Mid-cycle bleeding occurs in many women. And it is not always possible to consider it as a pathology. Although gynecologists call a number of diseases, a symptom of which may just be discharge, similar to those observed at the very beginning of menstruation, the causes of bleeding in the middle of the cycle may not be a sign of any disease.
This is normal.
If approximately in the middle of the cycle you have bloody discharge from the vagina, but you do not feel any particular discomfort, and this does not happen for 3 months in a row - this is considered a standard option. The fact is that about 12-15 days after the onset of menstruation, the woman begins the process of ovulation, and immediately after it there is a sharp decrease in the level of estrogen. Normal during this period there should be no blood excretion. However, bleeding in the middle of the cycle can occur if there is a rejection of the endometrium in the uterus due to a slight hormonal failure. This situation is rather an exception to the rule. It happens more often in young girls in the first 2 years after menarche and in women before menopause. Please note that the discharge should not be excessive and prolonged, heavy abundant bleeding in the middle of the cycle speaks of pathology. And in such a situation, an urgent need to consult a doctor.
Unscheduled discharge can be observed if the woman has recently had an intrauterine system, or taken oral contraceptives for less than 3–4 months. And to that, and to another means of contraception, the body must get used to. Recently carried out gynecological procedures, injuries of the cervix and vagina are also the causes of the appearance of blood.
If pregnancy occurs
By indirect signs, some women manage to recognize pregnancy even before the test and menstruation is delayed. In addition to swelling of the breast and frequent urination at night, they can observe the so-called implant bleeding. It occurs on the 6th-12th day after conception, when the implantation of the egg into the uterine wall begins. It should be borne in mind that evidence of this may be very slight brown or pink discharge. That is why it is often said that slight bleeding in the middle of the cycle is a sign of pregnancy, although in many cases it may be absent. That is, an interesting position does not manifest itself.
Symptom of a dangerous disease
Abundant, as well as black or brown discharge in the middle of the cycle can also indicate the presence of a disease. If you have doubts about your own women's health, it will not be superfluous to consult a gynecologist for advice. Thus, bleeding can occur due to the development of the following diseases:
- erosion or cervical cancer,
- endometrial polyp,
- cancer of the uterus.
For the treatment of these diseases are usually prescribed hormones, more serious cases require surgical intervention. If you suddenly have mezhmenstrualnaya bleeding, and abundant - immediately consult a doctor or an ambulance. The above diseases are well treatable in the initial stages, but their development can lead to the most dire consequences, including death (in the case of, for example, cervical cancer).
Is it scary vaginal bleeding
In most cases, the discovery of small bleeding, the duration of which does not exceed three days, is not considered a pathology and is not an indication of the presence of any serious diseases of the genitourinary system. Frequent, long-lasting bleeding in the middle of the cycle may indicate diseases of the uterus.
Most often, an unexpected vaginal bleeding opens for 12-15 days from the beginning of the last menstrual period, precisely at the time when ovulation occurs. This is due to fluctuations in the level of estrogen in a woman’s body; as a result of such fluctuations, a weakening of the uterus mucosa (endometrium) occurs, causing a small discharge of blood. If a woman is very worried about this phenomenon, she is prescribed to eat special biological additives that regulate the level of estrogen in the blood.
Causes of mid-cycle bleeding
A possible reason for the discovery of bleeding in the middle of the cycle can be:
- Previous ovulation hormonal changes in the body,
- Miscarriage (sometimes this happens in early pregnancy, when a woman does not even suspect its presence),
- Use as a means of protection from unwanted pregnancy uterine spiral,
- Taking birth control pills,
- Disruption of the thyroid gland,
- Medical intervention in the reproductive system (abortion, cauterization of erosion),
- Strong nervous tension, frequent stress,
- Vaginal injury (for example, due to gross sexual intercourse),
- The presence of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system,
If at the time of the examination of the patient the specialist did not reveal the presence of any pathology, she is prescribed a method of sedatives, a short rest and no stress is recommended. Severe unexpected bleeding from the vagina can be a sign of miscarriage. This condition can be very dangerous for a woman’s health, therefore, requires immediate treatment to a specialist. In such a case, it is recommended to take a lying position and wait for the arrival of the ambulance. Especially in cases where the bleeding is very intense.
The rate of vaginal discharge
You should know that the norm is only a small selection of blood from the vagina. The discovery of strong uterine bleeding in the middle of the cycle is called metrorrhagia and has completely different causes of origin. Usually metrorrhagia is accompanied by the presence of pulling, cutting pains in the abdomen. The causes of this state are quite diverse, some of them at first glance do not have to do with the functions of the reproductive system. So, the discovery of a strong vaginal bleeding in the middle of a cycle can be caused by diabetes mellitus, hemophilia (bleeding disorder), hypovitaminosis C, hypertension.
If the discovery of bleeding in the middle of the monthly cycle is often observed, you should be examined for the following diseases of the reproductive system:
- Cervical erosion,
- Cervical cancer,
Endometriosis It is a benign proliferation of cells in the inner layer of the uterine wall. This pathology most often affects women between the ages of 20 and 35 and manifests itself in the form of cyclic pelvic pain, pain during sexual intercourse, and monthly bleeding between periods. Endometriosis is treated with hormonal preparations.
Cervical erosion a defect in the mucous membrane of this important female reproductive organ, which is manifested by the formation of small ulcers on its surface. This disease most often does not manifest itself over a long period of time and only occasionally is accompanied by the appearance of lower abdominal pain and the appearance of insignificant bleeding in the middle of the cycle. Treatment of erosion depends entirely on the degree of its development, the age of the woman, the presence of pregnancies. Congenital erosion usually regresses without medical treatment.
Myoma is a benign tumor that develops on the walls or cervix of the uterus. This disease in almost all cases is accompanied by menstrual disorders and the occurrence of unexpected uterine bleeding. The cause of the development of the disease is a violation of the hormonal balance in the woman's body. In most cases, myoma is subject to surgical excision. If the tumor reaches a large size, it is removed along with the uterus.
Cervical cancer and chorionepithelioma are diseases of a malignant nature, that is, they are developing rapidly and are practically not amenable to treatment. Cervical cancer is most susceptible to women who have reached menopause. Its main symptom is strong, arising unexpectedly and long-lasting uterine bleeding. The main cause of cervical cancer today is smoking and infection with human papillomavirus. Chorionepithelioma is capable of affecting women of any age, this tumor can be localized in various organs of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes). The main symptom of the disease are also considered spontaneously occurring uterine bleeding. Such bleeding lasts for a long period of time, regardless of the menstrual cycle. Such a condition is dangerous for the life of a woman, therefore, requires an immediate appeal to a gynecologist. Malignant tumors of the female reproductive system are treated mainly by the method of complete removal of the diseased organ.
What is intermenstrual bleeding
The menstrual cycle is the time period from the first day of the last menstrual period to the first day of the next. Usually, with menstruation, which lasts an average of 3-4 days, the discharge of blood ends until the next cycle. If they appeared earlier, approximately on the 10–20th day, then we can speak about the phenomenon of intermenstrual bleeding.
It is necessary to distinguish between the concepts of intermenstrual bleeding and bleeding. The latter occur in women quite often and usually are the result of incomplete mass release during menstruation. Their distinguishing feature is the smearing character, the absence of additional symptoms and short duration.
The diagnostic criterion in the case of bleeding is blood volume - if it does not require the use of hygiene products, then it is clearly not about bleeding.
If bleeding does not require the use of sanitary pads, it is not bleeding.
There is also the concept of metrorrhagia, or severe uterine bleeding. This state is acyclic and can occur at any time, confusing a woman, - the majority of patients with metrorrhagia cannot clearly say when they had previous menstrual periods and how long their cycle was. Bleeding is a consequence of the disease, therefore, requires mandatory medical intervention.
Separately, it is worth highlighting such a phenomenon as pro-premenorrhea - shortening of the menstrual cycle. So, a woman may have discharge earlier than the prescribed time, but if the picture persists for 3 cycles in a row or more, then the results of the survey may show not intermenstrual bleeding, but a reduction in the duration of the cycle.
When bleeding is normal
The normal occurrence of bleeding between cycles is considered to be in the case of a duration of no more than 3 days, without disturbing symptoms and a tendency to increase the volume of blood secreted. Physiological reasons that do not require correction are:
- ovulation. Approximately in the middle of the cycle, the follicle matures in a woman's ovary, bursts, and an egg cell ready for fertilization comes out of it - this phenomenon is called ovulation. The appearance of minor bleeding during this period is considered normal, since it is caused by fluctuations in the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which regulate the reproductive female function. If the duration of discharge from 12 to 72 hours and their volume is insignificant, then you should not worry,
- introduction of the intrauterine device (contraceptive system). During the installation, the organs of the organ can be damaged, which is why blood appears,
Bleeding may occur after the procedure for installing the intrauterine device.
- abrupt cancellation of hormonal contraceptives. Contraceptive pills work on the principle of withdrawal - during their admission a certain amount of hormones enters the body (for 21 days), after which a break is required, within which rejection of the uterine lining begins - menstruation. If you sharply stop drinking drugs in the middle of the cycle, then, naturally, the body will react with bleeding,
- the onset of pregnancy. There is such a thing as implant bleeding. Fertilized egg, once in the uterus, is fixed in its wall for further development. In the process of implantation, the vessels with which the uterus walls are rich can be injured, which causes the appearance of short bleeding,
After fertilization, the egg is introduced into the lining of the uterus, in the process of which vessels can be damaged and short-term bleeding occurs
- the formation of the menstrual cycle and the beginning of menopause. Young girls, who have their first menstrual periods, and when menopause occurs in older women, serious hormonal changes occur in the body, which can cause premature or partial detachment of the uterus lining, leading to bleeding outside of menstruation,
- careless behavior in sex. During sexual intercourse, the behavior of the partners may be too active, which causes injury to the mucous membranes of the vagina and cervix, and as a result, bleeding occurs. Normally, it is insignificant and short-lived and is noted immediately after intercourse. But if there is a risk of serious injury, for example, when using dangerous toys of a sexual nature and especially not objects intended for this, and the bleeding does not stop, then medical assistance will still be required.
The nature of the discharge will help to suspect the existence of a real problem, the symptom of which was intermenstrual bleeding. So, if the episodes of blood excretion are regular, differ in large volumes and (or) do not stop more than 3 days, then definitely it is worth going to a doctor. Possible reasons:
- dysfunction of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands, which led to a hormonal imbalance in the body. As a result, endometrial detachment disorders and untimely bleeding,
- endometriosis (excessive growth of the inner lining of the uterus inside and outside its cavity). Bleeding occurs as a result of improper course of the process of rejection of the endometrium,
Under the influence of hormonal disruptions endometriosis can develop, one of the symptoms of which is bleeding.
- tumor formation in the uterus and ovaries, including malignant character. Bleeding in such situations is usually abundant, frequent, accompanied by sharp pain and impaired reproductive function,
A source of bleeding in the middle of the cycle can be an oncological disease, in particular, cervical cancer
- infectious disease of the reproductive organs. Inflammations of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries may have bleeding episodes in their clinical picture. In addition, the problem is accompanied by fever, pain in the lower abdomen, impaired urination, the appearance of other vaginal discharge (purulent, blood, etc.).
Sometimes the bleeding that opened in the middle of the cycle is very abundant and is accompanied by severe pain, spasms, and the release of whole clots from the vagina. Such symptoms may indicate a miscarriage (rejection of the fetus in the early period) or ectopic pregnancy. A woman with such problems needs immediate medical attention.
What to do with mid-cycle bleeding
If the appearance of blood in small quantities does not cause physical discomfort and does not persist for a long time, no need to carry out any measures to eliminate the problem, just wait a little. If the bleeding is abundant, then it carries a threat to health and life, so the woman must adhere to the following rules:
- seek medical attention immediately, possibly even call an ambulance team,
- stop taking medications, especially those that affect the functions of the blood and the more it dilutes,
- refuse any procedures of the warming type, in particular, from bathing,
- stop doing physical work
- exclude the implementation of any vaginal procedures, in particular, douching.
The doctor is better to wait in complete rest, lying. Independently deal with the elimination of bleeding, especially medication, is not worth it, because in this matter is of great importance a specific reason. The doctor should tell about the duration of the blood discharge, the nature and presence of associated symptoms.
Principles of treatment for bleeding in the middle of the cycle
The key to successful treatment of intermenstrual bleeding is to establish the cause of this phenomenon. Depending on the source of the problem, the patient may be prescribed the following drugs:
- hormonal drugs. Most of the problems that become the impetus for the appearance of bleeding, develop on the background of hormonal disorders. Поэтому для восстановления баланса при эндометриозе, образовании кист, нарушении функционирования щитовидной железы и надпочечников назначается длительная гормональная терапия.Its goal is to restore the normal functioning of the reproductive system, prevent new diseases and eliminate bleeding. Examples of drugs:
- antibiotics. They are prescribed for inflammation, which is caused by a bacterial infection (Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, etc.),
- antifungal agents (Fluconazole, Pimafucin, Diflucan) are necessary for infection with a fungal infection,
- hemostatic drugs. Their purpose is important for blood loss for a long time, the effect of hemostatics is hemostatic. This may be Sekometrin, Oxytocin, etc.
In some cases, treatment involves surgical intervention. So, with endometriosis and after miscarriage, scraping is performed to remove excess tissue from the uterus (hysteroscopy). Usually this procedure is performed under general anesthesia and takes about 20 minutes. If a woman has a pathological proliferation of cells, including those with suspected oncological process, either remove the tumor, or complete resection of the affected organ. In cases of frequent and heavy blood loss, this is the only way to maintain health. The operation can be performed both by the open access method through the abdominal incision and by the laparoscopic method (using special instruments that are inserted through several small punctures).
Laparoscopy - a method of removing the uterus and / or neoplasms through several punctures in the abdominal wall
Prevention of mid-cycle bleeding
Given the variety of reasons that can cause bleeding, it is impossible to completely eliminate such a risk, and in some situations it is not necessary, because the release of blood in the middle of the cycle can be a normal, physiological process. For the prevention of pathological causes the following recommendations should be considered:
- constantly monitor the cycle, noting the regularity and duration of menstruation, episodes of bleeding,
- consult a doctor if there are any disturbing symptoms and complete the prescribed course of treatment,
- visit the gynecologist at least once a year for an examination, even if there are no complaints,
- give up heavy physical exertion
- lead a sex life with a regular and proven partner.
Video: intermenstrual discharge
Intermenstrual bleeding is not uncommon, especially during periods of hormonal changes. Both pathological processes, including malignant tumors, and natural factors, including the introduction of a fertilized egg into the uterine wall, can cause a symptom. Therefore, you should not panic ahead of time, it is better if you have a problem to consult a doctor for diagnosis and, if necessary, prescription of treatment.
Bleeding in the middle of the cycle - the definition and causes.
Bleeding in the middle of a cycle can be defined as severe uterine or vaginal bleeding that occurs during the period between menstruation or earlier than expected.
Bleeding in the middle of a cycle is a strong uterine or vaginal bleeding that occurs between the periods, earlier or later than the expected time of the onset of menstruation. Intermenstrual bleeding in most cases is observed on days 10-16 after the end of menstruation. This bleeding is not abundant (enough daily pads), lasts about 12 - 72 hours. If the amount of blood lost does not increase, then usually nothing to worry about. If over time the blood flows more or bleeding lasts more than 3 days, then you should go to an appointment with a gynecologist. In case of emergency you need to call an ambulance. It rarely happens that after conception women have their last menstruation and they do not even know about pregnancy. Therefore, when bleeding is accompanied by pain, there may be a suspicion of miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, etc. Bleeding in the middle of the cycle occurs in almost a third of women and is considered normal. It occurs due to an increase or decrease in the level of estrogen during ovulation because of which the endometrium is weakened and bleeding occurs. Usually in this case, the woman is prescribed hormonal drugs to regulate the level of hormones. Intermenstrual bleeding occurs in women who have diagnosed frequent disorders of the urogenital system, then the bleeding is more intense. There are two main types of bleeding in the period between menstruations: 1) Intermenstrual bleeding - bleeding between two periods. 2) Metrorrhagia - severe uterine bleeding.
When such a selection can be considered the norm?
If during such secretions a woman does not feel any discomfort - there is no unpleasant smell, itching, pain in the abdomen and lower back, then it is very likely to say that there are no health problems.
- The most common cause of small bleeding in the middle of a cycle is a significant increase in a certain hormonal level at the very moment of ovulation. Such a phenomenon is often spasmodic.
- These excretions may signal that the egg is ready for fertilization. Usually, most women ovulate in the middle of the cycle (in the normal cycle), although deviations of several days are possible. In the period of ovulation in women, a large amount of a hormone is produced, such as estrogen, which affects the uterine lining. Because of this, there may be minor bleeding that is not a pathology.
- It is possible that bleeding in the middle of the cycle is due to the fact that sexual intercourse was too active. You, as an option, does not fit the position in which you make love when the cervix is too curved. Or the vaginal mucosa is traumatized because the sexual organ of the partner is too big for you. This is quite normal only if the bleeding does not occur again in the next cycle (then the reason is different).
- Early pregnancy. When a fertilized egg is attached to the uterine wall, the structure of the endometrium changes inside, it becomes more sensitive and susceptible. During this period, slight bleeding may occur in the form of a small reddish or brownish stain. In a month, when the woman already understands and realizes her new position, everything should be in order. With a normal pregnancy, there should be no dark vaginal discharge.
It also happens that this problem is visible only during the period of individual hygiene, and absolutely no trace is visible on the underwear. This situation, often, does not indicate hormonal disorder, physiological disorders, etc. On the contrary, they only emphasize the normal functioning of the body.
However, if the intermenstrual discharge with blood in the middle of the cycle is intense and does not stop for several days, then you should definitely consult a gynecologist for a qualified diagnosis.
How to treat bleeding in the middle of a cycle
The appearance of intermenstrual bloody discharge is quite common. Almost every woman at least once in her life faced with this problem. Most often, such minor bleeding is completely natural and does not foretell anything bad.
However, it is still worthwhile to contact a gynecologist, since the exact reason can be established only by conducting a special study. In addition, you should always contact a specialist if spotting in the middle of the cycle:
- cause discomfort
- they last more than 3 days,
- discharge began to increase,
- discharge is accompanied by pain
Such bleeding can serve as a signal of certain pathologies, and require a qualified diagnosis, and subsequent treatment.
Why is this happening
In some cases, slight bleeding in the middle of the cycle can be regarded as a variant of the norm and an individual feature of the girl's body.
Causes of this type of bleeding:
- hormonal disorders,
- experienced stress, depression, psycho-emotional stress,
- reducing the amount of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism),
- contraceptive use (intrauterine device, hormonal contraceptives),
- taking medications that include estrogen and other hormones,
- cervical disease (erosion),
- radio wave treatment of cervical erosion, biopsy,
- inflammatory and infectious diseases of the genitourinary system,
- foreign bodies,
- implant bleeding,
- neoplasms are benign and malignant,
- endometriosis and other diseases associated with endometrial pathology,
- characteristics of the organism, provided that other diseases are excluded,
- disruption of early pregnancy.
Causes of bleeding may be different, this is not a complete list, but only the most common.
Normally, such discharges are scanty in volume, of a smearing character, can last up to two or three days; a standard daily pantyum is enough for use. Drop in on approximate ovulation, possibly some displacement. Some gynecologists interpret bleeding in the middle of the cycle as a sign of the readiness of the egg for further fertilization.
Abundant uterine bleeding is called metrorrhagia. It is not associated with the cycle, it does not have a periodicity, unlike menorrhagia.
The causes are most often associated with the reproductive tract, there is a connection with pregnancy, the threat of its interruption. Often there is bleeding in cancer pathology. Can occur at different ages, including during the postmenopausal period.
The proposed and common option is implant bleeding. Implant bleeding involves moderate bleeding caused by embryo attaching to the wall of the uterus. Implant bleeding appears approximately 7-10 days after intercourse. Implant bleeding does not require specific treatment and therapy. Visually similar to blood, possibly with an admixture of mucus, scanty, odorless in volume.
The effect of contraceptives on the presence of discharge
Combined oral contraceptives are a common method of protection against unwanted pregnancies throughout the world. Their advantage is:
- excellent portability
- lack of connection with sex,
- correction and control of the monthly cycle,
- the possibility of restoring the fertile function of women,
- the presence of a therapeutic effect, correction of the pathology,
- prevention of malignant tumors of the reproductive tract and colorectal cancer,
- resolution of fear and complexes about the possibility of accidentally getting pregnant,
- the ability to delay for some time the next menstruation.
During the use of this method of contraception during the period of ovulation, bloody spotting, bleeding may occur. When taken with Jess or Clayr, this discharge should not be alarming. The drug Klayra prescribed primarily for the correction of uterine bleeding without the presence of organic pathology.
There are a number of contraindications for the drug Klayra. These include smoking, increased blood clotting, a tendency to thrombosis, diabetes, lactation, pancreatitis. The drug Klayra prohibited during lactation, pregnancy. Clayra's contraceptive can cause headaches, nausea, bloating and other symptoms.
All oral contraceptives should be selected by a gynecologist on the basis of the individual characteristics of the woman.
The presence of the intrauterine device can also provoke the appearance of minor bleeding, sometimes bleeding. In addition to the aforementioned contraceptives, hormonal patches, male and female condoms and many others are popular, including surgical techniques such as tubal ligation and vasectomy.
Diagnosis and treatment
To exclude a number of dangerous diseases, it is necessary to visit a gynecologist. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to pass some hormones, smears for flora, cytology. For visualization of the cervix is carried out inspection in the mirrors, colposcopy. There is an identification of the causes, individual selection of contraceptives. When pathology is detected, adequate and effective treatment is prescribed.
Therapy depends on many factors, starting with the patient's age and ending with the cause of the discharge. Treatment can combine several techniques. Recommended are drug therapy, physiotherapy, homeopathic methods. In some cases, it is necessary to resort to surgical treatment.
With a preventive purpose, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle, enrich the body with vitamins and microelements, work to strengthen your health to prevent bleeding. Rational nutrition is aimed at obtaining the required number of calories and nutritional components. With the help of proper diet therapy, the solution of such problems as iron deficiency anemia, lack of vitamin K and C is possible.
To do this, focus on beef, veal, liver, legumes, beets, fish, oatmeal, bananas and nuts. In order for iron contained in these products to be better absorbed, it is recommended to combine them with vitamin C. You can use the tablet form or enrich the diet with products containing it. Most of all it contains in such products:
- all citrus fruits
- dry and fresh dog rose,
Vitamin K is prescribed to reduce bleeding. You can also correct a slight shortage with a diet. This vitamin is found in foods such as:
In addition, you need to drink enough water per day. Dosed exercise, walking, physical therapy, and swimming are mandatory. The fight against bad habits. Wellness procedures such as massage, Charcot's douche, balneotherapy.
One of the reasons for such bleeding is stress and emotional overstrain. It is difficult for the weaker sex to disengage from negative emotions. It is necessary to try to concentrate on the positive moments, to exclude negative events, to strengthen, stabilize the emotional background.
To calm you can drink herbal teas with mint, chamomile, lemon balm. Also in such situations art therapy, balneotherapy, aromatherapy can help. In some cases, you need to contact a psychologist or psychotherapist, who can correctly correct the emotional state, send in the right direction.
Bleeding in the middle of the cycle can be a variant of the norm and relate to the individual characteristics of the girl's body. Or to signal about various pathological processes occurring in the urogenital system and the reproductive tract. The reasons contributing to the manifestation of such a symptom may be different. To diagnose and exclude pathological conditions, you must seek medical help.
The gynecologist, based on the methods of diagnosis, history data and individual characteristics, will be able to diagnose. If necessary, effective and adequate treatment will be prescribed. In order to avoid bleeding, it is necessary to engage in prevention and systematic health promotion. There are many useful, equally pleasant ways that can help.