, most often belong to a group of hormones. In case of insufficiency of the luteal phase, Duphaston, Utrogestan or progesterone injections are used. When hyperprolactinemia apply "Bromocriptine", "Dostinex". Если развился синдром Шихана, то необходимо комплексное гормональное лечение.
- Vitamins. Vitamin therapy in violation of the menstrual cycle involves the appointment of a complex of active substances or individual vitamins A, E, C, as well as folic acid. Some doctors suggest distributing them according to the hormonal phase.
- Folk remedies. Herbal therapy can be used to normalize the cycle. Borovaya uterus can increase the volume and duration of bleeding. A nettle, on the contrary, to reduce. Chamomile is used as an anti-inflammatory agent. But with serious hormonal abnormalities, herbal remedies are powerless.
- Hirudotherapy. According to reviews, leeches can be effective in endometriosis. But it is not worth pinning high hopes on this technique. It can only supplement the main treatment. Like homeopathy, hirudotherapy has a placebo effect; therefore, its effectiveness is debated.
In order not to show signs of menstrual irregularities, you need to worry about prevention. It includes protection from genital infections, protection from unwanted pregnancies instead of subsequent abortions. Proper nutrition, emotional balance and treatment of associated diseases will save reproductive health.
I started this problem about 1 year ago. The cycle has gone astray. Monthly do not come for 4 months. When I started going around the doctors, I was told that the problems were either hormones or ovaries.
Alyona Sinica, http://detkam.su/forum/57-606-1
I think hormonal. I had this after getting nervous, when I studied at the university, the delay was 2 weeks, I already ran to the gynecologist, I thought that I was pregnant, but everything worked out. Irregular periods can be due to depression, nerves and other women's troubles.
My menstrual cycle was restored when I began to eat foods containing iodine (sea kale, etc.). I have been a vegetarian for more than four years.