Where does blood flow during menstruation: physiology of the process


In a school biology course, the activity of the female reproductive system is considered superficially and does not give a detailed answer to the question: where do menstruation come from, why is the process accompanied by blood excretion, is it not dangerous for your health to bleed?

In a school biology course, the activity of the female reproductive system is considered superficially and does not give a detailed answer to the question: where do menstruation come from, why is the process accompanied by blood excretion, is it not dangerous for your health to bleed?

What causes menstruation?

Menstruation - is the external manifestation of the menstrual cycle in women, physiologically ready to conceive a child. The rhythm of changes in the body is set by hormones - special substances produced by the pituitary gland of the brain and transmitting its commands to organs and systems.

In the initial phase of the cycle, hormones stimulate the maturation and release of the egg, preparing the uterine lining for pregnancy.

In the second phase, favorable conditions are formed for the introduction of a fertilized egg into the uterine lining.

The first day of the cycle is counted from the day the bleeding from the vagina begins. In most cases, the cycle lasts 1 lunar month - an average of 27, 5 days. The norm is the deviation of 5 days up or down. Evidence that women are all well in the hormonal sex field is the regularity of the cycle, why menstruations are also called regulami.

With the first menstrual bleeding - menarche - she faces 12-16 years old (in rare cases 7-8 and 17-18 years old), but debugging the regularity of the process takes time - for someone she can take 1 year and reach 2 3 years after the first menstrual period. The menstrual cycle with overweight starts earlier on average for six months than with normal or insufficient weight.

Where does the flowing blood start from?

Before you understand where the blood comes from during menstruation, you need to understand the phenomena that occur during one menstrual cycle. Do not forget that the only goal pursued by the ongoing cyclical changes in the female body - the continuation of the species. Moreover, in order for a long-awaited or unexpected pregnancy to occur, several conditions must be met: the maturation of the egg in the ovary, its fertilization with a sperm cell and the successful attachment of the resulting fetal egg to the wall of the uterus.

If at least one of the conditions is not fulfilled, then the unclaimed mucous membrane of the uterus begins to exfoliate, reject. In other words, if a woman goes for periods, it means that the birth of a new life in her body did not happen.

The uterine membrane, torn out with liquid secretions, looks like blood-stained pieces and clots of mucus. In addition to blood and mucous membranes, transparent mucous exudate, formed to clean and heal the inner surface of the uterus, as well as vaginal and cervical secretions, go out through the vagina. Blood is actually in the menstrual flow contains no more than 30%. So where does it come from?

In places of rejection of the mucous membrane, blood vessels break off, from which the blood, mixing up during movement along the genital tract, with other components of the secretions, comes out. Worrying about excessive blood loss is not worth it - if there are no pathologies in the hematopoietic system or other serious health problems, the dangling vessels quickly thrombose and healing takes place. After the end of the monthly cycle is repeated again, and so month after month, before the onset of pregnancy.

What are the threats of menstruation, and how much blood is being lost?

Regulators themselves can go from 2 to 7 days, considering the beginning of the so-called "daub" - scanty blood discharge. Normal discharge has a red-brown color with a neutral, not putrid odor.

Directly blood is lost from 15 to 75 ml, which is negligible for any serious threat to health.

Signs of diseases are:

  1. Unpleasant smell.
  2. Increased body temperature.
  3. Too plentiful, or, on the contrary, scanty discharge.
  4. The discrepancy in the duration of monthly norm.

You should also be wary if you have severe pain in the lower abdomen during critical days. The reasons due to which the discharge may be abundant, painful, prolonged, irregular, or absent altogether:

  • excessive use of coffee, alcohol, spicy foods, unbalanced nutrition,
  • stress - strong physical and emotional stress,
  • cycle formation in young girls,
  • intimacy
  • menopause
  • use of drugs that lower blood clotting (for example, aspirin),
  • dysfunction of the body, various diseases,
  • hereditary factors.

During menstruation, the level of "hormones of joy" - endorphins, decreases, and, as a result, a woman has an unstable mood, which is popularly called PMS (premenstrual syndrome). This is only the smallest and most harmless bit of "surprises". During critical days, the cervix opens - the entrance gate to the uterus, but it itself is a wound surface, more susceptible to the negative effects of aggressive microorganisms.

These days, hygiene of the genital organs, in particular, timely washing with warm water without soap, is of particular importance. Beware of a hot bath - there is a risk of increased bleeding, which can lead to unpleasant consequences.

Hence, the undesirability of sexual contacts: firstly, when agitating, the bleeding may increase, and secondly, if both sexual partners fail to observe good hygiene, the infection may develop in a woman. There is one more "but" unprotected sex on critical days - there is no 100% guarantee that the possibility of conception and the occurrence of pregnancy is excluded. But there are no absolute contraindications for intimate relationships with regula, gynecologists only strongly recommend using a condom without becoming supporters of violent sex.

So, monthly come from the main reproductive organ of the woman - the uterus, representing a mixture of blood, pieces of the mucous membrane, various secrets and wound exudate, the so-called. nuggets. The blood flows from the vessels injured in places of endometrium detachment (uterine lining). Listen to the voice of the body and take care of yourself!

A little bit about female physiology

Many girls ask where their blood comes from during their periods. It requires knowing what menstruation is and why it is going.

Critical days are part of the reproductive function of women. Without them, it is impossible to fully conceive and gestation of the fetus, since they perform cleansing and preparing functions.

Menstrual regula in girls is a process that occurs in the reproductive age, and what happens in the body is entirely individual.

In girls, the menstrual cycle can begin at 11–16 years old (it is at this time that a favorable layer is created on the upper endometrium and mucous membrane for the development of the embryo in the case of conception), which depends on various factors. These include:

  • territory of residence,
  • heredity,
  • ecological situation,
  • physiological features.

By some signs, the girl may understand that her period will begin soon. Read more about this in a separate article on our website.

Most girls know that they have to go critical days, but few people guess what it is and where the blood flows from. When menstruation begins, the upper layer of the endometrium, which grows every month on the walls of the reproductive organ, begins to exfoliate, so that during fertilization it can be given the embryo with everything necessary for full development. As a result of this rejection, bloody discharge appears.

After the egg matures, ovulation occurs - at this time, the female cell is picked up by a long fringe of the fallopian tube and sucked inwards. There she stays until she meets with the sperm and only after fertilization goes to the side of the uterus, usually finding herself in her cavity on the 7th day.

If conception did not occur, the egg cell leaves the ampullary section and undergoes splitting by its own enzymes right in the tube or falls into the abdominal cavity, where its death occurs.

In the discharge that a woman sees when menstruation occurs, there is blood and a functional layer of the endometrium - they constantly go out of the vagina during menstruation.

As a rule, critical days last 5–7 days. The cycle between the monthly bleeding from the genitals is 28 days, however, due to the nature of the organism, the menstruation period can last 21–35 days.

The menstrual cycle for each girl is unique to each girl, so we recommend reading in more detail about how long the periods last.

Given the above information, it becomes clear where the monthly come from. Blood at the onset of critical days out of the vagina (namely, from the uterus), if there was no conception.

What are monthly

Blood, during menstruation, creates bleeding, and is considered the beginning of the onset of critical days. During menstruation, the blood is slightly darker than normal.

At the beginning of menstruation, blood flows from the vagina abundantly - it happens in the first 2 days. After this, the menstrual flow slows down, since most of the endometrium leaves the uterus in the first 2 days.

The onset of menstruation in girls is easily confused with pathological bleeding, since the blood during the critical days is dark and emerges from the vagina in portions.

Menstruation symptoms

Where the blood comes from, we figured it out. Many girls are interested in how to learn about the upcoming onset of critical days, because the symptoms of this condition in women of the weaker sex are individual and diverse. Few people can boast of a complete lack of signs of premenstrual syndrome.

Typically, menstruation occurs with symptoms such as:

  • sharp and causeless irritability,
  • pain in the lower abdomen, which sometimes give in the back,
  • mood swings
  • frequent crying for any reason
  • discomfort in the mammary glands,
  • breast swelling,
  • drowsiness,
  • swelling that appears on the legs and face.

When bleeding occurs, signs of the onset of critical days usually disappear.

What should a girl know about menstruation

Every girl needs to know why menstruation goes on every month and where the bleeding comes from. This means that her body is ready to conceive a child, so she must be extremely careful when entering into sexual intercourse.

On average, during menstruation, 2–4 large spoons of secretions (35 ml) are extracted, which are taken from the walls of the uterus. Also, 1–6 spoons is considered the norm - it depends on the characteristics of the organism.

The arrival of the first menstrual period usually occurs in 12–13 years, although the framework may be shifted depending on the individual characteristics.

Typically, such secretions are slightly darker than normal blood, so if the menstruation is light, this is more likely to indicate bleeding that is not associated with critical days.

In the last days of menstruation, the blood becomes even darker - brown. This means the absence of oxygen in it and is considered normal.

As soon as the monthly discharge begins, pads or tampons should be used that will absorb them, thereby ensuring proper hygiene.

At first, an irregular cycle can be observed, but after 3-5 months after the start of critical days it should return to normal. Otherwise, you will need to visit a gynecologist to find out about possible health problems.

Where does the blood come from?

The perpetrators of bleeding are exfoliated parts of the mucous membrane in the female uterus. In medical circles, it is called endometrium.

Like many tissues of the human body, the endometrium grows and thickens. The speed and quality of the process is influenced by sex hormones, more precisely, the concentration of estrogen and progesterone.

With the increase of these hormones, the growth of the endometrium and the number of blood vessels in it occur. The decrease in the concentration of hormones leads to its destruction and the formation of many small fragments. All parts are mixed with blood from damaged vessels and enter the vagina. From there they go outside. So formed monthly.

Menstruation is a normal process, the main indicators of which is their regularity and predictability.

What is monthly?

The main task of menstruation is to prepare the body of a woman for a potential pregnancy.

Previously, in many religions it was believed that menstruation is the output of various impurities. However, this is a mistaken opinion due to the lack of knowledge of the structure of the female body. Today, such statements refer to discrimination against women. The female body is as clean from the inside as the male body. The area of ​​the uterus, where the blood comes from, can be considered completely sterile.

To understand the need for periodicity of menstruation, it is necessary to understand the processes before its beginning and after the end.

After the completion of the next menstruation, the following changes occur in the woman’s body:

• In the hypothalamus - a part of the brain, the production of GnRH begins.

• Gonadoliberin enters the pituitary gland and induces it to produce another type of hormone - follicle-stimulating. He gets into the blood.

• In the ovaries, the follicle begins to develop with an egg cell, which can be fertilized by a male sperm cell during intercourse. Additionally, the ovaries begin to produce estrogen.

• Estrogen is needed to accelerate the healing of the uterine mucosa after previous menstruation. It also has other biological effects: it helps calcium to be absorbed in bones, participates in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.

• After a couple of weeks, the pituitary gland switches to the production of another hormone - luteinizing. Estrogen levels are also reduced.

• Under the influence of the Latinizing hormone, the follicle bursts and the egg cell appears on the outer surface of the ovary. Then it enters the fallopian tube, where it awaits fertilization. The described process is called ovulation.

• But not only the follicle bursts. The hormone causes the tissue to turn into a yellow body. It releases estrogen and progesterone. The mucous membrane is still thickened and changes in the structure, so that it would be possible to bear the child.

• The next stage depends on the fact of pregnancy.

If it does not take place, then in 2 weeks the yellow body disappears. Progesterone and estrogen is reduced, and the mucous membrane is destroyed. Monthly begin and again everything repeats.

If the egg is fertilized, then the corpus luteum stimulates the ovaries to produce more hormones that protect the uterine lining. A woman observes a delayed menstruation.

As you can see, a complex process is necessary to ensure the possibility of getting pregnant: an egg is grown and a place for the safe development of a fertilized egg is prepared.

The cycle lasts about a month, and then everything is removed and a new preparation begins.

Menstruation is the result of rejection of the mucous membrane, which is not needed for pregnancy.

Many diseases affect the sequence of processes or even violate it. Changes in the nature of menstruation may indicate disharmony in the preparatory process for childbirth.

What happens in the body?

In the last days of the menstrual cycle (before the onset of menstruation), the endometrium is characterized by increased elasticity, as it prepares to receive a fertilized egg in the uterus.

If pregnancy does not occur, hormonal changes in the woman’s body, which leads to deterioration of the blood supply to the upper layer of the uterine mucosa, it stratifies and gradually rejected. With it comes out of the vagina and blood accumulated due to rupture of small blood vessels - menstruation occurs.

From the second day of menstruation simultaneously with the rejection of the upper layer, the endometrium begins to recover, it is updated. This process ends on the 5-7 day of the cycle. Next, the mucous layer begins to thicken and again prepares for the possible conception of a child.

At the same time, in the first half of the menstrual cycle, an egg cell matures in the ovaries. Around the middle of the cycle, a woman begins to ovulate: a ripe egg leaves the ovary and enters the fallopian tube. If conception occurs at this time, pregnancy begins, if not, the endometrium of the uterus is rejected again and the whole process begins again.

What are the selections?

Menstruation consists of blood, particles of mucous membrane and vaginal secretions and have a specific smell. Normally, their color can vary from red to dark brown, sometimes with clots. The volume of blood loss during menstruation, on average, for the entire period is about 250 ml (about a glass), and from 20 to 50 ml per day.

During life, the amount of discharge may vary. Так, например, у молодых девушек месячные могут быть более обильными, чем у взрослых женщин. Однако резкое изменение их цвета, объема или длительности должно насторожить в любом возрасте.

If the vaginal bleeding is very abundant, prolonged (more than 7 days), there are a large number of clots in the discharge, or, on the contrary, they suddenly become very scarce, and also if the blood during the whole menstruation is only scarlet, this is a serious reason for an unscheduled visit to gynecologist.

How long do they last?

The menstrual cycle is a period that is considered from the first day of the month to the first day of the next. On average, for girls and women it is 28 days. However, for some the number of days of the cycle may differ: a variant of the norm is considered if it lasts from 21 to 35 days.

As you might guess from the name, the monthly only go once a month. But if the menstrual cycle is short, they may come 2 times, and if it is very long (35 days), menstruation may not occur every month.

Periodic menstrual bleeding lasts from 3 to 7 days.

The absence of menstruation in women of childbearing age can speak of:

  • serious illness
  • hormonal changes,
  • but most often - about the onset of pregnancy.

If the monthly stopped suddenly - should urgently go to the gynecologist to find out the reason.

At the age of about 55 years, menopause occurs - the last menstruation, after which the periodic bleeding in a woman stops. Menopause can occur at any age from 40 to 60 years.

At what age do menstruation occur in adolescents?

When should the first menses appear? The exact age can not be called, it depends on the individual characteristics of the organism. Usually, the first menstruation begins at the age of 11 to 14 years, however there are cases when it occurs very early - at 8, or, on the contrary, late - at 16 years.

More often than not, the girl has her first baby periods at about the same time as her mother. However, too early or late arrival of menstruation in adolescents often speaks of hormonal disorders, therefore in this case it is highly desirable for a young girl to visit a gynecologist.

What not to do during menstruation?

Menstruation is not a disease. On the contrary, it is a sign that the girl is in good health, and she can give birth and bear a child if she wishes. However, this does not mean that at this time you do not need to take care of your health.

During the period of menstruation it is very important to observe a number of restrictions in order not to harm your body and not to increase the bleeding.

Experiencing physical exertion

On critical days, it is highly desirable to limit physical exertion, and this applies to even the most notorious sports fans. Do not lift weights, run, do heavy physical work.

Why? Because all these actions increase blood flow to the pelvic organs and exacerbate bleeding from the vagina. Because of this, the hemoglobin level can drop significantly, a feeling of weakness, drowsiness, and fatigue will appear.

By the way, this is why in many schools it is allowed not to go to a physical education class when girls go through periods.

Lead a sex life

Lovers should suffer a few days to protect the body from pathogenic organisms. During menstruation, the mucosa of the uterus and vagina becomes very vulnerable, and the risk of catching the infection increases several times.

In addition, sex - it is also exercise, which are contraindicated in this period. Yes, and pleasure may not be, because the woman will be hard to relax because of the discharge and a special smell.

Take a hot bath, go to the bath, swim in the open pond

During menstruation, girls need to take better care of themselves, regularly wash with warm water to avoid the appearance of an unpleasant smell. You should not take a hot bath and even more so to visit the bath. There are cases when, after such visits, women began to bleed so heavily that they stopped with difficulty.

Also, during the period of menstrual bleeding, you should not bathe in the pools and especially in open reservoirs, as the risk of penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the vagina and uterus increases. Unfortunately, the use of tampons will not help provide the necessary protection.

Plan operations

Doctors warn that during the period of menstruation it is impossible to plan operations, even such seemingly insignificant ones as, for example, extraction of teeth, since these days coagulation of blood is deteriorating in women.

Ignoring this prohibition can lead to complications: large-scale, difficult to stop bleeding and large blood loss.

Follow a strict diet

In the days of menstruation you should not adhere to strict food restrictions, and even more so to starve or sit on liquid and mono diets. The girl should eat fully so that the body is not depleted due to the simultaneous loss of blood and malnutrition.

The result of the diet during menstruation can be a serious deterioration of health and fainting.

If a girl will take care of herself, eat right and not overwork, then critical days will pass with her without any negative consequences.

Why does blood flow during menstruation and how much does it flow out?

The process, when blood flows out of the vagina every month, is familiar to every woman of reproductive age. Most of the girls in their teens are beginning to be interested in seemingly elementary questions:

  • Are these days dangerous for health?
  • why blood comes during menstruation,
  • where the blood comes from
  • how much blood flows each cycle.

Female physiology: why are monthly

Any woman should know how her reproductive organs function, what “there” is going on in order to notice any abnormalities in time and consult a gynecologist.

The proper functioning of the organs of the reproductive system is the key to women's health. Any deviation from the norm can later pull a variety of diseases.

Moms should tell this to their daughters in their teens, when the girl begins her first periods.

Girls need to understand:

  • how to distinguish the norm from pathology,
  • why blood is released during menstruation,
  • what amount of blood is released during menstruation,
  • what may indicate a change in the volume of discharge.

In order to understand why menstruation occurs every month, it is necessary to go deeper into the physiology.

When a girl is born, there are already eggs in her ovaries. But for some time they remain "in a fixed" (immature) state. At the time when puberty begins, the eggs gradually begin to live. The characteristic signs of puberty is the appearance of menstruation.

For the first time, adolescent girls are bleeding at the age of 10-12 years. This period is considered pubertal. But a certain age can not be called.

It depends on many factors:

  • body structure and development,
  • climatic conditions
  • psycho-emotional state
  • power mode
  • body mass.

For example, in girls who live in the countries of the northern direction these processes are slow, so the first periods appear at a later age. And female representatives living in the southern hemisphere, on the contrary, already at an early age know what critical days are.

Why is blood coming: where does it come from

An egg cell grows in each cycle in one of the ovaries in its follicle. When it matures, the follicle ruptures and the egg cell leaves its “shelter”, heading for the fallopian tube.

At the same time, the body is actively preparing to accept the fetus, which may appear as a result of the meeting of the egg with the sperm. This preparation is due to the growth of the endometrial ball on the walls of the uterus, where a fertilized egg will eventually be attached.

But why is blood coming out? And what does this mean? Blood in the period of monthly flows from the vagina. In fact, these are pieces of rejected endometrium with blood.

When the endometriotic tissue detaches from the wall of the uterus, a small wound forms in this place, from which blood is drawn. Therefore, the discharge signal only that the endometrium particles leave the female body. From this process during menstruation, a woman can feel pain.

Such processes occur every cycle before the arrival of menopause, which signals the completion of the fertility function in a woman’s life.

There are isolated cases when menstruation goes all life, but so far gynecology cannot explain it.

How much blood flows during menstruation?

Sometimes red color suggests such thoughts that a lot of blood flows out. But this is not at all the case: everything is within the normal range. Of course, if everything is within the normal range.

The amount of blood is individual. Normal volume is about 50 ml - two tablespoons of blood. The maximum is 150 ml. It may seem that it is much more, but this is only an appearance, because the main component of the monthly discharge is mucus and rejected layers of the endometrium.

Menstrual flow is formed from such particles:

  • residues of an unfertilized egg (the smallest part),
  • endometrial layer,
  • blood from damaged vessels of the endometrial walls,
  • mucous membranes.

If blood loss is within the normal range, then the body is completely normal and copes with it without any consequences.

As a rule, the beginning and end of menstruation passes quietly and the losses are minor. In the middle of "these days," the most blood is lost. That is why their color can be brighter than in the first and final days.

Monthly are:

How to understand what discharge you have and determine the volume of blood? If it is very interesting for you to find out for yourself how much blood comes during your period just from you, you can use hygiene products.

The amount of discharge for monthly:

  • Very scarce: 2 droplets barely noticeable on a pad — these are about 6 g,
  • Scanty: it’s enough to change the gasket 2 times a day (up to 9 g),
  • Less than the norm, when the funds are to be replaced 4 times a day (from 9 to 12 g),
  • Normal, when hygienic means of medium absorption should be changed every 4 hours (up to 15 g),
  • Abundant menstruation, when hygienic means of the highest absorbency change every 4 hours (up to 18 g),
  • Very plentiful, when means of super high absorbency change every 1-2 hours. In such a situation, urgent medical care is needed.

What do they say copious and scanty discharge?

For some representatives of the fair sex, discharge within 50 g is the norm, and when menstruation goes more abundant, this is alarming. And vice versa.

And these opinions are correct, because the organism is individual and for everyone there is its own norm. Any deviation from the norm causes anxiety.

Let's see why a woman can lose too much blood, what causes can be a catalyst.

Abundant periods can be caused by such factors:

  • increased estrogen levels
  • there is an intrauterine device,
  • damaged vessels
  • excessive exercise or weight lifting,
  • stress, depression, nervous exhaustion,
  • miscarriage at an early date,
  • endometriosis,
  • problems with blood clotting (this process may be associated with heredity),
  • tumor processes in the uterus.

Not less disturbing bell should be a scanty discharge that was not typical earlier during menstruation.

Why there is little blood or daub appears:

  • in adolescence, hormone levels may not return to normal, so a scanty discharge in the first year of menstruation is the norm,
  • low estrogen levels
  • genital diseases of congenital nature,
  • taking oral contraceptives
  • beginning menopause,
  • exhaustion of the body as a whole, strict diets, starvation.

Every woman needs to know how much blood should be allocated during menstruation in order to monitor the state of her reproductive system. For such purposes, you can use the calendar, where to mark the beginning and end of the discharge, as well as the volume of fluid lost.

Such marks will help to quickly identify deviations from the norm, accurately and correctly give all the information to the gynecologist and establish the cause.

Today, there are menstrual cups that will easily help determine the amount of fluid lost. They are used instead of sanitary pads during menstruation.

Well, and figured out why during the monthly blood is flowing and how much of it is lost in the critical days. Study your body and take care of your health!

What is menstruation?

Monthly - this is the period of the menstrual cycle, during which the girl has a discharge of blood from the vagina. Blood released during menstruation, thick and dark in appearance, may contain clots or clots. This is due to the fact that during menstruation, not only blood is released from the uterus, but also parts of the inner layer of the uterus, which is called the endometrium.

How old should menstruation begin?

For most girls, the first menstruation occurs between the ages of 12 and 15 years. Often (but not always) the first periods of the girl come at the same age as her mother.

Therefore, if your mom has the first menstrual periods that came late (at the age of 15-16), then it is very likely that they will come to you at this age.

However, the first periods may come several years earlier or later than those of your mother. This is normal.

Some studies show that the arrival of the first menses in girls occurs when a certain weight is reached, which is about 47 kg. Thus, in thin girls, on average menstruation occurs later than in plump ones.

In normal menstruation can begin in girls aged 9 to 15-16 years. If your period began before 9 years old, or you are already 15-16 years old, and there are still no periods - you should consult a gynecologist.

It is not necessary that you are ill with something, but to make sure that everything is going well, it is not superfluous.

On our site there is a separate article devoted to this topic: Why do not begin monthly?

What are the first symptoms of menstruation?

A few months before the start of your first period, you may feel a nagging pain in the lower abdomen, as well as notice a white or transparent vaginal discharge.

If you notice on the panties, even a small amount of brown discharge - this is your first menstruation. Often the first menstruation is very scarce - only a few drops of blood.

What is the monthly cycle and how long does it last?

The monthly or menstrual cycle is the length of time from the first day of one menstruation to the first day of the next menstruation.

Different girls cycle duration may be different. Normally, the length of the menstrual cycle should be from 21 to 35 days. For most girls, the menstrual cycle lasts 28-30 days. This means that the monthly come every 28-30 days.

What is a regular menstrual cycle?

The regularity of the menstrual cycle means that menstruation occurs every time after a certain number of days. The regularity of the menstrual cycle is an important indicator that your ovaries are working properly.

The first time after the start of menstruation, they may be irregular: come with delays, or appear several times a month.

This is normal, and soon your menstrual cycle will be adjusted independently. Usually, a year after the appearance of the first menstrual period, the menstrual cycle becomes regular.

On our site there is an article dedicated to this topic: The irregular cycle in adolescents: causes and treatment.

How much blood should be released during menstruation?

It may seem to you that during your period you have a lot of blood, but this is not so. Usually, within 3-5 days of menstruation, the girl loses no more than 80 ml of blood (this is about 4 tablespoons).

To understand how much blood you have allocated, you can trace your pads. Gaskets are significantly different in the amount of blood they can absorb.

On average, a gasket of 4-5 drops can absorb up to 20-25 ml of blood (while it looks uniformly filled with blood).

If you have to change the pads every 2-3 hours during one day of your period, it means that you have heavy menstruation and you should consult with a gynecologist.

Gaskets or tampons?

Most girls prefer to use during the monthly pads. On our website there is a separate article on which gaskets are better to choose, how to use them correctly and how often they need to be changed: Gaskets and dailies: rules of use.

If you're going to go to the pool, you can use a tampon for a while. To learn how to do this, you can read here: How to use tampons?

There is also a third option that has not yet become widespread - these are menstrual cups (caps). It is a reusable product that provides reliable protection against leakage and unpleasant odor during menstruation. On our site there is a separate article devoted to this topic: Menstrual cup (cap): instruction.

Monthly - does it hurt?

A few days before the onset of menstruation and in the first days of menstruation you can feel a aching or cramping pain in the lower abdomen. This is normal. If the pain in the abdomen is severe, you can take a painkiller (No-shpu, Ibuprofen, Analgin, etc.) or use other tips described in the article If the stomach hurts during menstruation.

For frequent severe abdominal pain during menstruation, it is recommended to consult a gynecologist. You may need to undergo treatment.

Is it possible to take a bath and go to the pool during menstruation?

Can. Теплая ванна во время менструации может уменьшить боли в животе и улучшить твое самочувствие.

При плавании в бассейне вода не может попасть в твое влагалище ни во время месячных, ни в другие дни цикла. You can go to the pool if your periods are not abundant and you use a tampon. In this case, you should not linger in the pool for a long time, but immediately after swimming you need to change the tampon, or replace it with a gasket.

What is the monthly in girls - when and why arise

Every modern first-grader already knows that women and girls periodically have periods.

But ideas about this process are often even blurred in adults, and some young ladies are not even prepared for this period properly.

What is the monthly in girls? Why do all the fair sex, starting from 11-13 years old, bleed for several days of a month?

When do the first critical days begin?

An important stage in the life of every girl is the beginning of the menstrual cycle. More recently, it began in girls at age 18, but now puberty comes much earlier. If the period began with a girl at 11 years old, then this is considered the norm. But if the menstrual cycle began at 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 years old - this is also normal, because the beginning of menstruation depends on many factors:

  1. physical development
  2. heredity
  3. past diseases
  4. living conditions
  5. climate
  6. power supply

If the grandmother and mother had an early cycle, then the girl most likely will also have an early cycle.

If a girl is physically weak and constantly ill since childhood, in puberty she is likely to fall behind her peers.

Too early maturation for a girl is fraught with hormonal disturbances, and belated - in the insufficient functioning of the ovaries, a violation of the pituitary or nervous stress.

Traces of atypical discharge in the underwear she observes a few months before the menstruation. This is a whitish, yellowish or odorless, transparent discharge.

But if the discharge is accompanied by itching, burning, or an unpleasant smell, then a gynecologist must be visited, as this is not the norm.

Signs of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in a girl are observed a few days before the onset of menstruation. This condition is often accompanied by:

  • aggression or apathy
  • tearfulness
  • frequent mood swings
  • headaches
  • pain in the abdomen

The first sign of the onset of menstruation is bloody discharge. They are usually quite mild at first, then the bleeding increases (by the middle of the cycle), and by the end of the month they become moderate again.

At the very first menstruation, the girl leaves from 50 to 150 ml of blood. Such a different volume due to hereditary factors.

Monthly discharge has a characteristic odor, which is inherent in all, without exception, girls at any age, because during this period, the mucous glands of the vulva actively produce secrets.

Also, do not worry that during the month there are pains of a pulling nature. This condition is easily explained by normal female physiology.

Even before the onset of menstruation, girls need to be aware of the need to follow the rules of hygiene, because blood is a very favorable environment for the reproduction of microorganisms, the presence of which will quickly lead to inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system.

Features of the menstrual cycle

The length of the month varies from 3 to 7 days, but it is impossible to say exactly how long the periods last, because the cycle changes in different years and at different periods of a woman’s life. In adolescent girls, sometimes the intervals between the first menses are from one and a half to six months. Menstrual function is not yet fully formed, so these breaks are considered the norm.

Typically, the menstrual cycle ranges from 21 days to 35, if you count the period from the first day of the previous month to the next. It varies, therefore, in different months it is observed on different numbers.

But if the interval between the first menses is really long: there is no bleeding for more than 6 months, then it is imperative to contact a gynecologist.

This condition indicates a failure in the work of a young body.

Why do girls have a delay?

The menstrual cycle more or less becomes regular only after two years. But if by this time there are irregular periods, for example, the delay with a negative test constantly reaches 60 or more days, then you need to look for reasons. Problems usually arise due to:

  • abrupt climate change
  • malnutrition
  • endocrine or infectious diseases
  • high physical exertion
  • stress
  • overweight or underweight
  • defects or injuries of the genitals
  • metabolic disorders

A popular reason for modern teenage girls is delayed menstruation - anorexia.

Such a nervous disease occurs when there is a lack of weight, when a girl thinks that any piece eaten will turn her into an ugly fat woman.

Alcohol and promiscuity also lead to long delays in the monthly cycle. Abundant menstruation with large blood loss usually occurs painfully after delays.


To observe hygiene during menstruation should be especially careful. This requirement is justified not only by the presence of an unpleasant odor in the discharge, but, above all, the preservation of the intimate health of the girl.

Intimate showers are needed more often than usual.

It would also be nice to take care of special detergents, because ordinary soap is not the best tool for intimate hygiene: it dries the skin even more, which is already subjected to excessive friction due to wearing pads.

It is not recommended to take a bath these days, because tap water contains many pathogens, and the cervix is ​​open. This makes it easier for them to get inside, and then infection is inevitable.

Also, hot water will lead to increased bleeding, which will adversely affect the general condition.

Better 3-4 times a day to wash under warm water, and if there is no such possibility, then you should purchase special wet wipes for intimate hygiene.

If you have just started your period, but you don’t have a regular menstrual cycle, don’t worry, after a while it will return to normal. What is the first menstruation in girls, and in what cases, in their absence, you need to consult a doctor, see a video report with experts. Also find out why the monthly go 2 times a month.

Beginning, cycle, signs and hygiene during menstruation

Monthly or menstruation (lat. mensis - month, menstruus - monthly) is a monthly process of cleansing the female body, during which the girls are bleeding from the vagina.

Scientifically, menstruation is the rejection of the endometrium (the inner mucous membrane of the uterus), and its removal with blood from the vagina.

Often, during a conversation, instead of “monthly” you can hear: critical days, business, monsters, bloody Mary, guests from Krasnodar, guests from Krasnoarmeysk, guests on the red Zaporozhets, days of closed doors, days of the red army, hedgehog in tomato sauce, the ship gave the flow, the crimson rivers, the friends came, the red days of the calendar, the accident, the revolution.

The color of menstruation. Blood clots during menstruation

Blood during menstruation in the first days is bright scarlet, at the end is dark, with a specific odor. If you find lumps and clots in the blood during menstruation - do not be alarmed, these are sections of the inner layer of the uterus - the endometrium, which is released along with the blood. If a woman is not pregnant, the endometrium is constantly updated: the old layer dies off and during menstruation comes out, and in its place a new one grows.

First menstruation (Menarche)

The first periods are called "Menarche". Menstruation begins between the ages of 9 and 16 years and indicates the body’s ability to become pregnant. Often, the age at which the first menstrual periods come in a girl depends on the age at which her mother began menstruation, i.e. - set by inheritance.

The signs of the first menstruation may begin a couple of months before they appear. White or mucous discharge becomes more frequent, a little lower abdomen pulls and a little chest aches.

The first periods can manifest as a whole pair of drops of blood, which eventually develop into regular and identical in quantity discharge.

Before and during menstruation, almost all women have the same symptoms, only some of them are less pronounced, others fully:

- pulling pain in the lower abdomen,

- swelling, weighting and chest pain,

- back pain,

- heaviness in the legs,

Cycle and duration

The monthly cycle is the period from the first day of the beginning of the month to the first day of the beginning of the next month. The rate of the monthly cycle is 20-35 days. Duration monthly from 3 to 7 days.

After the first months during the year, the cycle may not be regular, but then it gets better and every time it is clearly repeated.

You can track your menstrual cycle with the help of a calendar, simply by marking every day of your period. There are also special applications for PCs and smartphones, by installing which you can mark and track your cycle.

Hygiene during menstruation (pads, tampons)

In order for women to feel less discomfort during menstruation, scientists have come up with some hygiene products - pads, tampons, and even such a device that I think not everyone still knows - the menstrual cup.

Both gaskets and tampons are classified according to the amount of discharge capacity. This capacity is indicated by the number of droplets on the package. The more droplets, the longer the tampon / pad lasts until the next time they are replaced.

Of course, it is desirable to have these hygiene items of different capacities. For example, at the beginning and at the end of menstruation it is better to use a tampon or a gasket for 2-3 drops, in the midst - 4-6.

What to use - pads or tampons, you choose. You can alternate, for example, if you go to the pool, you cannot do without a tampon, and you can use a gasket for the night. Some girls laying diaper rash, while others, a huge discomfort from the tampon. So try and look for the most convenient option for yourself.

As I already said, there are menstrual cups in the world that are reusable. They must be removed and discharged. True, this is not always convenient.

During menstruation, you must strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene. Rinse at least 3 times a day, and when changing the gasket or tampon, be sure to wash your hands, and both before and after contact.

If you put yourself a tampon or a gasket and you suddenly feel very badly, immediately remove this care product, and if you don’t feel better, see a doctor immediately.

When is it worth to see a doctor?

For questions about menstruation, you must contact your gynecologist.

A gynecologist should be consulted if:

- the first periods appeared before 9 years,

- You are already 17 years old, and the first periods have not yet appeared,

- monthly lasts 1-2 days or more than 7 days (monthly failure),

- discharge very scanty (a couple of drops) or very abundant (change the pad or tampon more often than after 2 hours),

- the menstrual cycle lasts less than 20 days or more than 40 days,

- you feel severe pain during menstruation,

- when using a tampon you suddenly began to feel bad,

- there are bleeding between menstruation,

- after the cycle was settled, the failure began,

- there are no monthly periods for a couple of months.

Menstruation (monthly) in a woman

Menstruation (regulations, monthly) is an important part of the cycle, inherent not only to the female body, but also to the organisms of the females of a number of so-called placental mammals. Menstruation manifests itself in the following way: the mucous membrane of the uterus is rejected, which is accompanied by bleeding. The countdown of the menstrual cycle starts exactly from the moment of rejection of the upper layer of the endometrium.

How is menstruation

Reguli, as a rule, occur monthly. The menstrual cycle is absent during menopause, pregnancy, as well as in the postpartum period. Usually, the absence of regular periods is considered a reason to check for pregnancy. Uterine secretions that appear immediately after childbirth and last for several weeks are called lochia.

Menstrual fluid

Vaginal discharge that occurs during menstruation is called menstrual fluid (or menstrual blood). The abovementioned fluid contains not only blood, but also, respectively, endometrial fragments, as well as the mucous secretion of the vaginal glands and cervical glands. The volume of menstrual blood, which is released in one cycle, averages 35 ml.

However, this volume may vary in the range of 10-80 ml. Any volume less or more than the above, most often indicates violations and may be a symptom of the disease. Menstrual fluid is usually darker than the blood that circulates in the vessels of the human body.

As the results of scientific studies show, too heavy bleeding in the period of menstruation sometimes leads to anemia.

The first menstruation and cycle time

The first menarche (menarche) usually appear in girls aged 12-14 years. However, earlier or significantly later periods of the appearance of menstrual discharge (from 9 years to 21 years) are possible. The age of the beginning of the first menstruation is significantly influenced by the climate of the country in which the woman lives.

For example, in harsh climatic conditions, menstruation can appear between the ages of 13 and 21 years. In temperate climates, this range narrows to 12–18 years, and in hot to 11–15. Accelerate the beginning of the first menstruation can a good health of the woman and nutrition. A weak organism and an unbalanced diet, on the contrary, slow down the process.

Often, after the beginning of the first menstruation, the next one appears only after 2-3 months. After this cycle is normalized and lasts an average of 28 days. Here variations are also possible in the range from 21 to 35 days. According to statistics, only 13% of the weaker sex is peculiar to the 28-day menstrual cycle.

The duration of menstrual flow is from 2 to 8 days.


As a kind of menstrual irregularities, occurs most often. About 30 to 50 percent of the fair sex suffer from it. A common symptom of this disorder is a aching pain in the sacrum and lower abdomen, which can sometimes resemble contractions.

Constant companion of algodysmenorrhea - general malaise. Often this disorder is also accompanied by nausea, gagging, headaches, and loose stools. Algomenorrhea can last a couple of hours, and sometimes several days.

This violation often indicates the development of endometriosis, inflammation of the appendages, pelvic ganglioneuritis, etc.


This discharge from the genital tract, appearing in the intermenstrual period. Usually, careful studies of the woman’s body are required to rule out the possibility of the presence of adenomyosis, infection, endometrial polyps and cervical canal, uterine submucous fibroids, malignant tumors, hypothyroidism, liver diseases, bleeding disorders, etc.

It is considered the most complex pathology, manifested in the absence of menstruation for six months or more. Women suffering from this dysfunction, psychologically depressed and less efficient.

They have a high risk of developing cancer, the sexual sphere suffers, there may be problems with the cardiovascular system, mental illnesses are not excluded.

There are also natural causes of amenorrhea, namely menopause, pregnancy and lactation.

Premenstrual syndrome and menopause

In anticipation of menstruation, many women manifest the so-called PMS (premenstrual syndrome). The nature of PMS is usually psycho-emotional: depression, impressionability, feeling of irritability and fatigue.

Typically, premenstrual syndrome occurs in about one third of women of childbearing age. Menstruation stops approximately at the age of 40 to 57 (most often in the period from 50 to 52 years). About the onset of menopause usually indicates the disappearance of the regulation for 2-3 months.

After that, they reappear and periodically disappear. In some women (which happens quite rarely) the menstrual cycle can last up to 65-70 years. As a rule, women whose puberty period began quite early, and later in the period of menopause.

A complete cessation of menstruation due to the onset of menopause is indicated by the complete absence of menstruation for 12 months or more.

Personal hygiene during menstruation

During the entire period of menstruation, it is important to maintain personal hygiene. To do this, use special tampons that are inserted directly into the vagina, and sanitary pads, fixed on the underwear.

Both the first and second means of hygiene are made of special hygroscopic materials and works on the principle of absorption of secretions. Along with the use of pads and tampons, you must take a shower and regularly wash.

This is directly related to the fact that menstrual blood is the ideal medium for the development of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, since the uterus during menstruation is vulnerable to infections, it is worth refusing for the time of sexual activity.

You should also not drink alcohol and too spicy food. Все это может спровоцировать прилив крови к брюшной полости, тем самым усилив маточное кровотечение.