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How to carry out drug treatment of cervical dysplasia?

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Cervical dysplasia is a condition characterized by the appearance of atypical cells on the mucous membrane. In most cases, this pathology has no symptoms, but is detected during preventive examinations by a gynecologist if material is taken from the cervical canal. There are three degrees of dysplasia: mild, moderate and severe. The term synonym is CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Dysplasia is a precancerous condition: the greater the degree, the higher the risk of cervical cancer over the next ten years. It is the early diagnosis and timely treatment of CIN that leads to a decrease in the detection of malignant pathology of this part of the body in the later stages. What methods of treatment of dysplasia are most effective for each degree and how is the body recovering after?

Read in this article.

Common Ways

Traditionally, in the entire post-Soviet space, the diagnosis of cervical pathology is carried out by taking a material with a cytobrush (cytospatula, sponge or Folkmann spoon). Immediately the obtained cell composition is applied by the doctor on a glass slide and sent to the laboratory, where staining and further research is carried out. There are two methods - by Romanovsky-Giemsa and Pappanicolaou. Most often, as a free survey is provided coloring in the first way. Using the Papanicolaou technique is more informative from the point of view of the detection of pathology, but it requires more financial investments. Therefore, this type of research is not generally accepted in Russia and nearby countries.

As a result, after standard examination by a gynecologist, most women have a result of cytological examination of smears from the cervical canal using Romanovsky-Giemsa staining. Pathology detection is 40 - 60%. In order to allow the removal of cervical dysplasia by surgery, including cauterization, this study is not enough.

The most informative ways

As a rule, only private clinics use the rest of the survey, in which the probability of finding a pathology is 95 - 98%. These include:

  • Liquid thin layer cytology. The essential difference of the method lies in the special form of material storage. Also, this method eliminates many of the errors that often occur with the usual color even Pappanicolaou. Cells from the surface of the cervix are stored in the laboratory for some time. You can take them at any time, for example, when dysplasia is detected to detect HPV and HSV.
  • Determination by PCR of the presence of human papiloma viruses, especially oncogenic strains - 16, 18, 31, as well as herpes 1 and 2. Often, this examination is indicated when erosion is detected or when sexual infections are suspected.
  • Colposcopic examination. It is an additional method of confirming dysplasia. All signs and symptoms resulting from this are approximate and may be present at once with several pathologies. Colposcopy is a fairly subjective study, it depends on the quality of the equipment and the professionalism of the doctor.
  • Biopsy of the cervix with subsequent histological examination. Often this requires local anesthesia. Histological examination is the last resort to confirm or refute dysplasia. But the problem is that the CIN can be localized in a specific part of the cervix without affecting the entire surface. To increase the percentage of hitting it in the affected area on the eve of the biopsy, a colcoscopy is performed and the area where the greatest changes are noted is excised. If dysplasia is detected, surgical treatment is carried out only after histological confirmation of the diagnosis.

Is conservative therapy possible?

Dysplasia is a pathology caused by various causes. However, most often (in 90% of patients) is a virus. If you get rid of it, sometimes the degradation of the disease begins. With her, epithelial cells will regain their normal shape. Therefore, treatment without surgery is possible, but only at the first stage.

In the second and third stages, the deeper layers of the epidermis are affected. Because medication treatment does not help. Degradation at this stage is impossible. Therefore, only surgery will help. But it must also be supplemented by taking medication to defeat the virus.

This is necessary so that there is no recurrence of the disease.

Essence of the treatment

To understand the techniques of treatment and drug therapy, you need to know what the treatment itself is aimed at. Drugs are prescribed in several types. Each of them acts in its own direction.

  • Destruction of altered cells - that is, their direct destruction and stopping the pathologization process. The altered cells have a round shape and several nuclei, whereas in normal cells of the epithelium are flat. When a disease regresses, it means that the altered cells are gradually replaced by healthy ones,
  • Stimulation of cell layer renewal - that is, direct stimulation of the division of normal cells and their replacement by atypical ones. The faster this process occurs, the faster the disease regresses and recovers after it,
  • Therapy of the root causes of pathology. Usually, the root cause is the human papillomavirus. It is he who provokes modifications in the cells. And it is necessary to get rid of it. If this is not done, then a relapse may develop even after surgical removal.

Aids are also used to treat cervical dysplasia. For example, candles and the like to restore the vaginal microflora after treatment. Immunomodulators, antibiotics, etc. are also prescribed.

Drug treatment

A number of drugs are prescribed to normalize the condition in the first stage of the disease. During their reception, the patient regularly visits the doctor and undergoes examinations. If a positive trend is observed, the treatment is continued. If not, then you have to resort to surgery. With stable mild dysplasia, treatment may not be prescribed at all.

Immunostimulants

Immunostimulants are prescribed by a doctor to increase the body's immunity. Since the cause of the disease is often a virus, this is important. If the immune system is able to fight the virus, then regression sometimes occurs without other systematic drugs. Drug treatment of cervical dysplasia involves the use of such drugs:

  • Isoprinosine stimulates immunity against pathogenic organisms. It is taken 14 days three times a day, 15 mg per 1 kg of the patient's body weight. The cost of the drug is about 750 rubles,

  • Reaferon increases the resistance of cells to viruses. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. You need to drink it for at least two weeks, but the dosage, regimen and duration of the course are chosen strictly individually. The price of tablets is from 1,100 rubles,
  • Prodigiosan also activates the immune system and increases the overall immunity of the course from one month to one and a half months. Introduced intramuscularly once a week, at a dosage of 30 micrograms. The price of the drug ranges from 2500 to 3000 rubles.

Reception of immunostimulants is prescribed after treatment in order to avoid relapses.

Antibiotics

Antibiotics are only drugs to combat background infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia, etc.). They help relieve inflammation and defeat the infection. Quite often prescribed in the treatment of dysplasia, since it is often found on the background of such phenomena. Antibiotics are selected individually.

  • Terzhinan is an antibiotic that is prescribed to prevent the development of purulent and inflammatory processes, especially before and after surgery. Well treats and background infections. It is taken one tablet per day. The cost of the drug is 400 rubles,

  • Hexicon is a local drug. These are vaginal suppositories that are prescribed to treat local infections, such as vaginitis. Can not be used after surgery, with severe dysplasia, etc. Used once a day for 1-2 weeks. The price of such candles is 60-100 rubles,
  • McMirror is another vaginal suppository. They have anti-inflammatory and antibiotic effects. Well help with dysplasia caused by local inflammatory processes. Depending on the type of process, they are applied 1-2 times a day for a week or more. Use as directed by the physician. The cost of the drug is 430 rubles,
  • Klion D is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that kills most of the known pathogens. Take it, depending on the individual characteristics and the course of the disease, from 5 to 10 days. Dosage prescribed by a doctor. The cost of this drug is 400 rubles,
  • Clindamycin is another broad spectrum drug, just like the previous one. It is taken within 6-7 days in a dosage calculated on the basis of the weight of the patient. The price of such a drug is 200 rubles,
  • Metronidazole is an antibiotic that kills not only microbes, but also protozoa and some other types of microorganisms. The action of a drug for the treatment of dysplasia is effective against most known inflammatory diseases in the reproductive system. The cost of funds 100 rubles.

Treatment of cervical dysplasia without antibiotics is almost never performed. Even if there is no infection, there is a high risk of its adherence with dysplasia.

Restoration of microflora

The presence of dysplasia adversely affects the state of the microflora of the mucous membranes. When poorly maintained microflora increases the likelihood of fungal infections and infections. Therefore, drug treatment of cervical dysplasia always involves taking medications to normalize the state of microflora. To do this, use drugs such as:

  1. Atsilakt (115 rubles),

  2. Laktozhinal (700 rubles),
  3. Laktonorm (400 rubles).

Regular use of such drugs allows you to restore the microflora, and hence the specific local immunity. This not only reduces the likelihood of co-infections, but also prevents relapses.

Vitamins during treatment, for the prevention of dysplasia and during the recovery period after it are very important. They can come from food and in the form of multivitamin complexes. Especially significant are vitamins E, A, B, C, folic acid and selenium. Read more about this in the article "Vitamins for cervical dysplasia".

General information

What is this - dysplasia? By this disease is understood the occurrence of atypical cells in the mucous membrane of the cervix uteri, as a result of which the epithelial tissue ceases to divide into layers.

However, dysplasia can affect not only the cervical tissue, but also the endometrial layer inside the body of the organ.

It is noteworthy that the nerves, muscle tissue, blood vessels do not participate in the pathological process.

The insidiousness of the pathology is that for a very long period of time a woman who does not go to regular gynecological examinations may not be aware of the impending danger.

The fact is that the clinical picture of the disease is not clearly expressed, and often there are no symptoms indicating a problem.

But sometimes, when dysplasia is complicated by inflammatory processes, a woman may experience the following symptoms:

  • itching and burning in the vagina,
  • spotting, which appear most often after intimacy,
  • pain in the lower abdomen, in the umbilical region and in the lumbar region,
  • change in the number and nature of whiter,
  • menstrual disorders,
  • with a significant inflammatory process, a rise in temperature is possible.

Causes of

Dysplasia causes a long stay on the mucous membrane of the cervix of the papilloma virus, especially if it is oncogenic strains - 16, 18.

Can provoke the development of the disease following factors:

  • low immunity
  • endocrine diseases
  • heredity,
  • the presence of condylomas on intimate organs,
  • early intimacy and early childbirth,
  • a large number of births, as well as difficult births,
  • mechanical damage to the mucosa,
  • intimacy with a man who has a cancer process in the penis,
  • smoking,
  • avitaminosis.

Degrees of pathology

Dysplasia is divided into three stages, differing in the severity of the lesion:

  • Stage 1 - mild dysplasia - one third of the lower layer of the epithelium is affected, but the middle and surface layers of the mucosa have a normal location,
  • Grade 2 — mild dysplasia — the lesion covers approximately 2/3 of the epithelium, and pathological changes begin to occur in the layers,
  • Grade 3 - severe dysplasia - non-invasive cancer, which differs from the malignant process in that the stroma remains unaffected, however, this affects a large part of the epithelium.

If the 3rd degree of dysplasia for a long time remains without adequate treatment, the disease is transformed into invasive cancer, with all the ensuing consequences.

Diagnosis of the disease

They include:

  • cytological smear analysis,
  • scraping,
  • PCR analysis,
  • sex hormone analysis
  • clinical analysis of urine and blood,
  • biopsy.

Also carried out hardware surveys:

  • Ultrasound - through the abdominal wall, but transvaginal examination is considered more accurate. Virgins can be tested transrectally,
  • colposcopy - a study in which optical equipment is used, which allows visualization of the mucous membrane of the cervix at a size of 30 times.

The use of folk remedies

Here are some of the most effective recipes:

  • aloe. The juice of this plant has anti-inflammatory properties, and in addition, contains many vitamins. Freshly cut aloe leaf is crushed to form a slurry, then squeeze the juice out of it, moisten the swab and insert it into the vagina for 5 hours. This procedure is recommended for a month every day.
  • calendula. The flowers of this medicinal plant have a bactericidal effect, so it is recommended to use it in the presence of genital infections, which often accompany dysplasia. 20 grams of flowers pour a glass of olive oil, insist a week in a dark place, and then soak a tampon and inject it into the vagina for 3-5 hours,
  • sea ​​buckthorn oil. In addition to anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, sea buckthorn oil accelerates the regeneration processes in tissues. A tampon with sea buckthorn oil is recommended to be inserted into the vagina overnight,
  • propolis. Bee products have a very wide spectrum of action, one of which is to increase local immunity. 10 grams of propolis is mixed with butter (200 gammas) and put in a water bath. After 15 minutes, the composition is cooled and filtered through cheesecloth. In the resulting composition moistened swab and injected overnight into the vagina. This recipe is contraindicated for women who are allergic to bee products,
  • eucalyptus. This plant in addition to antiseptic properties has an analgesic effect. A couple of tablespoons of leaves must be poured with a glass of water, boiled for 5 minutes, and left to infuse. Then use as a douching - a tablespoon of the product is diluted with a glass of warm boiled water.

Surgical intervention

In the case of a severe form of the disease, as well as, if conservative medicine does not bring a positive effect, the pathology is treated surgically.

The following techniques are used for this:

  • chemical coagulation - affected mucosal foci are treated with special preparations that provoke burns and tissue necrosis,
  • diathermocoagulation - excision of affected tissue by electric current. The operation is quite painful, so it is performed under local anesthesia,
  • cryodestruction - the mucous membrane is exposed to liquid nitrogen, which leads to freezing and detachment of pathological tissues,
  • vaporization by laser - laser burning of dysplasia,
  • radio wave treatment - carried out with the help of a special apparatus Surgitron,
  • PDT is the treatment of dysplasia with the help of special substances that, under the influence of sunlight, trigger a series of chemical reactions in the patient's body.

When it is necessary to remove the cervix

Full or partial operation cervical removal carried out in the following cases:

  • the spread of the pathological process through the cervical canal,
  • moderate and severe degree of illness, which is accompanied by non-invasive cancer or the presence of a large number of atypical cells,
  • cervical deformity
  • frequent recurrence of the disease, despite the use of various treatment strategies.

Effects of dysplasia

The consequences of untreated dysplasia may be as follows:

  • transformation into cancer. No treatment is observed in half the cases
  • the occurrence of scars that reduce tissue elasticity. It should be noted that this complication mainly occurs after surgical treatment, but in some cases it may occur after conservative therapy,
  • reduced tissue immunity
  • the addition of inflammatory and infectious processes,
  • relapses.

HPV vaccine

Due to the fact that dysplasia is a consequence of the impact on the mucous membrane of the cervix of the papilloma virus, it is advisable to be vaccinated against this virus.

Currently, this vaccine is represented by two drugs:

  • Gardasil - 11 strains are resistant to penetration into the body, as well as the main oncogenic strains - 16 and 18,
  • Cervarix - counteracts against 16 and 18 strains of the virus.

The optimal age for vaccination is 12-15 and 20-23 years. It is very important to undergo a complete gynecological examination before vaccination, especially if the girl already had sexual intimacy.

Celandine with cervical dysplasia

Treatment of cervical dysplasia with folk remedies involves the use of medicinal herbs that have proven to be effective in practice. This applies to celandine, the healing properties of which are known from the time of our ancestors. Today, this plant is used in traditional medicine as an effective preventive and therapeutic agent. If we talk about the beneficial properties of the plant, it should be noted a variety of alkaloids that are included in it: chelidonin, berberine, chelidoxanthin, sanguinarine, homohelidonin, etc. (more than 30 in total). From the pharmacological point of view, chelidonine is the most active of the listed alkaloids, which is close in action to morphine and papaverine. It should be noted that only above-ground parts of celandine are suitable for medical use, since they contain the healing yellow juice in the largest quantities.

Celandine dysplasia of the cervix is ​​used exclusively locally, for douching or packing. For this purpose, a strong decoction of the plant is used (1 tablespoon of dry raw material per 200 ml), which is infused for at least 40 minutes or 1 hour. For tampons, oil is also used, which can be prepared at home. For this 2 tbsp. l dry leaves should be filled with sunflower oil heated in a water bath and insisted for a couple of hours. Moisten tampons and insert deep into the vagina at night. The course of treatment is 2 weeks.

For douching, you can also use a decoction of the celandine. To make it you need to take the greens of the plant in the flowering season (or dry raw materials), rinse with cold water and lightly dry with a napkin, then cut into pieces of 1.5-2 cm and put in a liter jar, filling it in half. The crushed grass of celandine can be tamped with a spoon, pour boiling water to the “neck”, tightly cover the jar with a lid and hold it until the liquid is completely cooled. After this, the broth must be filtered and applied as intended. The entire volume (about 1 liter) must be used for one procedure. Douching is recommended twice a day for 10-14 days, until the symptoms of inflammation disappear. This decoction for douching is effective in the treatment of inflammatory processes occurring in the pelvic organs (inflammation of the appendages, colpitis, thrush).

It should be noted that the infusion of celandine has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antipruritic action. However, before using this tool, you need to consult with your doctor. Contraindication to douching with infusion or decoction of the celandine is the exacerbation of the process of inflammation in the genitals, as well as the first weeks after suffering miscarriages or abortions, the postpartum period, pregnancy.

Homeopathy

Treatment of cervical dysplasia folk remedies should be based on the recommendations of the doctor. Self-treatment can aggravate the situation and cause negative consequences in the form of complications.

Homeopathy will help speed up recovery, however, one or other homeopathic remedies should be taken only on the advice of a medical professional. Since women with cervical dysplasia often suffer from a lack of folic acid, riboflavin, selenium, as well as vitamins A, C, and E, treatment includes daily intake of vitamin preparations and folic acid (10 mg each). Sources of vitamin B9 are soy products, whole grains, vegetables with green leaves.

A well-established homeopathic remedy called Sepia. It should be taken daily in 3 granules (under the tongue). The duration of treatment is 1-2 months. This remedy regulates the menstrual cycle.

When cervical dysplasia is recommended to take in the form decoctions or seasoning plants with phytoestrogens (substances similar in chemical structure to human estrogen): anise, soy, sage, clover, licorice, hops and oregano.

If the dysplasia pathogen is established, human papillomavirus is recommended to receive papillokan candlescontaining tea tree oil and thuja extract. Suppositories help restore local blood circulation in areas of affected tissue, as well as fight against the virus itself. Acidide nitricam - another herbal preparation, which has found its wide application in the complex treatment of papillomavirus.

Cervical dysplasia is often accompanied by other gynecological diseases (obesity, inflammation of the appendages, thrush). Ginekohel - modern homeopathic medicine, the action of which is just aimed at eliminating gynecological inflammation, as well as reducing tissue swelling. It is used as an auxiliary component along with other therapeutic methods.

Ovarium compositum - a homeopathic remedy with a homotoxic effect, normalizes hormonal balance, improves the condition of uterine tissue cells. The drug has proven its effectiveness in cases where cervical dysplasia is accompanied by failures in the menstrual cycle. In addition, Ovarium improves the functioning of the central nervous system and reduces anxiety.

Lycopodium - herbal preparation, which activates the blood supply of the uterine cervix, and also has a positive effect on the regeneration of affected tissue, improves metabolic processes.

Sea buckthorn oil acts as an active stimulator of tissue regeneration, and also has a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, in case of dysplasia, you can use vaginal tampons moistened in sea buckthorn oil before going to bed for 2 months.

The following recipe is very effective in treating uterine cervix. Calendula flowers (20 g) mixed with olive oil (200 ml) and place for 7-10 days in a dark place, then strain. Daily use tampons moistened in the resulting oil extract, which must be injected deep into the vagina. The course of such treatment is 2 weeks.

Propolis has long established itself as an effective anti-inflammatory and disinfectant. For cervical dysplasia, you can use the following recipe: Mix 10 g of propolis with butter (150-200 g) in melted form, place in a container and boil for 10 minutes over low heat. The resulting solution is filtered and used for plugging. Swabs should be inserted deep into the vagina for 30 minutes, the duration of treatment is 1 month.

From the main “advantages” of homeopathy, one can distinguish the relative cheapness of the preparations, the individual approach to the patient, absolute harmlessness, a wide range of actions. Such drugs can help in cases where other therapies do not give the desired result. Questions about the dosage and frequency of receiving herbal remedies are decided by the doctor, based on the data obtained during the survey.

Borovaya uterus with cervical dysplasia

Treatment of cervical dysplasia with folk remedies gives positive results in mild degrees of illness in combination with drug therapy. The use of traditional medicine recipes must be approved by the attending physician. Self-treatment in this case is inappropriate, because it can cause various complications.

Borovaya uterus with cervical dysplasia is used as a tool that has analgesic, septic, absorbable and antitumor effect. This medicinal plant is also used in the treatment of infertility, endometriosis, inflammation of the appendages, cervical erosion, adhesive processes, uterine fibroids and other gynecological diseases.

Another name for boron uterus, used in pharmaceuticals, is Ortilius, one-sided. The plant can be used as a water infusion for douching. The recipe for this infusion is quite simple: 1 tbsp. l medicinal herbs in a crushed form, you must pour a glass of boiled water, boil for 5 minutes and insist a couple of hours.

For ingestion using alcohol tincture of boric uterus. For its preparation 5 tbsp. l dry raw materials should be placed in a half-liter jar, pour vodka (500 ml) and close the lid. Put in a dark place for 3-4 weeks, then strain and take 0.5 tsp. half an hour before meals, after diluting the tincture in of a glass of water. The frequency of taking the drug - 2-3 p. / Day. It is recommended to drink tincture slowly, in small sips.

Preparations of the uterine uterus should be taken in courses of 3 weeks with a week break during the menstruation period. In advanced cases, this treatment can last more than a year. Contraindications to the use of this herbal remedy is the ІІ-ІІІ trimester of pregnancy, as well as combination with hormonal drugs.

Treatment of cervical dysplasia with folk remedies should be monitored by a physician, since homeopathic medicines and medicinal plants may not be completely safe. In treatment it is very important to choose the right dosage and medication regimen.

Dysplasia of the skin, epithelium

The disease affects the upper layers of the epithelium, and affects the deep structures, bringing a complete disturbance in the structure of cells. Most often, the disease is caused by human papillomavirus having an oncogenic nature. Viruses are sexually transmitted.

The type of dysplasia is cunning because it is almost asymptomatic, it will be possible to capture the disease in time exclusively, without neglecting the preventive campaigns to the gynecologist every six months. The doctor prescribes tests, if available, determines the degree of the disease and decides how to treat dysplasia.

Treatment of dysplasia depends on the degree of neglect of the disease. First of all, the degree of dysplasia depends on the strength of the damage to epithelial cells:

  • 1 degree, weak. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I) is diagnosed if only the lower part of the epithelium, 1/3 of the flat layer is changed during the examination. Changes in the structure of cells are minimal. In the first stage, the disease is completely treatable.
  • 2 degree, moderate. Diagnosis code for CIN II. The second degree is characterized by damage to 2 3 of the epithelium cells. As a rule, areas of the lower and middle layer of the mucosa are affected.
  • Grade 3, hard. Diagnosis code CIN III. At the subsequent stage, all layers of the cell epithelium are affected. Serious and dangerous stage, develops into the initial stage of cervical cancer. Histological examination does not put invasive cancer, the changes do not affect the region of blood vessels, muscles and nerve endings.

With 1 and even 2 degrees of severity (mild dysplasia), doctors usually advise young patients to monitor every 3-4 months in the form of cytological studies. The body copes with dysplasia on its own, using the resources of immunity, introducing the disease into the regression stage.

If the patient is not young or laboratory tests have twice confirmed the diagnosis, the doctor decides on the appointment of treatment.

Conservative treatment of dysplasia:

  • Immunomodulators are prescribed for repeated manifestations of dysplasia, to increase the body's resistance to the disease and as an addition to the full course of treatment with extensive development of dysplasia.
  • Orthomolecular therapy, includes drugs, helping to restore the normal operation of all types of cells.
  • Inclusion of vegetable and organic preparations: mineral waters, salts, salt baths. Showing herbal remedies, herbal infusions with anti-inflammatory and antitumor, antiseptic effect (chamomile, St. John's wort, eucalyptus, motherwort, sea buckthorn).
  • Local treatment: douching, treatment of the affected area with antibacterial agents.

Surgical treatment has a high percentage of efficiency - 85-95%. The type of intervention is divided into subspecies, which are selected in accordance with the stage of neglect, taking into account the patient's condition and age. If there is a cervical disease, the fact of preservation of childbearing function is taken into account. Developed physiotherapy and knife surgery.

Physiological treatment means the impact on the affected area with special radio, heat, electro, cryo devices in order to stop the growth of the epithelium lesion. All methods represent cauterization of dysplasia in different ways, during the action dysplasia is excised. Positive method recognized as cauterization dysplasia laser. By manipulation, the infected part of the epithelium is removed. When cauterizing with a laser, there are no scars or scars, which is good for erosion and cervical dysplasia. As a rule, complete healing takes place in 2-3 weeks, during which the patient is under the supervision of doctors, in order to exclude relapses. What kind of cauterization of dysplasia to choose (laser, heat or cold) is determined by the doctor, taking into account the age of the patient, the specifics of the build, the gender, the state of the body at the time of exposure.

Knife intervention involves the action of an ordinary scalpel. Usually excised part of the affected tissue. The method is chosen for the last degree of dysplasia, when conservative treatment did not help, and after the physiotherapy impact the disease returned. The issue of amputation of the site affected by dysplasia is being resolved. If cervical erosion is present, either a part of the cervix or the entire uterus is amputated. This is done to prevent dysplasia from flowing into invasive cancer. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Spinal or epidural anesthesia is allowed.

Folk methods. Treatment of dysplasia with folk remedies acts exclusively as an adjunct to what is prescribed by a doctor, it must be discussed beforehand. Dysplasia of the skin, epithelium - a serious disease that can not be cured, using mainly folk remedies. Together with the current course of treatment prescribed by the doctor, the funds will be a good help.

Described the mass of recipes of traditional medicine, with which it is permissible to try to treat the destruction of the skin. Examples:

  1. A decoction of pine buds used for local processing and douching. The decoction has anti-inflammatory, disinfectant, antimicrobial effect.
  2. Treatment of the dysplasia area with aloe juice will help in healing the wound after a physiotherapy effect, help reduce inflammation. Similar properties possesses propolis.
  3. Green tea is considered an antioxidant, copes with cell destruction. Allowed to use in the fight against dysplasia and for prevention.

These methods of traditional medicine may be used for 1, 2, 3 degrees of dysplasia.

It is necessary to control the leading doctor after completing the course, visiting the doctor once a month. You will need to pass control tests within a year in order not to miss the moment of the return of the disease.

Bone dysplasia

This type of dysplasia is called fibrous dysplasia and means, under the name, a change in the structure of bone cells, leading to dysfunctional changes in the tibia and femur. The disease is often hereditary in nature or is the result of a gene mutation caused by fetal pathology during pregnancy.

A problematic factor is that the disease is not amenable to treatment with drugs and medicines. Fully cured dysplasia is possible only in infancy, when the disease is less pronounced. The more mature a person is, the more difficult the violation is to cure, and by middle age the disease is quite capable of putting a person in a wheelchair. It is important to undergo a routine examination of children by an orthopedist, in order to identify motor dysfunctions in time.

The main means of dealing with bone dysplasia are surgical and physiotherapy effects. Manipulations are classified into subspecies, the choice depends mainly on the age of the patient. The results of the radiological image, the patient's condition at the time of the decision on the manipulation are taken into account.

Known types of physiotherapy treatment, which is divided by age and degree of dysplasia. For infants, wide swaddling, physiotherapy, physiotherapy in the form of electrophoresis with calcium are used. Procedures necessarily go in conjunction with a special massage, which only the doctor performs. In some cases, he is entitled to assign orthopedic benefits:

  1. Stirrups Pavlik. The main feature of the stirrups: are special straps that are comfortable, without unnecessary discomfort for the child, fixed his legs in a divorced state. They are considered a benign device in the fight against childhood dysplasia. It is important to choose the size of stirrups, which varies depending on the weight and height of the baby. Age of appointment Pavlik stirrups: from 3 weeks to 9 months.
  2. Freyka pillow. Конструкция представляет штаны из пластика, которые надёжно держат ножки малыша в нужном положении. Подушка имеет размерную сетку, разработана по типу стремян Павлика.Приспособление оставляет возможность движения и применяется в зрелом возрасте.

После того, как ортопедическое пособие снимается, показано продолжить лечение дисплазии массажем, выполнять специальную гимнастику.

Other methods of physiological treatment are used for adults:

  • Distraction complex apparatus. With its help, the procedure for lengthening the limb to the required degree is carried out.
  • The Ilizarov apparatus is aimed at correcting the deformity by prolonged compression and fixation of the limb in the indicated position.
  • Exercise therapy.
  • Massage.
  • Orthopedic shoes, corsages, bandages.

Surgical treatment includes:

  • Osteotomy (artificial fracture of the limb, is performed to correct articular dysplasia). The osteotomy analogue is known, in which an operation is performed bloodlessly - osteoclasia.
  • Bone graft Removing bone with dysplasia and replacing it with an implant.

After any type of treatment, it is important to be monitored by a doctor, to maintain constant monitoring aimed at eliminating the recurrence of the disease.

Conservative therapy

CIN arises both against the background of active inflammation, and without it. An obligatory stage of examination in the presence of this pathology is the determination of the presence of sexually transmitted infections. Often found a mixed pathogenic flora, which causes similar changes in the cervix.

As for the moderate degree, adequate conservative therapy can translate the disease from CIN 2 to 1. The pronounced form of dysplasia initially entails more radical methods of treatment, since it involves serious changes in the epithelium of the cervical mucosa.

It is noteworthy that a combination of forms is often found. For example, in a biopsy from different parts of the cervix, both mild and moderate degrees of dysplasia are determined. Treatment and diagnosis is based on a more severe form.

Numerous studies have shown the relationship between the deficiency of certain vitamins in a woman’s body and the appearance of this pathology. Proceeding from this, not only preventive measures, but also in the process of treatment, the diet should be healthy, diverse and enriched with beneficial substances.

Thus, the relationship between the deficiency of vitamins A, E, C, folic acid, omega-unsaturated acids, B6 and B12, selenium, as well as bioflavonoids, probiotics, and some others has been revealed.

We recommend reading an article on the treatment of cervical dysplasia using traditional methods. From it you will learn about the non-drug treatment of dysplasia, the effectiveness of popular recipes, the use of calendula, aloe, propolis and other means.

Operative therapy

Surgical treatment of mild to moderate dysplasia is carried out only after a comprehensive conservative therapy, as this may affect the amount of tissue removed.

Diathermoguage and radio wave removal

DEK is one of the popular methods of treatment of dysplasia due to the fact that almost all medical institutions are equipped with this inexpensive equipment. But this method has a number of drawbacks, and in recent years, use has been limited due to the emergence of modern, more effective and less traumatic methods.

The bottom line is this. A special loop, to which an electrical current is applied, removes the affected area on the cervix. The big disadvantage is that the depth of immersion can be controlled only by your own feelings. As a result, you can delete either too much or not enough. In the latter case, it is necessary to supplement the treatment, as the dysplasia will continue to progress.

After diathermocoagulation, cicatricial changes often remain on the cervix, which may further influence the process of conception and childbirth. Healing is also long (about two months) and is accompanied by copious pus-like secretions.

Like DEC radiowave treatment of dysplasia is performed. The only difference is that the action is not electric current, and radio waves of a certain frequency. Healing is also shorter, leaves no cicatricial changes.

Cryodestruction

Provides exposure to liquid nitrogen. At the same time, the forming scar on the cervix has a looser structure. This is due to prolonged discharge, but by the nature they are muco-bloody, rarely with a purulent undertone.

When cold destruction is also difficult to limit the depth of the lesion. Therefore, as in the case of diathermocogulation, a malignant process should be excluded before the procedure.

Laser exposure

This is one of the most promising and modern techniques, sometimes called the "laser knife". Indeed, in terms of accuracy, further healing is one of the favorable methods of treatment. But the procedure is dangerous in that a woman must be completely calm during her conduct, since any unplanned movement can lead to serious damage to adjacent tissues. Therefore, treatment of dysplasia with a laser is carried out under intravenous or general anesthesia in the operating room.

There are laser effects of high and low intensity. The first option is preferable for several reasons. First, the tissue remains removed, which can be examined histologically. And this is very important, since it is precisely from this that one can judge the radical nature of the treatment. Secondly, burns and tissue overheating are much less common.

Knife removal

Many practitioners prefer this method of removing dysplasia. Can be carried out as a knife conization, and amputation of the cervix. In the first case, an organ tissue is removed with a conventional surgical scalpel. Manipulation is performed most often under intravenous anesthesia.

Amputation of the cervix - a complete surgical operation. It involves the excision of tissue at a length of half and more of the cervical canal. Such an operation is often carried out with a pronounced degree of dysplasia and even the initial stages of cancer. The healing process averages two months. Amputation of the cervix in the future during pregnancy can cause isthmic-cervical insufficiency and premature birth. Therefore, these women need to be more closely observed in the risk of miscarriage and carry out all preventive manipulations. After surgery, cervical dysplasia rarely recurs.

Body recovery after

After any treatment is the early and late recovery periods. The first lasts about 1 to 2 months and includes the immediate healing of the wound surface. At this time may develop complications. The most frequent:

  • bleeding,
  • long whites,
  • temperature rise,
  • pain in the vagina and lower abdomen,
  • others.

If you have any complaints, you should contact your doctor, who will also prescribe therapy.

Long-term effects are also quite common. These are mainly problems with gestation and conception, as well as a high susceptibility to inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, impaired menstrual function, the formation of foci of endometriosis and others.

The use of some of the operational methods does not lead to the end of therapy. Only preventive examinations several times a year for several years will make sure that the pathology has finally passed.

Cervical dysplasia is a serious pathology, which, if not timely and insufficiently treated, can lead to malignant diseases. Disease therapy includes both conservative schemes and operational techniques. Indications for radiowave treatment of dysplasia, the use of DEC, laser and other methods can be determined only by a doctor after a thorough examination.

What is cervical dysplasia?

Cervical dysplasia (cervical dysplasia) is a condition of the epithelium covering the cervix, which is characterized by a change in the number of layers and the structure of the cells forming it. At the same time, the basement membrane and the uppermost cell layers are not involved in the process. Dysplasia refers to diseases that, under a combination of circumstances, can cause the development of a malignant cervical tumor.

Cervical dysplasia is an extremely dangerous pathology and the most common precancerous form that alters the structure of the mucous membrane of the cervix and vagina. Dysplasia can have a different origin, but it is always accompanied by a violation of the cellular structure of the epithelium. It affects not only the upper layers, but can penetrate much deeper.

Often cervical dysplasia is called erosion, but this term does not fully convey the essence of the phenomenon. The main difference between these two processes is that erosion occurs due to mechanical damage to tissues, and dysplasia is characterized by a violation of the cellular structure of tissues.

Depending on the depth of the lesion of the cervical mucous membrane, there are:

    mild (mild) form of dysplasia (up to a third of the thickness of the squamous epithelium is affected, the cells of the intermediate layer may swell),

    moderately expressed (medium) form of dysplasia (one third to two thirds of the stratum is affected, the polarity of the epithelium is disrupted),

    severe (severe) form of dysplasia (all layers of the epithelium are affected).

    Every year around 40 million women in the world are diagnosed or confirmed for the first time with cervical dysplasia. This disease accounts for approximately 15–18% of cases of identified pathologies of the cervix uterus. Typical for women in the reproductive age of 34-35 years. The average frequency of transition of severe forms of cervical dysplasia into cancer is about 10-30% according to various studies.

    Most patients, not understanding the essence of the pathological mechanisms, confuse cervical dysplasia with erosion or cancer. Neither statement is wrong. To understand what the difference is, you need to turn to anatomy.

    Dysplasia from the point of view of a doctor

    The cervix is ​​the boundary between the vagina and the uterus itself. It consists of 3 types of fabrics:

    A feature of its epithelium is that it is heterogeneous in its structure. The cervix is ​​the meeting place of 2 types of surface epithelium: the cylindrical, whose cells are arranged in one layer, have a rectangular shape and line the uterus and cervical canal, and the multi-layered flat, characteristic of the vagina and represented by several rows of cells of a flattened shape. Both the epithelium and is located on a thin basement membrane consisting of collagen fibers and playing the role of a solid foundation and limiter.

    It is because of such a complex structure of the cervix in this area often there are various pathological processes associated with changes in the characteristics of cells.

    The most important of them are:

    Erosion is the displacement of the cylindrical epithelium towards the vagina. The structure, function, characteristics of cell growth are not violated. Due to the difference in conditions in the cervical canal and in the vagina, cylindrical cells are damaged by the acidic environment, the metabolic products of the normal microflora of the female genital tract, trauma during sexual intercourse, forming poorly healing wounds - erosion. During a gynecological examination on the chair, she looks like a patch of juicy red color against a pale pink background.

    Cervical cancer is the process of changing the structure and functions of epithelial cells, which have acquired the ability for unlimited growth. If the overgrown cells have not gone beyond the basement membrane, then they talk about "cancer on the spot" (CIS carcinoma in situ), it is the initial stage of the development of malignant neoplasms of any internal organs. If a cancer tumor has germinated in the basement membrane, then from a medical point of view, this is an invasive cancer (this is the cancer in the narrow sense).

    Dysplasia is a change in the structure of a stratified squamous epithelium that covers the cervix, and cells with an “abnormal” shape of the nucleus, multinuclear, irregularly shaped, appear in it, and anatomical division into layers is lost. However, the altered cells do not have the capacity for unlimited growth and do not penetrate beyond the basement membrane. The cylindrical epithelium in the transition zone on the cervix remains unchanged.

    Modern medicine has not used the term "dysplasia" for a long time; instead, in diagnosis and in the scientific literature the following definition can be found: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, or CIN), which means the formation of new cellular cells of the cervical epithelium that are not typical of this tissue.

    Causes of cervical dysplasia

    The appearance of cervical dysplasia, like any other precancerous disease, does not occur under the influence of any one factor. It is always a complex combination of many provocative components.

    The main reasons for the formation of foci of dysplasia are:

    infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV),

    hormonal contraceptive pills with long-term use (from 5 years),

    early sex life (14-15 years),

    a large number of sexual partners

    bad habits (smoking).

    Also, their role in the development of dysplastic processes can have:

    monotonous food with a lack of vitamins C, A,

    genetic predisposition to any cancer,

    low level of education, life, asocial behavior,

    a large number of genera.

    The discovery of the dominant role of the HPV virus in the development of dysplasia and malignant tumors of the cervix was a breakthrough in the development of effective methods to combat cancer of the female reproductive system.

    Virus factor

    Cervical dysplasia most often develops due to human papillomavirus (HPV). This disease most often is asymptomatic, with the onset of dysplastic processes until the onset of cervical cancer usually lasts about 10 years.

    Human papillomavirus infection can occur in all, but women who are sexually active and have multiple sexual partners are at risk. Neglect of contraception and untreated inflammation of the reproductive organs also increase the likelihood of contracting HPV. Cervical injury can also occur due to abortion or frequent delivery.

    There are many types of HPV virus, each of which can cause lesions characteristic of it. For example: common warts on the hands and feet, genital warts in the genital area, dysplasia and cervical cancers.

    According to the degree of oncological “danger”, all types of HPV can be divided into 3 categories:

    Non-oncogenic and low oncogenic risk types are found in warts and genital warts, these are types 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44.

    Low oncogenic risk. Viruses belonging to highly oncogenic serotypes are found in 90% of all cases of dysplasia and malignant neoplasms of the cervix. These are the 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68 types.

    High oncogenic risk. Of these, 16 and 18 are particularly aggressive, which occur more frequently than others and in half of cases lead to the development of cervical cancer.

    How does HPV cause cellular changes?

    In a healthy body, any damaged cell is immediately destroyed by the immune system and internal anti-tumor mechanisms, which prevent it from entering the division process and reproducing similar defective cells. In addition, the number of divisions of each cell type is strictly limited to the genetic program. This determines the aging process in the body, with all the desire the person can not live forever.

    When the HPV virus that has a high oncogenic activity enters the body, it is carried by blood to the genitals and embedded in the cells of the flat cervical epithelium. Viral particles produce special proteins that block the "security system" of an epithelial cell, damaging DNA. As a result, atypical cells are formed that do not die off, are not removed by the immune system, they are capable of division and reproduce themselves like “abnormal” specimens. Thus, there is a change in the structure of the cervical epithelium layers, which, when analyzed, is defined as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, or CIN). However, in dysplasia, in contrast to cancer, atypical cells do not have the property of unlimited uncontrolled growth.

    Contraceptive use

    The effect of long-term use of hormonal combined oral contraceptives (COCs) on the occurrence of dysplastic processes in the cervix has been well studied.

    In this case, there are 2 separate effects (COC):

    The mediated effect is that women who are constantly taking COCs, usually of a young age of 20-40 years old, are sexually active, often change their sexual partners, they are more likely to have sexually transmitted diseases more often than others in the population, they smoke. The combination of these factors increases the risk of dysplastic processes in the cervix.

    The mechanism of the direct effect has not been fully studied, but on the basis of statistical data it was concluded that prolonged use of HEC (5 years or more) increases the risk of developing cervical dysplasia by almost 2 times.

    Women who use progestin preparations for contraception (birth control pills for pregnant women) do not fall into the risk category, since this type of contraceptive does not affect the epithelium of the cervix. То же самое касается и женщин в менопаузе или с удаленными яичниками, которые получают заместительную гормональную терапию, риск развития диспластических процессов у них не увеличивается.

    Other reasons

    Причинами дисплазии шейки матки могут стать и неправильный образ жизни, и вредные привычки (в особенности курение), так как сниженный иммунитет и гипоксия увеличивают вероятность микротравм эпителия шейки матки.

    Other reasons, such as early sex life, a large number of sexual partners, low social level - all of them are directly related to the frequent infection of this category of women with various types of HPV.

    Lack of vitamins A and C, immunodeficiency states, genetic predisposition lead to disruption of the body's defense system and disruptions in the program for the destruction of damaged cellular elements, which also contributes to the development of dysplastic processes.

    In general, the development of cervical dysplasia can be explained using the “weed” theory, which was proposed in 1995 by a professor at the University of California, gynecologist Michael Policar. In his opinion, the cervical epithelium is the soil where the "seeds" of cellular changes in the form of HPV fall, but in order for them to germinate, you need "water, light, heat", which are played by other factors in the development of dysplastic processes - smoking, reduced immunity , avitaminosis, genetic predisposition. Without them, even with HPV, the development of cervical dysplasia does not occur.

    To date, to confirm this theory clinically and laboratory failed. However, the combination of HPV with other risk factors in most women speaks in favor of this scientific hypothesis.

    Symptoms of cervical dysplasia

    In the initial forms, the disease is often asymptomatic. The disease manifests itself only in advanced conditions: a woman has pain in the lower abdomen, there may be a small vaginal bleeding. To avoid this and start treatment in time, it is necessary to undergo regular gynecological examinations involving instrumental, laboratory and clinical studies.

    Signs of dysplasia can be detected only if the symptoms are accompanied by other diseases. According to gynecologists, in most cases, in the presence of cervical dysplasia, there is cervical erosion. Therefore, a competent doctor will certainly send the patient to the analysis of the PAP (SMEAR) when it detects erosion.

    Symptoms of dysplasia can be:

    copious leucorrhoea without unpleasant smell, milky white color,

    blood streaks in vaginal secretions after intimacy,

    pain during sexual intercourse.

    Once again, it is necessary to repeat: the indicated symptoms are not specific for cervical dysplasia, cannot be used for diagnosis, but are only a reminder to the woman that her female health needs a thorough examination.

    Degree of dysplasia

    Depending on how deep the cervical epithelium is affected, there are 3 degrees of cervical dysplasia:

    1 degree (weak)

    2 degree (moderate)

    Grade 3 is heavy.

    If the epithelium area is represented as a rectangle, the lower side of which is represented by the basal membrane, and the upper one is the surface cell line, then different degrees of dysplasia will look like this.

    Cervical dysplasia and pregnancy

    It should be remembered that none of the methods listed above can differentiate between severe degrees of dysplasia and cancer. This is only possible with the help of histological examination of a piece of epithelium. The method by which it is performed is called targeted biopsy with scraping of the cervical canal. The resulting tissue procedures are scrutinized. This method has 100% accuracy.

    Blood streaks in vaginal secretions after intimacy,

    The discovery of the dominant role of the HPV virus in the development of dysplasia and malignant tumors of the cervix was a breakthrough in the development of effective methods to combat cancer of the female reproductive system.

    Severe (severe) form of dysplasia (all layers of the epithelium are affected).

    Citrus fruits (contain vitamin C necessary for dysplasia),

    Severe dysplasia, or dysplasia of the third degree. Almost all of the epithelium is affected by abnormal cells, there are very severe morphological changes. In fact, it is directly a precancerous condition or a non-invasive cancer. Without treatment, the pathology is extremely quickly transformed into a malignant cervical carcinoma.

    Moderate and severe dysplasia, cervical cancer of the first degree, confirmed by biopsy results,

    Diagnosis of cervical dysplasia

    Due to the fact that dysplasia does not have characteristic clinical signs, the diagnosis is established on the basis of a physical examination in combination with laboratory tests and instrumental methods:

    But if these measures were in vain, go to the help of laser or cryosurgery.

    Is its cheapness, availability of equipment, technical ease of implementation.

    Before treating cervical dysplasia, the doctor detects and eliminates its cause (hormonal disorders, infections or inflammatory processes). This should stop the development of dysplasia in unallocated forms and promote scarring of tissues. In the opposite cases, surgical treatment is recommended for patients.

    Pain during sexual intercourse.

    Cervical dysplasia most often develops due to human papillomavirus (HPV). This disease most often is asymptomatic, with the onset of dysplastic processes until the onset of cervical cancer usually lasts about 10 years.

    Every year around 40 million women in the world are diagnosed or confirmed for the first time with cervical dysplasia. This disease accounts for approximately 15–18% of cases of identified pathologies of the cervix uterus. Typical for women in the reproductive age of 34-35 years. The average frequency of transition of severe forms of cervical dysplasia into cancer is about 10-30% according to various studies.

    Spinach, almonds, legumes, dairy foods (due to the presence of calcium),

    Treatment of cervical dysplasia

    Unfortunately, the symptoms of the disease are most often absent, especially if the dysplasia is mild or moderate. In 10% of women, there is generally a hidden course of pathology up to its malignant transformation. Therefore, regular visits to a gynecologist and PAP tests are much more important in detecting dysplasia than independent detection of the disease due to its clinical picture. In many cases, a woman can be suspected if a microbial infection is attached, which happens very often with dysplasia. Nonspecific bacterial infection with vaginal and cervical canal lesions causes the following symptoms:

    Severe neck deformity regardless of the degree of pathology,

    Routine examination often does not allow to suspect this pathology, since there are no changes visible by the eye on the neck. But in the case of moderate or severe dysplasia, a change in the color of the mucous membrane (bright red or whitish), growth of the epithelium in the form of whitish plaques, and a shiny surface around the external pharynx can be detected.

    The worst consequence of cervical dysplasia is cancer. In order to avoid this complication, you need to regularly visit a doctor, and if you need treatment, you must strictly follow all the recommendations.

    Do not lift weights

    A common method of treatment of dysplasia is an electrocautery, which excised the affected tissue. Healing after such an operation takes three months, but scarring and bleeding are possible, which creates the risk of adverse pregnancy.

    Once again, it is necessary to repeat: the indicated symptoms are not specific for cervical dysplasia, cannot be used for diagnosis, but are only a reminder to the woman that her female health needs a thorough examination.

    Human papillomavirus infection can occur in all, but women who are sexually active and have multiple sexual partners are at risk. Neglect of contraception and untreated inflammation of the reproductive organs also increase the likelihood of contracting HPV. Cervical injury can also occur due to abortion or frequent delivery.

    Most patients, not understanding the essence of the pathological mechanisms, confuse cervical dysplasia with erosion or cancer. Neither statement is wrong. To understand what the difference is, you need to turn to anatomy.

    Blueberries, peppers, tomatoes, pumpkins (they have a lot of antioxidants).

    Re-treatment in case of a negative effect from the methods of destruction.

    Colposcopy is indicated to all women once a year, especially with existing chronic gynecological diseases. The method is an examination of the cervix by the apparatus (colposcope) under 10 or more magnification. Carrying out diagnostic tests (with diluted acetic acid and iodine) followed by examination of the cervix is ​​called an extended colposcopy. When lubricating the cervical mucosa with acetic acid, the vessels of the epithelium narrow and coagulate the mucus, which makes it easier to examine the cervix. Dysplasia may be indicated by such signs as:And, of course, it's best to prevent HPV from entering the body. To do this, use barrier contraception and avoid risk factors. Also, there is a vaccine for HPV called Gardasil. It is believed that after vaccination, a woman has a very small risk of getting HPV.Do not play sportsThe inability to control the depth of impact, rough scars after healing, the risk of developing complications such as endometriosis is high.Also, cervical dysplasia is treated with laser surgery. Depending on the neglect of the pathological process of healing, it can take about two months, but this treatment is safe and takes place with almost no consequences.

    Depending on how deep the cervical epithelium is affected, there are 3 degrees of cervical dysplasia:

    There are many types of HPV virus, each of which can cause lesions characteristic of it. For example: common warts on the hands and feet, genital warts in the genital area, dysplasia and cervical cancers.

    2 and 3 degree

    The cervix is ​​the boundary between the vagina and the uterus itself. It consists of 3 types of fabrics:

    Meals should exclude refined food, white bread, sugar, fatty meat, trans fats, biscuits, margarine buns, caffeine.

    Burning sensation in the region of the vestibule,

    After the destruction of the pathological focus on the cervix, the patient is recommended:

    The appearance of areas of acetowhite epithelium (leukoplakia elements),

    This pathology refers to serious gynecological diseases, as it is the “first bell” indicating that the cervix is ​​ready for a meeting with cancer. Therefore, dysplasia is considered to be a precancerous disease and requires timely and quality treatment. It is known that such a disease is most often diagnosed in young women (about 25 - 35 years old), and the incidence of pathology reaches 1.5 cases per 1000 representatives of the weaker sex.

    Do not use the swimming pool, sauna, beach,

    Another method of surgical treatment of dysplasia is cryotherapy. Affected tissue is frozen with liquid nitrogen. In addition, there is also a chemical method of treatment, which consists in applying to the foci of dysplasia a special chemical preparation that burns tissue. After a couple of days, they fall away in the form of a thin crust.1 degree (weak)

    According to the degree of oncological “danger”, all types of HPV can be divided into 3 categories:Epithelial,

    To give up alcohol and smoking for recovery is simply vital for a woman.Aching abdominal pain

    Limit physical exertion and weight lifting for 1.5 - 2 months,

    The appearance of punctuation (punctuation) rough or delicate,

    Cervical dysplasia is the process of changing the structure of epithelial cells covering the vaginal part of the neck. Such cells are called atypical, and the disease itself is included in the list of pre-cancerous processes.Do not sunbathe or go to a tanning bed, especially for women infected with HPV,

    With this method, the removal of modified epithelial cells is carried out by their instant freezing using liquid nitrogen. The temperature of liquid nitrogen is -196 C%, the water contained in the epithelium cells instantly turns into ice, so the changed tissue sections die.The severity of the pathological process affects the tactics of treatment:

    2 degree (moderate)

    MuscularExpectant tactics and conservative therapy are ineffective in the presence of high oncogenic HPV risks. In addition, if during the year 2 PAP-tests are positive for cervical dysplasia, surgical treatment of the pathology is prescribed. The choice of a particular method depends on the degree of dysplasia. As noted, young women who have not given birth should be treated in the most effective ways - with the help of a laser or a radio knife. Currently, the following low-impact methods are used:

    The appearance of purulent discharge, or normal discharge, but with an unusual smell,Sexual rest for 1 - 3 (depending on the method of treatment),

    The appearance of polygonal areas (mucous as if lined with lines in different directions - mosaic).The vaginal part of the cervix is ​​lined with a stratified squamous epithelium, which has a pink color and consists of several layers:Do not take a bath, only a shower is allowed,

    Since there are scientifically confirmed data that in most cases, cervical dysplasia of 1 degree passes on its own after 1-2 years, provided the body is freed from HPV, modern doctors do not recommend using any treatment at this stage.

    Grade 3 is heavy.

    And types of low oncogenic risk are found in warts and genital warts, these are types 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44.

    Cryodestruction With the help of extreme cold (liquid nitrogen), modified cervical tissues are cauterized. The procedure is completely safe, and with mild dysplasia, its effectiveness is up to 98%. The disadvantage of the technique is that it is impossible to cure moderate and severe dysplasia.

    After intercourse, the use of tampons may appear a small amount of blood.

    The prohibition of douching and the use of tampons for the entire healing period,

    After the test with acetic acid, the cervix is ​​stained with an aqueous solution of iodine, which is called the Schiller test. It is possible to suspect atypia of the cervical epithelium upon detection of areas in the cervix unstained with iodine, which indicates a lack of glycogen in the epithelial cells and indicates a pathological process in the cervix. A Schiller test is considered positive if the entire surface of the neck acquires a uniform brown color.The basal-parabasal is a deep layer consisting of basal and parabasal cells and bordering on the underlying tissues (muscular, nerve endings and vascular walls), it is in this layer that young cells are found that renew the epithelium,

    Not to introduce into the vagina any drugs, solutions, except those prescribed by a doctor,That it does not leave any rough scars behind it, therefore it can be recommended to women who have not given birth, if it is impossible to use more technological techniques.

    The treatment tactics are as follows:

    If the epithelium area is represented as a rectangle, the lower side of which is represented by the basal membrane, and the upper one is the surface cell line, then different degrees of dysplasia will look like this.

    Low oncogenic risk.

    A feature of its epithelium is that it is heterogeneous in its structure. The cervix is ​​the meeting place of 2 types of surface epithelium: the cylindrical, whose cells are arranged in one layer, have a rectangular shape and line the uterus and cervical canal, and the multi-layered flat, characteristic of the vagina and represented by several rows of cells of a flattened shape. Both the epithelium and is located on a thin basement membrane consisting of collagen fibers and playing the role of a solid foundation and limiter.

    Electrocoagulation (loop electroscission). Using a voltage loop, the doctor cuts out abnormal areas of the cervix. This method is suitable for getting rid of any degree of dysplasia, but its effectiveness reaches only 90%. The disadvantage is the possible formation of scars on the neck, so the technique does not apply to non-giving women.

    The immediate symptoms of cervical dysplasia may be associated with the formation of genital warts in the vagina. Women who have several partners often have chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, and chronic gonorrhea with dysplasia. Occasionally with dysplasia, extraordinary menstruation occurs, there are failures in the menstrual cycle, pulling back pain, an increase in the number of intermenstrual discharge.

    Check inspection of a neck in one and a half month.

    No less important research in terms of identifying diseases of the cervix uterus is the taking of a smear from the cervix to cytology or oncopathology. Анализ мазка на цитологию проводится в России ежегодно каждой женщине и представляет собой соскоб с шеечной поверхности (а при обнаружении видимых глазом патологических участков с наиболее подозрительного) и из глубины цервикального канала (в некоторых случаях предраковые процессы начинают развиваться в нем, тогда как влагалищная часть шейки не изменена). Забор материала производится ложкой Фолькмана или шпателем с поверхности шейки и щеточкой или ложкой Фолькмана из шеечного канала.This is necessary for scraping the epithelial cells that are needed for cytological analysis, otherwise only cervical mucus with microflora will get into the smear and the analysis will be uninformative. After a cytological smear test, the doctor classifies it by Papanicolaou:

    It is necessary to conduct a gynecological follow-up examination after the next menstrual cycle after treatment.

    Cervical dysplasia 1 degree

    Dynamic observation up to 2 years from the time of diagnosis,

    In medical records (results of analysis or discharge) it is indicated as follows: CIN I (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I). It is placed if only the lower 1/3 of the epithelial layer, adjacent to the basement membrane, underwent pathological changes.

    Viruses belonging to highly oncogenic serotypes are found in 90% of all cases of dysplasia and malignant neoplasms of the cervix. These are the 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68 types.

    • It is because of such a complex structure of the cervix in this area often there are various pathological processes associated with changes in the characteristics of cells.
    • Laser cautery. By treating the affected area with a laser beam, the tissues evaporate, die off and are replaced by healthy ones. The laser works very accurately, is suitable for the treatment of any type of dysplasia, gives a guaranteed absence of scars and a cure in 94% of cases.
    • The process of malignancy of mild dysplasia, that is, its transformation into cancer, can last 14-15 years: about as much as necessary, so that minor changes turn into malignant carcinoma. In this regard, surgical treatment of cervical dysplasia is not always used, and in non-giving women it almost always includes low-impact methods or expectant tactics.In case of pain, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Naiz, ibuprofen) are allowed. In the first 3 to 4 weeks after surgical treatment, vaginal lightening, with or without odor, may increase. When the temperature rises to 38 and above or the appearance of bleeding should immediately seek medical attention.Type 1 - cytological picture is normal,

    Functional or superficial - epithelial cells of this layer die off and exfoliate, being replaced by new ones.

    Cervical dysplasia - causes

    Many women, fearing to hear the diagnosis, postpone a visit to the gynecologist, but this is a false fear. Cervical dysplasia is perfectly treatable if carried out on time and with the right method.

    Include abundant transparent discharge after the freezing procedure, which can disturb a woman for up to 1 month, the need to refrain from sexual intercourse for up to 2 months from the moment of treatment, the inability to adequately control the depth of treatment.

    Analysis of cytology and colposcopy every year

    • The diagnosis is designated as CIN II (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II). It is established when the pathological process spreads to 2/3 of the depth of the epithelium, while the upper 1/3 remains unaffected.
    • High oncogenic risk.
    • The most important of them are:
    • Radio wave moxibustion. This technique brings excellent results in 95% of cases of mild and moderate dysplasia. Moxibustion cauterization is ideal for not giving birth to women, but the cost of the procedure can be quite high.
    • Detection of dysplasia in pregnant women does not occur often. But in the case of diagnosing pathological changes of the cervix uteri, treatment is usually carried out after delivery. Any intervention, be it surgery or cauterization, can cause miscarriage, premature labor.

    How to treat cervical dysplasia?

    The cells of the basal layer are rounded, have a single large round nucleus. As they mature and move into the intermediate and functional layers, the epithelial cells flatten, their nuclei decrease. With cervical dysplasia, structural disorders occur in the cell, they become shapeless and large, have many nuclei, and the division into layers disappears. When such modified cells are found, they speak of atypia.

    Author of the article: Valentina Lapikova, gynecologist, specifically for the site ayzdorov.ru

    Consequences of cervical dysplasia

    Treatment of diseases of the reproductive system (vaginitis, sexually transmitted infections),

    It is denoted as CIN III (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III). It is the most severe form of cervical dysplasia when the structure of all layers of the epithelium is disturbed. This degree is a fine line between dysplasia as such and the initial stage of cancer (“cancer on the spot,” or carcinoma in situ). In neither case is the basement membrane intact. All the difference is only in the function of cells that acquire the ability to divide indefinitely. To determine the severity of the pathological process can histological examination.

    The term "cervical dysplasia"

    If there is a high risk of malignancy of dysplasia, as well as with the recurrence of the disease after minimally invasive treatment, surgery is recommended to the woman. It can be carried out in two versions:

    • Yet serious damage to the cervical epithelium (especially in severe dysplasia) can cause various complications. Modified cervical tissues are not able to maintain elasticity, and therefore are easily damaged in the process of delivery. Also on the background of dysplasia, pregnancy may be complicated by inflammation and various infections. In addition, a strong hormonal "jump" is quite capable of causing a rapid progression of the disease. In this connection, it is sometimes necessary to treat dysplasia even before delivery, but only in extreme cases.
    • Bleeding during or after destruction (associated with vascular damage and eschar rejection if the recommendations are not followed),
    • Type 3 - there are separate epithelial cells with anomalies of the cytoplasm and nucleus,

    Depending on the thickness of the lesion of the epithelium and the spread of atypia on different layers, cervical dysplasia is divided into the following degrees:

    Classification

    Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition in which abnormal cells from the inside cover the cervix, that is, the gap between the uterus and vagina.

    • The basis of this method is the "evaporation" of affected tissues under the action of laser energy.
    • Struggle with bad habits (smoking cessation),
    • What a woman's cervical dysplasia can threaten directly depends on her degree:

    In a healthy body, any damaged cell is immediately destroyed by the immune system and internal anti-tumor mechanisms, which prevent it from entering the division process and reproducing similar defective cells. In addition, the number of divisions of each cell type is strictly limited to the genetic program. This determines the aging process in the body, with all the desire the person can not live forever.

    • - This is the shift of the cylindrical epithelium in the direction of the vagina. The structure, function, characteristics of cell growth are not violated. Due to the difference in conditions in the cervical canal and in the vagina, cylindrical cells are damaged by the acidic environment, the metabolic products of the normal microflora of the female genital tract, trauma during sexual intercourse, forming poorly healing wounds - erosion. During a gynecological examination on the chair, she looks like a patch of juicy red color against a pale pink background.
    • Knife conization. Manipulation includes a cone-shaped excision of the affected part of the cervix in women with severe dysplasia, with the initial stage of carcinoma. A huge disadvantage of such an operation is frequent and heavy bleeding, severe neck trauma, a long rehabilitation period, and a strong narrowing of the cervical canal in the future. Laser and radiosurgical conization are considered more benign techniques.
    • Cervical dysplasia and future pregnancy is a perfectly possible combination: a postponed and cured disease absolutely does not reduce the possibility of getting pregnant and carrying a baby. If the woman is not giving birth, then a sparing treatment of the pathology is carried out with the help of radio waves or a laser that do not cause scar formation on the neck.
    • Development of anomalies of generic forces, due to the deformation of the cervical scars and stenosis of the cervical canal,
    • 4 type - some cells with pronounced symptoms of malignancy (nuclei are large and irregular in shape, cytoplasm abnormality, chromosomal rearrangements),
    • Mild dysplasia - the process has affected only the lower 1/3 of the stratified squamous epithelium,
    • This pathology is closely related to the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is transmitted through sexual contact. Most often, cervical dysplasia is diagnosed in women after the age of 30 years. But, in any case it is possible to detect it at any age.
    • Advantages:
    • Selection of alternative methods of contraception,
    • Dysplasia of the cervix 1 degree in 57% of cases passes on its own after the removal of the virus from the woman's body. In a healthy person, in 9 cases out of 10, the virus stops being detected in blood tests after six months or a year from the moment it enters the body. There is an independent destruction of viral particles by the immune system.
    • When the HPV virus that has a high oncogenic activity enters the body, it is carried by blood to the genitals and embedded in the cells of the flat cervical epithelium. Viral particles produce special proteins that block the "security system" of an epithelial cell, damaging DNA. As a result, atypical cells are formed that do not die off, are not removed by the immune system, they are capable of division and reproduce themselves like “abnormal” specimens. Thus, there is a change in the structure of the cervical epithelium layers, which, when analyzed, is defined as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, or CIN). However, in dysplasia, in contrast to cancer, atypical cells do not have the property of unlimited uncontrolled growth.
    • Cervical Cancer
    • High amputation of the cervix. Knife amputation is an organ-preserving technique in which only the cervix is ​​removed, and its body remains to exist. An operation is prescribed if a woman is at high risk of subsequent degeneration of dysplasia into cancer.
    • Diagnosis of cervical dysplasiaDisplasia of the initial degree is rarely detected during a routine examination in mirrors. If a woman has dysplasia of a moderate, severe stage, when viewed on a chair, changes in the color of the mucous membrane, anomalous luster in the area of ​​the external pharynx of the uterus, visible spots and areas of tissue growth are detected.

    Colposcopy

    Does not leave rough scars, modern equipment allows you to control the depth of penetration of the laser beam, which allows you to completely remove all pathological tissue.

    • Correction of disorders of the endocrine system.
    • Dysplasia of the cervix 2 degrees in 43% of cases also passes on its own after the release of the body from HPV. In 35% of its observed long-term stable course. Thus, in 70% of women, recovery occurs after 2 years from the time of diagnosis.
    • The effect of long-term use of hormonal combined oral contraceptives (COCs) on the occurrence of dysplastic processes in the cervix has been well studied.

    - is the process of changing the structure, functions of epithelial cells, which have acquired the ability to unlimited growth. If the overgrown cells have not gone beyond the basement membrane, then they talk about "cancer on the spot" (CIS carcinoma in situ), it is the initial stage of the development of malignant neoplasms of any internal organs. If a cancer has sprouted into the basement membrane, then from a medical point of view, this is an invasive cancer (this is the cancer in the narrow sense).

    Cytological smear examination

    After surgery, the patient may experience unpleasant sensations. Often there are aching pains in the abdomen, vaginal discharge with an abnormal odor, minor bleeding, and all this can last up to a month. To reduce discomfort, anti-inflammatory, painkillers are prescribed to the woman. The rules that should be followed after cauterization or surgery in the period of 4-5 weeks:

    • The most accurate diagnostic method is a smear with a Pap test, or a smear test for oncocytology. Usually it is offered to hold all women who have visited the doctor, even if nothing bothers them at all. Normally, the result obtained reflects the presence of cells of the upper epithelial layer of a rounded shape, mononuclear, having a large, round nucleus. More mature cells flatten, their nucleus decreases. At dysplasia, atypical cells are revealed - large, non-distinct, multi-core cells. The epithelium of the cervix loses a clear differentiation into layers. Other methods for diagnosing pathology are:
    • Violation of the menstrual cycle (hormonal problems),
    • In dysplasia 1–2 degrees, a smear on cytology is represented by the second and third types of smears, and in severe dysplasia, the smear corresponds to the third and fourth types.
    • Severe dysplasia or dysplasia III - atypical cell changes occur in all layers of multilayered epithelium, but have not yet spread to adjacent tissues (this degree of dysplasia is also called non-invasive, that is, non-invasive cancer).
    • Grade 1 - mild cervical dysplasia. Only the surface layer of the cervix epithelium is affected,

    Uterine cervical biopsy with impending curettage of the cervical canal

    Since antiviral drugs for the treatment of HPV have not yet been created, a great help to the body in the fight against the virus provides proper nutrition and vitamin support. The intake of multivitamin complexes containing vitamins E, B is recommended.

    According to research conducted among various categories of women, the probability of transition 3 degrees of cervical dysplasia in cancer is 10-30%. The reason for this variation in results is the presence of a different number of individual risk factors for different categories of women (by age, methods of contraception, harmful habits, lifestyle, number of sexual partners).

    • In this case, there are 2 separate effects (COC):
    • Dysplasia
    • PENSIONER

    Colposcopy. Due to the strong increase in cervical tissue is much better visualized. In addition, treatment with vinegar and iodine during the extended colposcopy allows you to identify all abnormal areas of the mucous of the cervix and vagina.

    Transition to cervical cancer.

    • A biopsy (tissue sampling from a damaged area of ​​the cervix) is performed under the control of a colposcopy (therefore, the procedure is called an aimed biopsy). Then a histological examination of the material is carried out. Biopsy is the main method of diagnosis of this disease, as it allows to study not only the structure of cells, but also the architectonics of the epithelial layers (their number, interposition, “depth” of atypia). After conducting a biopsy and confirming the diagnosis of dysplasia, patients are required to perform diagnostic curettage of the cervical canal so as not to miss the precancerous process in it.
    • The most important cause of dysplasia is the infection of a woman with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The most dangerous are oncogenic types (16 and 18, as well as 6, 11, 31, 35, 39, 59, 33, 45, 52, 58, 67 types). And the longer the HPV persists in the body, the higher the likelihood of development of atypia of cervical epithelium cells - dysplasia. It is known that more than 95% of cases of identified dysplasia of the cervix are detected by HPV. But infection with HPV will not necessarily lead to the development of the disease, this requires some predisposing factors:
    • 2 degree - moderate. The changes also affect the middle layer of the epithelium,

    Burns can occur in neighboring healthy areas of the cervix, may require short-term anesthesia, since the effectiveness depends on the immobility of the patient.

    Cryodestruction

    Cervical dysplasia does not apply to contraindications for bearing a fetus in women who were first diagnosed during pregnancy. The presence of this pathological process does not affect the development of the unborn child, does not inhibit the function of the placenta. At the same time, pregnancy itself does not in any way affect cervical dysplasia, does not worsen its course and does not contribute to the transition to a more severe form.

    Treatment by radio waves (using the Surgitron apparatus)

    - this is a change in the structure of a stratified squamous epithelium that covers the cervix, while cells with an “abnormal” shape of the nucleus appear in it, multi-core, of irregular shape, anatomical division into layers is lost. However, the altered cells do not have the capacity for unlimited growth and do not penetrate beyond the basement membrane. The cylindrical epithelium in the transition zone on the cervix remains unchanged.

    The content of the article

    • 1 What is this disease and why is it dangerous?
    • 1.1 Features
    • 2.1 The role of papillomavirus
    • 2.2 Risk groups
    • 4.1 Swabs on oncocytology
    • 4.2 Liquid Cytology
    • 4.3 Biopsy
    • 4.4 Соскоб из цервикального канала
    • 4.5 Кольпоскопия
    • 6.1 Консервативное
    • 6.2 Хирургическое

    Это заболевание входит в международную классификацию болезней от 2010 года пересмотра (МКБ-10) под кодом N87. В западноевропейской литературе часто можно встретить термин цервикальная интраэпителиальная неоплазия (по аббревиатуре английского термина — CIN или по русской ЦИН). Сегодня это одна из актуальных гинекологических проблем среди молодых женщин. В 90% случаев дисплазия связана с половыми инфекциями.

    Operative intervention

    More than 99% of cases of cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia can be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus that causes genital warts (Yeo AS et al 2000). HPV or HPV is very common: the risk of a lifetime infection through sexual contact is 80% (Bekkers RL et al 2004). Also, the virus may be present without symptoms.

    • Smear on HPV. As a result of PCR analysis, it is possible to detect the presence of a virus and to make its typing.
    • Unfortunately, no treatment of dysplasia, even surgery, does not give a 100% guarantee of getting rid of the disease. Resumption of dysplasia occurs when treatment is inadequately carried out, for example, the destruction of the pathological focus was carried out, and the previous antiviral therapy is not. Especially often dysplasia recurs with prolonged persistence of HPV in the body. In addition, before performing surgical treatment, it is necessary not only to get rid of HPV, but also from other genital infections, as well as to correct hormonal disorders.
    • Treatment of the disease described is necessarily complex and includes the following points:
    • Parity (multiple births),

    After surgical treatment

    Grade 3 - severe dysplasia or carcinoma

    • R
    • A b
    • In addition, under the action of hormonal changes occurring in a pregnant woman, physiological changes can develop on the cervix, which can be mistaken for cervical dysplasia. We are talking about ektrapion (pseudo-erosion), in which the cells characteristic of the cervical canal are shifted towards the vagina. On examination, this condition is defined as a red beater on the cervix.
    • Straight.

    Modern medicine has not used the term "dysplasia" for a long time; instead, in diagnosis and in the scientific literature the following definition can be found: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, or CIN), which means the formation of new cellular cells of the cervical epithelium that are not typical of this tissue.

    Complications

    The main goal of women with HPV is to prevent cervical dysplasia or cancer from developing (Marshall K 2003, Giuliano AR et al 1998). There are many varieties of HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 35, 39, 59, 33, 45, 52, 58, 67), some of its forms can trigger the risk of developing cancer much higher than others, especially HPV16 , HPV18 (Liu T et al 1993). HPV is usually very difficult to detect, as it is often asymptomatic. Only 1% of women with HPV have visible changes - genital warts (Wright TC et al 2004), this fact confirms the importance of regular examination with the help of the PAP smear.

    • Biopsy with histological examination. The most accurate way to diagnose dysplasia. Conducted with the preliminary detection of pathological areas by colposcopy.
    • Complicated course of both pregnancy and childbirth occurs after cauterization of the neck (DTC), which contributes to cicatricial deformity of the cervix, causing both difficulties with conception due to stenosis of the cervical canal, as well as anomalies in labor (discovery of labor forces, rupture of the cervix). Go
    • Anti-inflammatory therapy,
    • Lack of ascorbic acid, vitamin A and carotene,
    • In situ

    Cervical dysplasia 3 degrees (severe)

    It is denoted as CIN III (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III). It is the most severe form of cervical dysplasia when the structure of all layers of the epithelium is disturbed. This degree is a fine line between dysplasia as such and the initial stage of cancer (“cancer on the spot,” or carcinoma in situ). In neither case is the basement membrane intact. All the difference is only in the function of cells that acquire the ability to divide indefinitely. To determine the severity of the pathological process can histological examination.

    Can dysplasia disappear without treatment?

    The goal of treating cervical dysplasia is to minimize the risk of developing this disease in the cancer stage. The risk of reduction can be reduced by dieting and using special supplements, preventing medical and chemical interventions (Rock CL et al 2000, Pereira DB et al 2004, Maissi E et al 2004). Fortunately, there is hope on the horizon: a change in lifestyle, the use of a PAP smear, and the development of a vaccine against HPV will reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer in developed countries.

    When dysplasia should follow a diet?

    No, and again no. Firstly, there are no ways of traditional medicine to treat this pathology (how could our great-great-grandmothers find out about this disease?). And, secondly, all the so-called “folk” methods of therapy (tampons with sea buckthorn oil, aloe vera juice or douching) will not only have a positive effect, but also accelerate the transition to a more severe degree of dysplasia, since they will provoke the proliferation of atypical cells. The only thing that can help from traditional medicine is taking vitamin and immunostimulating teas, decoctions and infusions, and only under the supervision of a gynecologist and at a certain stage of treatment.

    Symptoms: when you need to sound the alarm

    The patient is less than 23 years old

    • Cervical erosion is a background disease, the essence of which is reduced to the proliferation of the cylindrical epithelium covering the endocervix on the vaginal part of the cervix, and normally it is lined with multi-layered epithelium. That is, one type of epithelium is replaced by another. Dysplasia, roughly speaking, is a precancer and its essence is to change the structure of the cells themselves, which, if not properly treated, quickly turns into cervical cancer.
    • Restoration of vaginal microbiocenosis.
    • Active or passive smoking (“chances” rise 2 times),
    • In our article we will talk about the most favorable form of dysplasia, which is treatable - cervical dysplasia of 1 degree (synonyms: mild dysplasia, mild dysplasia).
    • Advantages of the method are:

    If during a follow-up examination, conducted 2 years after the diagnosis, no tendency of grade 1 dysplasia to decrease is noted or, conversely, there are signs of its transition to grade 2, then it becomes necessary to apply more aggressive treatment methods.

    Further tactics depend on the result. If it is negative, then no further action is taken and control is appointed 12 months after delivery. If the test is positive and a mild degree of dysplasia is detected, then colposcopy and control are performed 12 months after delivery.

    Cervical dysplasia - causes

    Modern specialists consider the human papillomavirus to be the main “triggering” factor of the disease under consideration. Forms of infection with low oncogenic potential provoke a mild degree of pathology. Uterine dysplasia 2 and 3 stages of development often progresses against the background of high-risk papilloma viruses, especially types 16 and 18. The probability of a change in the structure of epithelial cells increases for the following reasons:

    • hormonal disruptions
    • long-term intake of improperly chosen oral contraceptives,
    • nicotine, drug or alcohol use,
    • many sexual partners
    • early onset of sexual activity
    • repeated termination of pregnancies, childbirth,
    • neglect of personal hygiene,
    • monotonous menu with a vitamin deficiency,
    • susceptibility to cancer (genetic),
    • deterioration of immunity.

    Cervical dysplasia - symptoms and signs

    There are no specific manifestations of the described disease, therefore, without planned preventive visits to the gynecologist, it cannot be diagnosed or even suspected the development of pathology. There are situations when cervical dysplasia is implicitly assumed - symptoms arise due to the presence of concomitant diseases:

    • papillomatosis
    • erosion,
    • inflammatory processes on the surface of mucous membranes,
    • genital infections
    • vaginal dysbiosis,
    • candidiasis and other problems.

    In order to timely detect abnormal cells in the squamous epithelium, there is little visual inspection by means of a Cuzco mirror. Adequate diagnosis includes the following measures:

    • cytological analysis of vaginal smear,
    • colposcopy
    • histology of the biopsy (a piece of mucous membrane that has undergone pathological changes),
    • immunological studies
    • target biopsy
    • scraping endocervix,
    • analysis for oncological markers.

    Cervical dysplasia 2 degrees

    If atypically arranged cells occupy more than a third, but less than 2/3 of the mucous membranes, a moderately severe pathology is diagnosed. Moderate cervical dysplasia is additionally manifested by a violation of polarity in the location of the epithelium layers. Detect this can only be in the process of laboratory research. The average form of the disease is mostly asymptomatic, only in rare cases there are benign processes on the mucosa in the form of papillomas or warts.

    Cervical dysplasia - predictions

    In most cases of the considered diagnosis, the disorder is cured spontaneously, especially when the woman is young, normally eats and adheres to a rational lifestyle. Cervical epithelial dysplasia undergoes regression more quickly if more than a third of mucous membranes have not yet spread to the surface. The success of therapy also depends on the stage of progression.

    Cervical dysplasia 3 degrees - prognosis

    A pronounced form of basal cell degeneration with structural disorders of the entire surface of the epithelium is arbitrarily cured only in 35-40% of cases of detection. Cervical dysplasia stage 3 - a serious diagnosis, because it often leads to the development of invasive cancer of the reproductive system. At this stage of progression, the pathology therapy is started without monitoring in order to prevent the complications of the disease, its transition to the oncological sphere. With timely and adequately provided assistance, the likelihood of complete restoration of the epithelial layers is very high.

    Cauterization of cervical dysplasia

    A simplified version of the procedure under consideration is chemical coagulation. It is used to treat cervical dysplasia of the first degree with small patches of modified flat epithelium. Cauterization is carried out by one of the medical devices:

    • Solkovagin,
    • Vagotid,
    • Solkogin and others.
    • The remaining methods for removing atypical cells:
    • diathermocoagulation,
    • cryodestruction,
    • electrocoagulation,
    • vaporization
    • laser cautery.

    The listed technologies are effective and inexpensive, but their use is associated with some disadvantages:

    • long rehabilitation period,
    • the risk of scarring and damage to healthy nearby tissues,
    • aching or nagging pain after procedures,
    • copious, sometimes bloody, vaginal discharge.

    Radiowave treatment of cervical dysplasia

    The impact of a special apparatus (Surgitron) is considered to be a progressive and minimally invasive method of removing the affected epithelium. It emits high-frequency radio waves, providing the most accurate and controlled section. With the help of this device, moderately common cervical dysplasia of the 2 nd degree is eliminated almost painlessly - the treatment involves only one session. Other advantages of the device:

    • low invasiveness
    • no scarring after the procedure
    • short recovery period
    • prevention of postoperative inflammation,
    • accelerated tissue healing.

    Removal of cervical dysplasia

    Classical surgery is prescribed only in the severe stages of the disease. Partial and complete conization is practiced - amputation of the cervix with dysplasia. The procedure of removing only the damaged epithelium with a metal scalpel is performed and can cause unpleasant consequences:

    • scarring,
    • postoperative infection,
    • development of the inflammatory process.

    If the dysplasia is extensive, it provokes invasive cancer, an extirpation is performed - complete excision of the uterus. In this case, the childbearing function is often permanently lost. Chemotherapy may be required before and after surgery. A course of medications helps prepare the tissue for removal and reduces the risk of recurrence of the pathology, prevents the regeneration of epithelial cells.

    What is this disease and why is it dangerous?

    In intraepithelial neoplasia, only the outer layers of tissues undergo changes. With CIN, the cells acquire an atypical structure and are subsequently easily reborn as cancer. Depending on the severity of the changes, CIN1, CIN2 and CIN3 are isolated, which corresponds to mild, moderate and severe dysplasia. After CIN3, changes are classified as in situ cancer - local, not common.

    The new growth is not formed instantly. So that cervical cancer appears, it takes up to 10-15 years from the moment of minimal clinical changes. Therefore, it is so important to catch exactly the period when the pathology is still reversible or the changed tissues can be removed completely. Statistics indicate the following:

    • mild dysplasia - only in 1-3% of cases it becomes malignant, even without treatment in 90% of cases it goes away (if there is no concomitant infection), but in 10% of cases it is transformed into moderate and then into severe,
    • severe dysplasia - in 15-20% of patients ends with cervical cancer.

    Dysplasia does not appear in the "empty" place. In 95% of cases, it is associated with genital infections, especially of a viral nature - herpes, papillomas. Therefore, any treatment of dysplasia begins with testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sanitation of the genital tract. With CIN1, this is often enough for all changes to go away.

    Features

    Intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix has characteristics:

    • develops in women of all ages,
    • often occurs on the background of genital infections,
    • affects only the cervix,
    • begins to form in the transformation zone,
    • in the absence of therapy in 40% of cases it is transformed into cervical cancer,
    • 75% require surgical treatment (excision of areas),
    • after radical treatment, a woman is registered for about two years.

    As appears

    The cause of the development of cervical dysplasia is associated with a viral lesion, the human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a special role. In almost all women with cervical cancer, this pathogen is detected retrospectively. However, not all carriers get sick, so the role of the virus is great, but in addition to HPV, there are other, not yet clarified factors.

    The role of papilloma virus

    With the beginning of an active sex life and up to 30 years, 95% of girls meet with HPV. It is transmitted sexually and even by contact (for example, through personal hygiene items, non-sterile instruments). But the majority of immunity gives a good response, and the pathogen, after spending some time in the cells, eliminates without a trace. In such cases, the woman will never remember that she has had an HPV infection, since she is asymptomatic. In the rest of the cases, the virus enters the cells of the cervix and then is embedded in their genetic material.

    It turns out that for the body the HPV is “invisible,” but the cell functions differently and subsequently the likelihood of its cancer degeneration is high. At the same time, the “smart virus” tunes the cell to reproduce a large number of HPV, which also then affect the rest of the tissue and “hide” from the body’s immunity. The number of HPV copies is growing exponentially. The virus stimulates the formation in the body of a woman of one of the varieties of estrogen, which potentiates the synthesis of new pathogens.

    There are many strains of human papillomavirus. The most dangerous and oncogenic for the genitals are 16, 18, as well as 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 54, 56, 66 and 68. Others cause the following changes:

    • genital warts,
    • plantar papillomas,
    • common warts
    • laryngeal papillomas,
    • changes in the epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes without overgrowths.

    Risk groups

    Undoubtedly, there are mechanisms that have not yet been established. Long-term clinical observations allow us to distinguish women at risk for the development of intraepithelial neoplasia and a high risk of its further malignant transformation.

    • Smokers. The products of cigarette burns and nicotine penetrate the blood of a woman and spread throughout the body, they are found in the cervical secretions. Here they negatively affect the cells of the cervix. In addition, smokers have reduced immunity against HPV.
    • Multipurpose. Women who have had three or more births are also at risk of developing cancer. It is believed that this is due to a decrease in immunity during gestation and activation of the virus at this time.
    • With early experience. The sooner the girl begins to have sex, the more her partners and the likelihood of getting some sexual infections.
    • With an STI. Chlamydia, ureaplasma, trichomonads, mycoplasma, gonococcus, herpes simplex virus help HPV to invade epithelial cells and actively multiply there. In addition, all these pathogens themselves can cause dysplastic changes, most often mild and treatable.
    • Birth early. It is noticed that among girls who gave birth to 16 years, the incidence of cervical cancer is also increased. There is no clear explanation for this.

    The following factors are also important.

    • Heredity. With cervical cancer in close relatives, the likelihood of getting sick increases two to three times. Также повышен риск в тех семьях, где наблюдается общая предрасположенность к раку любой локализации.
    • Контрацепция. Во время такой контрацепции у женщины меняется гормональный фон. Защищенные от беременности девушки более активны в половых контактах. Все это повышает риски озлокачествления.
    • Диэтилстилбестрол. In the middle of the XIX century, this drug was administered to pregnant women with problem bearing. Today, the long-term consequences of such treatment are studied - girls who were born from those mothers are susceptible to the development of a form of cervical cancer - adenocarcinoma.
    • Immunodeficiency. This may be against the background of HIV, hepatitis and diseases of the immune system. In this case, the body can not adequately respond to the introduction of HPV.

    Can you notice the symptoms

    All the cunning of the disease lies in the fact that the symptoms of cervical dysplasia 1 degree, 2 or 3 are practically absent, including ultrasound. A woman can only be bothered by the following:

    • a variety of discharge
    • pathological odor on the linen or from the vagina,
    • spotting after sex.

    Swabs on oncocytology

    On the territory of Russia and the post-Soviet space, the material is taken by a usual cytobrush smear (Eyre's spatula, cotton swab) from the surface of the neck and from the cervical canal. After that, the doctor applies the obtained tissue on a glass slide, which is subsequently sent to the laboratory for research.

    Liquid Cytology

    When this happens, tissue is collected (it can also be a cytobrush) from the surface of the cervix and the cervical canal, all the material is placed in a special environment and then sent to the laboratory. After that, the cytologist takes cells, he can repeat it several times if necessary or if he has doubts. An important advantage of fluid cytology is that immediately (without a second visit) with the detection of pathology, additional research can be conducted, for example, to identify HPV.

    It is carried out in the presence of visible modified areas or a suspicious picture by colposcopy. After taking the material (excision with a normal scalpel, loop, nippers), the tissues are sent for histological examination. After staining and microscopic examination, the doctor may indicate the degree of cervical dysplasia.

    Scraping from the cervical canal

    It can be performed on an outpatient basis. But more often carried out with curettage of the uterus or during hysteroscopy. The advantages of scraping are that after the cervical canal has expanded, you can freely get the material from the entire depth of the neck, and not just its surface. Therefore, the method is preferable for women after 45 years, when the transformation zone moves into depth.

    Tactics of conducting women with this pathology

    If dysplasia is detected or suspected of dysplasia, the algorithm of actions of the doctor and the woman is as follows:

    • complete STI screening - identifying any infection with the tests helps speed recovery and minimize traumatic interventions,
    • if 1 degree of cervical dysplasia is detected - can be limited to non-surgical treatment and observation,
    • if cervical dysplasia is detected 2 degrees- at the age of a woman under 35, you can start with medical treatment, after - a detailed examination, and only then treatment,
    • if cervical dysplasia of grade 3 is detected - examination and subsequent therapy is performed.

    A comprehensive examination for dysplasia includes repeated smears for cytology (if liquid cytology was present — not necessary), separate diagnostic curettage of the uterus and cervical canal (RDV), and biopsy of the cervix from suspicious sites based on colposcopy results. When re-identifying dysplasia instead of RDV is better to perform hysteroscopy.

    When CIN2 is detected, the task of the doctor is to ensure that there are no marked changes and cancer. Treatment of mild and moderate cervical dysplasia may be limited to conservative means. With CIN3, one of the hearth removal operations is performed. After the treatment, the woman has been registered for two more years. At this time, it is necessary to visit the doctor more often and take control smears for cytology (or its liquid version). With CIN1, inspections every six months; with CIN 2 and 3, the first year every three months, then another year every six months. It is necessary to control the recurrence or progression of the pathology.

    Treatment options

    Whether dysplasia of the cervix is ​​dangerous is determined based on the results of the examination. With relapse or in women after 35–40 years old, operational methods are preferred, especially with CIN 2 and 3. Treatment is always carried out according to an individual plan. After completing the course, smears are monitored, and if necessary, a cervical canal or RDV is scraped.

    Conservative

    The first is a thorough reorganization of the genital tract, especially in the detection of STIs. Used as local therapy (suppositories, baths, douching, vaginal tablets), and systemic treatment (taking the drug inside). The following groups of drugs are prescribed.

    • Antibiotics. Most often it is the penicillin group ("Ampicillin", "Amoxicillin"), macrolides ("Azithromycin", "Erythromycin", "Josamycin", "Clarithrmicin"), tetracyclines ("Doxycycline"). Ideally, the appointment of antibiotics, taking into account PCR examinations or seeding vaginal and cervical contents.
    • Antiviral drugs. It is used in cases of suspected viral damage as a result of smears on cytology, biopsy or scraping from the cervical canal. “Acyclovir” is used for herpes infections, as well as drugs from the group of interferons or stimulants of their production (“Genferon”, “Ruferon”, “Cycloferon”).
    • Immunomodulators. Used as an adjunct to antibacterial and especially antiviral treatment. Effective drugs such as Likopid, Groprinosin.
    • Antiseptic drugs. Most often it is a candle with iodine "Povidone iodine", "Ruvidon", as well as "Hexicon".
    • Estrogen drugs. They are used only when small foci of dysplasia in menopause occur against the background of atrophic processes.

    Pregnancy and childbirth with cervical dysplasia

    Dysplasia is not an obstacle for conception. And sometimes pathological changes in the cervix are found during pregnancy. A special hormonal background contributes to the progression of the disease, therefore during this period it is important to carefully and regularly undergo examination in order to establish the progression in time and carry out treatment. Surgical methods for carrying are not used, as this can lead to a loss of pregnancy. That, whether it is possible and whether it is necessary to use medical means after it has turned out to become pregnant, the attending physician decides.

    Births with established dysplasia are carried out mainly by cesarean section, in order to avoid negative consequences primarily for the woman (for example, bleeding, rupture) and for the baby (infection with HPV or HSV in chronic infections).

    Is it possible to avoid the disease

    Prevention of dysplasia includes the following:

    • exclusion of the early onset of intimate relationships and childbirth,
    • perfect - one sex partner for life
    • with random sex protection with a condom,
    • timely visits to the gynecologist and treatment of diseases,
    • smoking cessation, including passive smoking.

    Cervical dysplasia is a serious disease, an intermediate version of the pathology between inflammation of the cervix and cancer. Careful attitude to one’s health, timely and regular examination by a gynecologist, sexual literacy is the guarantee of a woman’s health. Treatment of cervical dysplasia is formed on the basis of many factors (age, stage, comorbidity), can be conservative and operational.

    Reviews: “For me, the PDT method with organ preservation turned out to be salvation”

    I had grade 2 dysplasia and HPV 16/18 3 years ago. passed three courses of treatment, the first immunostimulating + indinol1.5 months, then two more courses of indinol for 1.5 months. Then everything is clean, watched throughout the year. A little daughter is growing up now, cytology has passed again, waiting for the result ...

    Olga, http://www.woman.ru/health/woman-health/thread/4007257/

    I had a chronic erosion. But to begin to treat it when mastopathy was discovered. One of the causes of mastitis are problems in gynecology. After passing the tests revealed dysplasia of 1 degree. Removed by wave therapy, after it immediately passed tests for histology, then dysplasia 2 degrees on the background of cercevitis. Another wave therapy (already the 2nd). Then pierced ferrovir, candles Genferon. Again dysplasia 2-3 degrees. Again wave therapy. She was registered with an oncologist. It took about 1.6 years. Today I went to the oncologist for the test results - and ... there is no erosion, no dysplasia, they removed from the register in oncology, observation at the place of residence.

    Nata, http://www.sikirina.tsi.ru/forum/ginekologicheskie-zabolevaniya/displaziya-sheyki-matki-lechenie1.html

    There was 2-3 degree dysplasia on the background of HPV 16. Diagnosis: cervical dysplasia of 2-3 degree, HPV 16. Gynecologist's recommendations: conization. Alternative treatment options: Photodynamic therapy. Outcome: treatment of PDT, cytology - the norm, HPV - the norm. Operational treatment methods, namely, cervical conization, did not suit me, since the plans are to have another child, so for me the PDT method with organ preservation turned out to be salvation.

    cmirnovaalla7, http://forum.ykt.ru/viewmsg.jsp?id=17649226

    Surgical treatment of dysplasia

    When cancer is detected, the further management tactics of the patient is agreed with the oncologist and depends on the specific situation.

    • Causes of cervical dysplasia can be the wrong way of life and bad habits (especially smoking), since reduced immunity and hypoxia increase the likelihood of cervical epithelial microtraumas.
    • A large number of sexual partners

    how to treat mild cervical dysplasia

    Otherwise, the affected area is removed by surgery or cauterization, and rehabilitation therapy is prescribed. In parallel, with a moderate degree of dysplasia and above, as well as with recurrent pathology, conservative drugs are prescribed:

    One of the risk factors for the development of the disease described is poor nutrition and lack of certain vitamins (group B, folic acid, vitamin E and C). The diet should be dominated by green vegetables rich in folic acid and B vitamins (lettuce, dill and parsley, broccoli, soy, cabbage, green peas, beans), ascorbic acid (citrus fruits, Bulgarian pepper, currants, sea buckthorn, etc.), vegetable oils (lots of vitamin E).
    Cervical cancer in the first stage,
    First pregnancy and childbirth in girls under 18,
    The beginning of sexual life up to 18 years,
    Short rehabilitation period,
    Freezing (cryodestruction),
    Since dysplasia can turn into cancer under a number of conditions, the most important in preventing complications is its early diagnosis. All women older than 21 years who have sexually active should visit the gynecologist once a year for an examination and 1 time in 3 years to undergo cytological examination.
    Other reasons, such as early sex life, a large number of sexual partners, low social level - all of them are directly related to the frequent infection of this category of women with various types of HPV.
    Bad habits (smoking).

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