Doctors have been thinking for more than a decade why women's ailments occur before the appearance of critical days. According to one given reason are the moon phases, on the other - the area where the woman lives.
For the first time the curtain of this mystery opened in the 20th century. It turned out that the state of a woman before menstruation is a combination of various physical and mental symptoms.
Causes of PMS
Despite numerous studies, it was not possible to accurately identify the causes of PSM. There are many theories describing the causes of this ailment. One is the result of "water intoxication", or the so-called imbalance in water-salt metabolism.
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Also talk about the psychosomatic, allergic and hormonal nature. The latter theory best explains the symptoms that arise.
According to her, in the second phase of the menstrual cycle, fluctuations occur between the indicators of sex hormones. In order for a woman's body to work harmoniously, it is necessary that the sex hormones are in balance.
Each of them is important for the body:
The second phase of menstruation is accompanied by hormonal changes. This explains the “abnormality” of the woman’s body. This applies to areas of the brain that are responsible for deviations in the hormonal background of a cyclical nature, as well as the emotional state of a woman.
Due to the fact that the period before the onset of critical days undergoes endocrine instability, dysfunctions of a somatic and psycho-vegetative nature occur in women in the body.
It is important that the main role is not assigned to the hormones themselves, but to what the fluctuation of their content during critical days is and how they are answered by the limbic parts of the brain responsible for emotions and behavior, namely:
As for the risk factors that contribute to the development of ICP, they are also ambiguous and doctors still have not come to a common opinion:
- A lack of mood is indicated by frequent mood swings, fatigue, strong breast sensitivity, fluid retention.
- Ladies who smoke, suffer from PMS twice as often.
- A decrease in serotonin in the body (it is also called “the hormone of joy”) can cause signs of mental pathology: a woman becomes too whiny, sad, she has depression and anguish.
- Lack of magnesium leads to headaches, dizziness, desire to eat chocolate. In addition, tachycardia may develop before menstruation.
- Excess weight. If women have a body mass index that crosses the mark of 30, then they are three times more likely to undergo the syndrome.
- Also at risk are women with severe childbirth, abortions and complications developed after them, underwent surgery, having any gynecological pathologies, as well as stressful conditions, infections.
All symptoms observed with PMS can be divided into groups:
In general, premenstrual syndrome can be divided into forms. But in this case, the symptoms are not allocated separately, and occurs in groups. If a woman has manifestations of a psycho-vegetative type, in particular depressive states, then her pain threshold decreases.
Is it possible to use Kopor tea for tachycardia and what is its use - the answers here.
- depressed state
- frequent depression,
- decrease or excessive libido,
- feeling of panic attack,
- longing for no reason
- concentration problems
- frequent insomnia,
- mood swings
- drops of blood pressure,
- frequent urge to urinate
- pain in the heart
- frequent feeling of panic.
In addition, many women have problems with the kidneys, cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract.
- allergic manifestations (this includes stomatitis, ulcerative-type gingivitis, angioedema, etc.),
- constant drowsiness,
- low-grade fever (rising to 37.7 ° C),
- bouts of vomiting.
- strong thirst
- itching of the skin,
- digestive dysfunction (eg, diarrhea, constipation, increased flatulence),
- pain in the joints,
- swelling of limbs, as well as faces
- weight gain
- rare urination
- pain in the head.
In addition, there is negative type diuresis with fluid retention.
- pain in the heart
- excessive susceptibility to smells and sounds,
- migraine, accompanied by painful pulsating type, simultaneously giving way to the eye zone,
- In дам of all women, a strong manifestation of vascular pattern and hyperostosis are detected on the radiography of the skull.
In addition, in the preparation of a family history of women in this form of ICP, problems in the cardiovascular system, hypertension, and problems with the gastrointestinal tract are detected.
Each woman is individual, therefore, the ICP occurs in each individual, and, consequently, their symptoms are not the same.
Scientists investigated the syndrome and compiled the following gradation of the frequency of symptoms:
Some diseases can worsen a woman's premenstrual condition.
- thyroid problems
- bronchial asthma,
- allergic reactions
- chronic fatigue
- irritable bowel syndrome,
- diseases of female genital organs of inflammatory nature.
Each woman should keep a calendar or notebook where they will record the day of the beginning and end of critical days, weight, ovulation, i.e. measurement of basal temperature, as well as any disturbing symptoms. Keeping such a diary will help in diagnosing PMS, as well as in identifying how often certain signs appear.
- loss of memory and concentration
- severe fatigue and general weakness
- pain in the joints or muscles
- frequent insomnia and constant feeling of sleepiness,
- problems with appetite
- chest pains,
- worsening of chronic forms of existing diseases.
- sudden and frequent mood swings and excessive tearfulness,
- depressed mood and feeling of incomprehensible longing,
- anxiety without cause, as well as fear and tension,
- frequent conflict and nervousness,
- depressive states.
Depending on how intense and long the symptoms manifest themselves and what is their number, the following forms of PMS severity are distinguished:
- For a mild form, a manifestation of 1-2 strongly pronounced symptoms or 3-4 ordinary forces is characteristic.
- A severe form is accompanied by a manifestation of 2–5 strongly pronounced symptoms, or 5–12 ordinary ones. It is also said about the severe form, if the symptoms (regardless of the number and duration) lead to temporary disability.
- In the case when a woman feels satisfactory in phase 1, then you have PMS, and not chronic disease - depression, neurosis, fibrocystic type of breast.
- If pain symptoms occur only before critical days, as well as during them, then in this case we can talk not about PMS, but some kind of gynecological disease (for example, chronic endometritis, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, etc.).
To identify the form of PSM, a woman is prescribed a hormonal examination for estradiol, prolactin and progesterone.
Also, if there are any complaints, additional diagnostics may be assigned:
Treatment of tachycardia before menstruation
For the treatment of PMS, as well as to prevent tachycardia before menstruation, symptomatic therapy is usually performed:
- Psychotherapy. In this case, irritability, frequent mood swings, depressive states that interfere not only with the woman, but also with those around her and those close to her, usually prescribe psycho-emotional relaxation and a variety of stabilizing behavioral techniques, as well as taking sedative medications.
- Diuretic drugs are mainly prescribed for edema in order to remove excess fluid from the body.
- If neuropsychic symptoms are observed (in particular, nervousness, insomnia, aggressiveness, incomprehensible panic attacks, excessive anxiety, depressive states), then the woman is prescribed tranquilizers and antidepressants. For example, it may be Rudotel, Sonapaks, Zoloft, Amitriptyline, Tazepam, Sertralin, Prozac, etc. Drugs are taken in phase 2 of the cycle two days after the onset of symptoms.
- If a woman has an edematous and cephalgic form, then she is prescribed antiprostaglandin-type medicines (for example, Naprosyn or Indomethacin), which are taken in the 2nd phase of the menstrual cycle.
- To improve blood circulation in the central nervous system, Nootropil, Grandaxin, Aminolone are prescribed, which must be drunk for 2-3 weeks.
- Drugs of homeopathic origin, such as Mastodinon or Remens.
- If a woman has pain in the lower back, head or abdomen, then non-steroid-type drugs are prescribed that have an anti-inflammatory effect in order to temporarily eliminate the pain (these include Nimesulide, Ibuprofen, Ketanov).
- If there is a failure of the 2nd phase of the menstrual cycle, then hormone treatment is prescribed, after conducting a functional diagnosis. As a rule, progestogens are prescribed (for example, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Duphaston, which is drunk starting from 16 and ends on the 25th day of the menstrual cycle).
- During cephalgic and crisis form, a woman can be prescribed Parlodel (reception is carried out in the 2nd phase of the cycle).
- During PMS, serotonin and histamine often increase in women, so they are prescribed antihistamine-type medications. They should be taken 2 days before the deterioration of health and finish on the second day of the cycle. Medications are taken at night.
- When a cephalgic, crisis or neuropsychic form is detected, agents are prescribed to normalize neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system. These include Difenin and Peritol.
In maintaining a good lifestyle, a balanced diet, regular visits to the gynecologist and the elimination of diseases and various symptoms, PMS will no longer bother you.
Description of tachycardia in the newborn and its treatment methods can be found here.
Read here, what is dangerous sinus tachycardia.
Signs of disease
Not everyone has time for regular visits to the doctor, but it is necessary to control the state of your heart and the rhythm of its contractions. In the absence of any ailments, it is possible to carry out at least minimal diagnostics at home or in any other place, for example, at work and in public transport. And if there are any violations that indicate arrhythmia, which can be observed constantly or more often than usual, you will still need to consult a cardiologist.
The most common symptom that indicates a violation of the rhythm of heart contractions, is the pulse. To check it, you need to put the fingers of one hand to the wrist of the other and measure how many pulsations occurred in 1 minute. There are also special portable heart rate monitors that you can carry around. Normally, in a healthy person without arrhythmia at rest, that is, in the absence of physical exertion and strong emotional shocks, the pulse value should be from 60 to 80 beats per minute.
At home, you should regularly check the pressure and pulse with a tonometer, which should be in any woman over 30 years old with a tendency to problems with the cardiovascular system. To find out what pressure is considered normal in your case, you need to consult a cardiologist and get tested.
In a hospital, the state of the heart and the rhythm of its contractions are checked with an electrocardiograph. After completion of the procedure, the doctor immediately analyzes the resulting picture and can find out if there are any problems. In addition, the daily or multi-day electrocardiography method can be applied, which involves carrying a portable device on the body for a certain time. After completion of measurements, they are entered into a special program that analyzes them and gives the result based on the full picture of the study.
Symptoms of arrhythmia
Symptoms of heart rhythm disturbances do not always manifest themselves, sometimes this requires the impact of negative precipitating factors. However, in most cases, patients still notice ailments indicating arrhythmias that continue for a long time, so suspicions about the presence of pathology may arise.
To date, there are more than ten types of cardiac arrhythmias, and each of them is characterized by its own symptoms, however, similar manifestations can be seen. In most cases, the pathology is divided into tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), bradycardia (slow heartbeat) and extrasystole (separate non-rhythmic contractions with a general rhythm). In any case, it is important to make an appointment with a specialist as soon as these or other symptoms have been discovered, because if you do not carry out timely and appropriate treatment, more serious complications may occur.
For all types of arrhythmias in women, general weakness, increased fatigue, constant fatigue, and sometimes headaches and dizziness are characteristic. This is due to the fact that as a result of a change in heart rate, blood circulation is disturbed, and the cells do not receive the required amount of oxygen. The body has to spend energy reserves, with the result that the patient feels a general malaise.
For tachycardia is characterized by a feeling of his own heartbeat. Normally, a healthy person who is at rest does not feel the work of his heart, but with a quickened rhythm, the person feels a clear pulsation, not only in the chest, but also in the head. It also increases the pulse, which can be felt not only on the wrists, but also on the neck, in the popliteal cavity or near the calf.
Bradycardia, on the contrary, does not show obvious changes in the heart rhythm, the symptoms relate to the general condition. A person may feel short of breath, sometimes even fainting is possible. As a rule, they are of short duration (1-2 minutes), while the patient can experience only one loss of consciousness in a lifetime or be exposed to this state constantly. In any case, even one swoon should serve as a reason for contacting a specialist.
Sometimes bradycardia is a normal condition for women, in particular, for those who are constantly involved in sports.
In some cases, in the event of tachycardia or extrasystole attacks, an uncontrollable feeling of fear or even a fear of sudden death suddenly arises. This is due to the fact that the body perceives increased heart rate as an imminent threat and responds to it on a psychological level.
You can also highlight other symptoms of cardiac arrhythmia, which occur in all types of pathology:
- dyspnea on exercise or at rest,
- darkening of the eyes
- feeling of loss of consciousness
- pain in the heart or chest,
- respiratory failure,
- increase or decrease in body temperature
- blanching of the skin,
- excessive sweating
- breaking stool.
It is believed that women are much easier to endure the symptoms of arrhythmia, so it is not always possible to diagnose the pathology at an early stage. Often, heart rhythm disorders occur in the fair sex after 50 years, but you need to take care of your health at a young age. This will prevent the occurrence of serious diseases and will save time and money spent on treatment.
Why arrhythmia occurs
The causes of arrhythmias in women can be very diverse, but in most cases the provoking factors are easily established during treatment. At its core, heart rhythm disorder itself is a symptom indicating a particular disease, and rarely manifests itself in a single form. That is why it is important to establish why the violation occurred, in order to direct the main actions to the root of the problem itself and to prevent the occurrence of relapses in the future.
In most cases, cardiac arrhythmias cause more serious heart disease, for example:
- vegetative vascular dystonia,
- atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries and large vessels,
- heart attack
- myocardial hypoxia,
- valve damage,
- congenital or acquired heart defects,
- heart failure,
- cancer of the cardiovascular system,
- arterial hypertension.
If heart disease is excluded, the doctor seeks problems in other body systems.The causes of arrhythmia can be serious respiratory diseases (bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia), endocrine disorders (hormone imbalance), diabetes, water-salt balance, etc. Also, heart rhythm disturbances can occur as a result of intoxication with frequent and abundant smoking or drinking alcohol. In addition, pathology is often observed in pregnant women, especially in the first trimester and immediately before childbirth, as well as at the beginning of menopause. Unreasonable arrhythmia occurs extremely rarely and is the exception to the rule.
Not a single woman is immune from problems related to the rhythm of the heartbeat, and therefore a regular examination by a cardiologist is required, even in the absence of symptoms. Women with cardiovascular diseases are more likely to develop arrhythmias, but there are other risk factors:
- bad habits, in particular, smoking,
- age over 45 years
- constant stress and depression,
- insufficient body weight
- drinking large amounts of tea, coffee and energy cocktails,
- the use of certain drugs.
It is noteworthy that during pregnancy, a woman who has previously experienced problems with heart rate can get rid of this ailment without any intervention. But the reverse situation can also be observed when an absolutely healthy patient who had no previous abnormalities develops tachycardia. Many believe that in this situation, everything largely depends on the psychological state and mood of the woman herself.
Arrhythmia of the heart is a consequence of pathological changes in the conduction system. It consists of individual nodes through which a nerve impulse is transmitted causing a contraction. If a violation occurs at any site that prevents the formation of a pulse or its transmission, a change in the rhythm of heart contractions occurs. Specialized drug therapy is aimed at restoring the normal functioning of the conduction system.
In most cases, the cardiologist prescribes medications in pill form or in the form of a spray that can fight the main cause of cardiac arrhythmias, for example, a cardiological disease. Additionally, special antiarrhythmic drugs may be prescribed if pronounced tachycardia is present.
If atrial fibrillation is diagnosed, which is the most serious possible heart rhythm disorder, additional drugs for intravenous administration may be prescribed. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by the fact that there are accelerated chaotic contractions in the atria, resulting in the heartbeat can occur with a frequency of 350-600 beats per minute.
With pronounced symptoms, such as pain, weakness, dizziness, etc., additional medications and vitamin complexes can be prescribed. It should be borne in mind that even a headache in this case cannot be treated with the help of independently prescribed means; the doctor must make all appointments.
If conservative treatment has failed, and the cardiac arrhythmia progresses, surgical procedures can be prescribed. Most often in this case artery bypass or stenting is performed. These operations are quite effective, but not in each case provide an absolute guarantee of the absence of complications and relapses.
Traditional surgery in some cases may be replaced by radiofrequency ablation (cauterization). The essence of this procedure is that with the help of radio-frequency waves a small portion of the myocardium is burned. This stimulates its smooth operation and restoration of the functions of the tissues adjacent to the scar that has formed.
In severe cases, when the danger threatens not only the health, but also the life of a woman, an operation to install an electronic implant - pacemaker can be prescribed. This device will keep the heart functioning at the proper level and will not allow this organ to stop in any dangerous situations.
Many women use traditional treatments to cope with various ailments. With heart arrhythmias, traditional medicine can also help eliminate symptoms, but you need to understand that this technique will not completely cure the pathology. In addition, keep in mind that before using any means it is necessary to consult with your doctor to avoid complications.
In most cases, herbal decoctions are used to eliminate the symptoms, which can be prepared from a single selected ingredient or from a collection of plants. For various types of arrhythmia, you can use valerian root, hawthorn, hips, oregano, lemon balm, cotton grass, viburnum berries, motherwort, mint, blue cornflower, St. John's wort, etc. To find out which herbs are right for you, you need to consult a cardiologist. You can add honey or lemon to some herbal preparations, which also help with arrhythmias.
In addition, treatment should be supplemented with a balanced diet. It is recommended to exclude salt, pepper and other spices, fried and fatty foods, alcohol and carbonated drinks, as well as marinades, canned foods, smoked meats, to the maximum. We should give preference to boiled foods and steamed dishes. It is recommended to use more seafood, nuts, dried fruits, herbs, legumes, fruits, vegetables and berries in different forms.
Possible causes of arrhythmia before menstruation and during
Arrhythmia is a pathological condition, because there are always certain reasons for its occurrence. The following factors can provoke heart rhythm disturbances before menstruation or during them:
- Violation of water and electrolyte balance. This phenomenon is observed in the period of PMS in many women and is accompanied by weight gain, swelling, and an increase in the volume of the abdomen. The accumulated extra fluid increases the load on the heart. The work of the heart muscle becomes more active, which causes an increase in rhythm.
- A side effect of taking certain medications. Often, menstruation in women are painful, because you have to arrest the unpleasant symptoms with medication. Wrong choice of the drug or its overdose can affect the heart rate, and deviation from the norm can occur in any direction.
- Unstable psycho-emotional state. During menstruation and in front of them, women become more irritable, there is a tendency to a depressive state. Such changes can affect the heart rhythm.
- Change hormonal levels. There is usually an excess of estrogen and progesterone deficiency. This imbalance causes irregularities in the functioning of the heart. The level of androgens, which are important for a normal level of energy, performance, and libido, also decreases.
Arrhythmia can be a manifestation of various pathologies. Menstruation is a kind of stress for the body, because during them or in front of them there may be signs of some diseases that were previously asymptomatic. These pathologies include:
- vascular dystonia,
- hypo- or hyperfunction of the thyroid gland,
- other endocrine pathologies,
- diseases of the cardiovascular system.
The risk of arrhythmia during menstruation or in front of them increases when exposed to certain factors: changes in weather conditions, physical exertion, mental or emotional stress, overeating.
Types of arrhythmias during menstruation
Arrhythmia during menstruation or after them can manifest itself in different forms. Heart rate may slow down or speed up compared to normal. In this case, there is bradycardia or tachycardia.
If heartbeats that are not related to the general rhythm are periodically observed, they are called extrasystoles. Depending on the source of their occurrence, they are atrial or ventricular. By the nature of the manifestation of extrasystoles can be single or multiple (group).
There are also pathological and physical arrhythmia. Its first type is observed against the background of cardiac abnormalities.
Treatment of arrhythmias associated with the menstrual cycle
Arrhythmia during menstruation or in front of them does not necessarily need to be treated. Often enough correction lifestyle. Such an approach is allowed for single episodes of heart rhythm failure, the absence of complications and the disruption of the functioning of any body systems. No treatment is also needed if the arrhythmia is caused by alcohol intake or stress (if it is not chronic).
The correction of lifestyle in case of arrhythmia during menstruation and in front of them consists in following these rules:
- Balanced diet. During menstruation, you should prefer light foods, do not overeat, but do not starve.
- Limiting the use of salt. Such a measure is necessary for the normalization of water and electrolyte balance.
- Refusal during the critical days of alcohol, coffee and caffeinated beverages.
- Compliance with the drinking regime. At the time of the monthly usual daily volume of fluid should be reduced. This will help avoid puffiness.
- It is useful to do breathing exercises. Properly performed technique allows you to relax, reduce the manifestation of unpleasant symptoms, has a positive effect on the state of the cardiovascular system.
If necessary, medical treatment of its principles focus on the cause of the arrhythmia:
- If the disorders are triggered by stress, an unstable psycho-emotional background, depression, then sedation is indicated. Herbal medicines are effective: Persen, valerian tincture, motherwort. Additionally, it is recommended to master relaxation techniques.
- In severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, antidepressants and tranquilizers are used: Sertralina, Tazepam, Amitriptyline.
- For edema, diuretics are prescribed. It is also possible the use of antiprostaglandin drugs.
- In case of crisp or cephalgic form, PMS resort to Parlodel (Bromocriptine). It reduces the negative effects of PMS, inhibits the secretion of certain hormones, including prolactin, which retains sodium and water in the body.
There are a number of preventive measures that can significantly reduce the risk of arrhythmia. They need to adhere to constantly, and not only on certain days of the menstrual cycle.
Prevention consists in the following activities:
- rejection of bad habits,
- balanced diet,
- maximum limit of coffee and caffeinated beverages,
- dosed and moderate exercise,
- rational use of drugs (only on doctor's prescription, to observe the dosage and duration of administration),
- adherence to the day, including a healthy 8-hour sleep,
- avoidance of stressful situations.
If there are any pathologies of the cardiovascular and other systems of the body, they should be properly and promptly treated.
Is there a danger?
Changes in heart rate can not be ignored. Even if they appear only during or in front of menstruation, they can be dangerous.
Deviation of the heart rate from the norm negatively affects the general state of health, which can reduce the quality of life. This has a bad effect on the state of the nervous system, which in turn again affects the functioning of the heart and the frequency of its contractions.
Arrhythmia means impaired blood circulation, and such changes adversely affect the functioning of other internal organs and body systems. If the heart rate is caused by the functional changes of an organ, then its possible depletion.
The risk of arrhythmia is also an increased risk of thrombosis. Such a condition can cause a stroke, heart attack, pulmonary embolism and a number of other serious and dangerous diseases.
The occurrence of arrhythmias during menstruation or in front of them may be due to various reasons. Isolated cases of danger do not represent, but with repeated failures of the heart rhythm should consult a doctor. Often, a lifestyle correction is enough to solve the problem, but in some cases medication therapy is required.
Extrasystole before menstruation can significantly worsen the state of women's health. Every third woman at least once in her life has come across an unpleasant feeling of a sinking heart for a few seconds or, on the contrary, an excessive activity of this organ. Often this problem makes itself felt during critical days. The feeling of discomfort can visit only once or become a serious problem for the fair sex.
Extrasystole is one of the most common types of arrhythmia. It is characterized by extraordinary contractions of the heart. Heterotopic myocardial excitation is the cause of the violation of a number of heart functions. As a result, there are a number of unpleasant symptoms that are easy to deal with if you do not run the disease.
Extrasystoles are called heart contractions out of turn. In the chest there is an impulse that knocks the usual pace of work of the cardiovascular system. One of the blows will take place earlier than necessary, and the next - in the period set for this. Between the blows there is a pause, which entails discomfort in health.
Most often with extrasystole face:
- representatives of mature age (over 50)
- people with chronic cardiovascular diseases,
- women before and during menstruation.
About 90% of the elderly, 45% of people with heart problems and 40% of women suffer from “cosmetic arrhythmia” (the problem worsens during menstruation).
Often, signs of extrasystole are observed in athletes. With frequent strengthened training, the heart receives a large load, which is not always able to cope. But many are accustomed to think that if such a pathology occurs among representatives of the sports world, then it cannot be a serious disease. However, this is not always the case. The causes of arrhythmias can be very diverse.
Visible signs of extrasystole are not immediately apparent. As a rule, the symptoms appear alternately, but sometimes some features can be expressed simultaneously.
- It feels a strong blow to the chest.
- One feels a kind of heart "tumbling".
- For a few seconds, the heart stops.
- The body is tense, the skin gets a pale shade.
- There are interruptions in the functioning of the cardiovascular system, shortness of breath, respiratory disorders.
- Light dizziness and / or a feeling of approaching fainting, weakness, slight nausea can be traced.
- Sweating periodically increases.
- The whole process is accompanied by anxiety, a sense of fear and loss, panic attacks.
Most often, tremors (can be both strong and weak) in the chest area begin to manifest in the evening, especially before bedtime.
There are cases when the above symptoms practically do not appear, but at the same time, there is still a feeling of discomfort in the heart area. Often, women with PMS (premenstrual syndrome) face this problem. Such situations can be isolated (the body can cope with the pathology itself) or it can be repeated periodically.
Do not neglect the unscheduled campaign to the doctor, if the symptoms of extrasystole are manifested several times or the state of the body only worsened over time.
"Cosmetic arrhythmia" can be divided into two types. Everyone has features. They are important to consider when treating.
Functional extrasystole is mostly due to a person experiencing depression or dystonia (vascular dysfunction). Neurosis in young people is a familiar phenomenon in the modern world. They can cause heart sinking.
The main symptoms begin to be seen before going to bed / resting or after a full awakening. Long-term reading or constant work with a computer is also a standard prerequisite for this problem. But physical exercise does not affect the functional type of extrasystole.
The main reasons include:
- mental stress and nervous breakdowns,
- strong emotional experiences
- bad habits: smoking, use of alcohol and / or drugs,
- excessive craze of drinks that contain caffeine.
During critical days in women, functional arrhythmia is observed. Improvement in a person's condition occurs immediately after a change in emotional background. As soon as a source of harm is excluded, the body can fully recover.
Functional extrasystole can be both a one-time phenomenon and recurring, especially if you do not follow your usual rhythm of life.
If the functional type is characteristic of young people, then the organic type of pathology affects the health of mature and elderly people (over 50 years). Often the cause of arrhythmia is physical activity, and therefore in a calm state there are no threats. Some patients can not always notice even the main symptoms, as they think about the usual fatigue from engaging in vigorous activity.
Possible causes of arrhythmias before menstruation
Premenstrual syndrome implies a violation of the balance of sex hormones. As a result, the appearance of unpleasant painful symptoms is observed in the body of a female, among which may be premature beats before and during menstruation.
The main changes to female doctors include:
- excess estrogen
- progesterone deficiency.
Critical days are accompanied by the accumulation of additional fluid in the body. The load on the heart is doubled. The heart muscle is forced to work more actively, because of which women periodically observe failures in the menstrual cycles and in the work of the cardiovascular system.
Most often, the main symptoms of arrhythmia are among the representatives of asthenic physique. As a rule, they are characterized by hypochondriacal changes in the emotional background. Constant mood changes accompany critical days.
Women are much more sensitive than men, because they feel the symptoms of arrhythmia to the full. The possible disorders of the heart rhythm of the girl are predicted in advance, as they are more dependent on vegetatively. Such intuitive assumptions are always accompanied by panic attacks, disturbing thoughts and a gradual / sharp deterioration of the general condition of the body.
Additional discomfort for women can create weather or climate change, sports, severe mental stress, overeating, or life stress situations.
Violations in the work of the female heart is noted during the beginning of menopause, as well as after its full formation. In this case, sex hormones perform their protective function. They prevent atheroslerotic changes in the vessels and the heart, perform the prophylactic task of normalizing the conduction of impulses in the body. If the necessary sex hormones are in short supply, violations of various kinds occur, including extrasystole.
Extrasystoles need not be treated. Active therapy is carried out only in case of serious disorders in the work of the heart. It is important to consider age. People of mature age should immediately contact medical facilities to avoid complications.
Treatment is not necessary when:
- failures in the rhythm of the heart are rare and there are no other diseases of the cardiovascular system,
- the problem arose after drinking alcohol and drugs in large quantities, as well as due to stressful situations, experiencing unstable emotional states,
- The cause of arrhythmias are critical days (for women), but only if the symptoms do not lead to complications in the functioning of the body systems.
During the menstrual period, the representatives of the fair sex should avoid any kind of stress, as well as pay attention to the favorable emotional atmosphere and proper nutrition.
Contact the experts should in the following cases:
- the presence of heart disease (even minor ones),
- constant repetition of "fading" of the heart,
- the occurrence of complications, severe pain, discomfort, and so on.
Self-cure is not recommended! All medicines are used, taking into account the individual characteristics of each patient.
There are cases when the presence of arrhythmia is a symptom of another serious disease. Before treatment, it is necessary to determine the causes of arrhythmia, and only then proceed to therapy. Because doctors do not advise to deal with the problem on their own.
Sinus arrhythmia: severe and moderate - causes, manifestations, whether and how to treat
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Modern rhythm of life, unhealthy diet, frequent stress factors, as well as poor ecology can lead to changes in the harmonious work of the human body. Often this is manifested by impaired function of the digestive and respiratory organs. But the heart muscle remains the most vulnerable to an unhealthy lifestyle.
Human heart in normal conditions works with a regular frequency, but due to some effects on the heart muscle, it can be contracted incorrectly. This condition is called arrhythmia, or heart rhythm disorders. Depending on the level at which abnormal conduction of excitation through the heart muscle initially occurs, arrhythmias emanating from the sinus node, from the atrial tissue and ventricular tissue, as well as from the atrioventricular junction are distinguished. In addition, arrhythmia can develop according to the type of bradyarrhythmias (with a rare heartbeat), tachyarrhythmias (with frequent heartbeats) and their combinations - according to the type of tachy bradyarrhythmias.
Sinus arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm caused by a change in the functioning of the sinus node, which occurs for minor, functional, and more serious reasons, as well as manifested by various clinical symptoms or does not manifest symptoms at all. In order to understand whether an arrhythmia is dangerous, you first need to figure out what causes such a condition can cause, and whether the symptoms of sinus arrhythmia cause some discomfort, thereby reducing the patient's quality of life.
What happens with sinus arrhythmia?
Speaking of a normal heart rhythm, it is necessary to keep in mind that it is characterized by a frequency of 60 to 90 beats of heart per minute, and myocardial coverage by electrical excitation is characterized by consistent, uniform waves of the cardiac muscle, starting from the sinus node in the ear of the right atrium and to the apex hearts. Thus, the sinus node is a pacemaker, or pacemaker, of the 1st order. It is in this anatomical formation, which has a size of up to 1.5 cm, throughout the life of a person that electricity is generated, which contributes to regular heartbeats.
When the pathological influence of various factors on the sinus node, as well as conduction disturbance (block on the path of the impulse in the sinus node or vice versa, repeated circulation of the impulse by the type of re-entry mechanism) disrupts the sequential spread of excitation along the myocardium (cardiac muscle). Of course, the latter mechanism often leads to more dangerous arrhythmias, but they can also be combined with sinus arrhythmia.
So, in case of sinus arrhythmia, the impulses emanate from the pacemaker not at a certain frequency, but after different periods of time. In the first minute of pulse counting, for example, a person has an accelerated rhythm (tachycardia - more than 90 per minute), in the second minute - bradycardia (slower rhythm less than 55 per minute), and in the third - normal heart rate.
Prevalence of sinus arrhythmia
To estimate the frequency of occurrence of sinus arrhythmia among the population, two concepts should be distinguished - sinus respiratory arrhythmia and sinus arrhythmia, not associated with respiratory phases. The first form is a variant of the norm and occurs as a result of a reflex interaction between the respiratory and circulatory organs. This type of sinus arrhythmia is quite common, especially in children, adolescents and young people.
Sinus arrhythmia, not associated with breathing, almost always occurs due to pathology of the cardiovascular system and is quite rare, mainly in older people.
1. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels
- Heart defects (congenital and acquired), leading to changes in the normal anatomical structure of the heart, as a result of which cardiomyopathy (hypertrophic, restrictive and dilated) gradually develops. These changes interfere with the normal conduct of the excitation of the heart, as a result of which there are various arrhythmias, including sinus.
- Most often, sinus arrhythmia develops as a result of coronary heart disease (IHD), mainly after myocardial infarction - acute (especially with localization on the lower wall of the left ventricle) or transferred with outcome in post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS).
- The consequences of myocarditis - as a result of inflammatory and cicatricial changes, the function of cardiac conduction is also impaired.
2. Diseases of other organs
- Thyroid lesions, in particular, thyrotoxicosis, caused by autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto goiter), as well as nodular goiter.
- Diseases of the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma), as a result of which the level of the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline increases, causing various arrhythmias, including sinus.
What is tachycardia?
In order to understand what to fight during the onset of critical days, first of all, it is worth figuring out what tachycardia is and how to determine the first symptoms. Tachycardia is considered to be a rapid heartbeat in excess of 90 beats per minute. Frequent bouts of increased heartbeat reduce the work of the heart and contribute to the development of pathologies associated with the work of the heart muscle. Therefore, the question is especially important when it comes to repeated manifestations during menstruation.
Symptoms of tachycardia
The moment of the so-called attack is easy enough to trace, if you are attentive to your own state. The heart begins to speed up work, breathing becomes faster, since at this time an actively working heart needs oxygen. The person does not have enough air; this creates a feeling of panic and nervousness, a pulsation in the temples and a rapid pulse. Such symptoms can appear even at the moment of low physical activity of a person, for example, in an immobilized position behind a desk.
Causes of tachycardia before and during menstruation
Sometimes heart palpitations can occur before menstruation, and not only during the menstrual period. Do not write it off on the ICP, especially if it happens regularly. It is important to find out the causes by visiting a doctor. Perhaps a rapid heartbeat is a symptom of a more serious illness. Nevertheless, there are several common versions, why tachycardia appears before menstruation:
- water imbalance
- lack of vitamins
- hormonal disbalance,
- as a consequence of taking drugs.
What to do?
At manifestation of frequent heartbeat it is necessary to consult a doctor, as well as resort to general precautions:
- As much as possible to limit the use of alcoholic beverages, coffee and strong tea to reduce the load on the heart.
- If the cause is water imbalance, it is important to remember how much water is usually taken per day. If it turns out to drink little water, it is worth increasing the amount, perhaps the body lacks clean fluid. If you use more than 2 liters, the dosage is better to reduce, drink often, but not enough.
- During menstruation, give up too salty and spicy foods.
- Avoid strong stress, haste and excitement.
When an attack of tachycardia is already overtaken, it is important to cope with the manifestations of the ailment in time and reduce the heart rate. These exercises will help:
- Stand up straight, take a deep breath.
- Exhaling through the mouth, slowly go ahead looking at the floor, focusing on the walking legs. This will help to concentrate and calm down.
In the fight against tachycardia will help yoga and meditation, which also help relaxation and concentration, reducing the heart rate.
A productive way to prevent attacks of tachycardia will be the rejection of life in a hurry. Many women do not notice how they are in a hurry everywhere. This especially applies to residents of megacities, because it is scientifically proven that they often suffer from PMS manifestations. Heart in a hurry is experiencing increased stress. It is important to get enough sleep and limit yourself to caffeine-containing products, to make a choice in favor of a balanced and correct diet, and more often to stay in the open air. These simple, but effective rules will help to significantly facilitate not only PMS, but also improve overall health.
A large number of women both during and before menstruation have to deal with tachycardia. The causes of this symptom can be varied, but it is important that if you repeatedly manifest the ailment, be examined and identify the cause. In order to avoid unpleasant sensations, during the period of critical days one should limit oneself from stress, caffeine and alcohol. The transition to a healthy lifestyle, an abundance of vitamins and sound sleep will benefit and help to avoid attacks of tachycardia.
Types of pathology
In women, arrhythmias are diagnosed 1.5 times more often than in men. This is due to the greater emotionality of the fair sex and physiological features.
For heart rate, these types of arrhythmias are distinguished:
Depending on the cause of arrhythmias in women, the following pathology groups are distinguished:
- Normotropic automatism failure. The pulse generation mode is changed, which is why the heartbeat slows or accelerates, but the sequence of beats remains normal.
- Heterotropic violation. Characterized by a synchronicity of contraction.
- Extrasystole. Develops with organic lesion of the myocardium. As a result, additional inferior beats appear, as if the heart “stumbles”.
- Mixed type. Cases of atrial fibrillation and flutter of some parts of the myocardium are referred to this type, which occurs when the ability of nerve cells to impulse to impair is impaired.
The main causes of heart arrhythmias in women are the same as in men. These include:
- intense exercise
- sleep problems, lack of rest,
- improper and untimely food, alcohol abuse,
- nerve strain
- pathological changes in the cardiovascular system,
- VSD, diabetes, pathologies of hormonal glands,
- avitaminosis, lack of a number of trace elements in the body,
- side effects of some medications.
Arrhythmia during menstruation is caused by changes in hormonal levels and is not considered a symptom of a cardiovascular disease.
Specific female causes of heart rhythm disturbances include:
- Emotionality Women are more sensitive to any irritants than men. Any stressful situation can cause heart rhythm failure.
- Depletion of the body. Some women tend to sacrifice nutrition to beauty. Hard long diets lead to exhaustion of the heart muscle, which negatively affects its work.
- Pregnancy. Pathological changes in the work of the heart in pregnant women are caused by a change in metabolism, an increase in blood volume, a decrease in hemoglobin, and hormonal changes.
- Climax. The work of the heart is disturbed due to hormonal imbalance during menopause.
- PMS. Arrhythmia before menstruation occurs as a result of the accumulation of fluid in the body, which is due to the high blood levels of the hormone estrogen.
Diagnostic methods for cardiac arrhythmias in women
As part of the diagnosis, a general examination of the patient is carried out, and anamnesis is collected. The doctor finds out the frequency and dependence of the manifestations of pathology from the influence of external factors, clarifies the characteristics of the life and work of a woman. To determine the presence of irregularities in the heart can be done with auscultation - listening to the sound of the heartbeat. In addition, the following diagnostic methods are used:
- Clinical and biochemical analysis of blood and urine, the determination of hormone levels.
- Electrocardiography. The examination determines the type of arrhythmia. Sometimes assigned to conduct a survey after exercise.
- Ultrasound, echocardiography. These methods establish violations in the work of the heart, the presence of organic lesions of the myocardium.
- MRI is used to detect diseases that are not related to the cardiovascular system, but have an effect on the heart rhythm.
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Symptoms of extrasystole
Most often, the symptoms of extrasystoles are noticeable interruptions in cardiac work, which can manifest as unnaturally strong tremors in the heart area, often accompanied by further pauses or short decelerations (bradycardia) / increases in heart rate (tachycardia). The tremors can be accompanied by autonomic and neurological symptoms: disturbances in breathing, shortness of breath, anxiety and fear, paleness of the skin, increased sweating, tremors can be not only strong, but also weak.
In most people, the symptoms appear mainly at bedtime, when lying in bed, the patient feels unexpected tremors. There are cases when the patient feels pushes lying on one side, but when he turns to the other side, the pushes diminish or pass.
Causes of extrasystole
The reasons for beats can be:
- disorders of neurogenic origin,
- organic lesion of myocardium,
a person per day can be no more than two hundred extraordinary reductions. Extrasystoles can occur in a completely healthy person when smoking, drinking alcohol, coffee and strong tea, stress, psycho-emotional and autonomic disorders, and strong physical exertion. Causes of beats of pathological nature can be heart disease: cardiomyopathy. valvular defects, ischemic disease, myocarditis. There are also extracardiac diseases that adversely affect the heart muscle: neoplastic processes, poisoning, thyrotoxicosis, intoxication during infections, and allergic reactions.
Treatment of arrhythmia
When prescribing treatment, extrasystoles take into account the form and localization of the disease.
If extrasystoles are rare and are not caused by cardiac pathology, then they do not need treatment. Sometimes, to eliminate the symptoms, it is enough to stop smoking, drinking caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and also to reduce the amount of stress. In cases where extrasystole arises due to diseases of the heart muscle, endocrine and digestive systems, treatment should begin with the main diseases.
If extrasystole is of neurogenic origin, it is necessary to visit a neurologist. He will prescribe fees for sedation (tincture of peony, lemon balm or motherwort) or drugs with a sedative effect (Relanium, Rudotel). If the disease is caused by drugs, their use is strictly prohibited.
Drug treatment is prescribed only in those cases, if the daily number of extrasystoles exceeds two hundred, the patient has cardiac pathology and subjective complaints. Preparations are selected depending on the type of beats and heart rate. The dosage is prescribed individually. For the treatment of extrasystoles effective is the use of procainamide, lidocaine, quinidine, cordarone, mexylene, sotalol, diltiazem. Also for the general strengthening of the heart are prescribed drugs containing potassium and magnesium.
If during the two-month drug treatment, the extrasystoles do not appear, the dose of drugs is reduced or even canceled. In other cases, the treatment lasts for several months, and in the presence of a malignant ventricular form, life-long use of antiarrhythmic drugs is prescribed.
Causes of rhythm changes
Arrhythmia occurs according to the type of increase or slowdown - tachycardia and bradycardia, respectively. Also single or group extrasystoles are allocated - periodic contractions of the heart, which do not “fit” into the general rhythm. They can be of atrial or ventricular origin.
Including allocate a permanent form of heart failure - atrial fibrillation. In this case, each heart fiber is reduced in its mode.
Periodic tachycardia or bradycardia, as well as extrasystoles can be the result of hormonal or other functional disorders, but atrial fibrillation always speaks of some serious pathology.
The autonomic nervous system also regulates the work of the heart and its contractions. When the IRR can occur all types of arrhythmias. At the same time, along with unpleasant sensations in the breast, a woman will be disturbed by pressure drops, dizziness, redness or blanching of the complexion and other signs.
Vegetative-vascular crises often occur on the background of premenstrual syndrome and during menstruation. Therefore, arrhythmias are recorded at this time. This is due primarily to changes in hormonal levels these days.
Pathology of the thyroid gland
Both deficiency and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland can cause a rhythm disorder. Moreover, hypothyroidism is characterized by bradycardia, when the heart rate decreases to 60 and below, and tachycardia for hyperthyroidism, with a heart rate of more than 90 beats / min. This is due to the fact that thyroid hormones have a direct effect on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve plexus, which regulate the work of heart contractions. On the eve and during menstruation, such phenomena may become more frequent.
Normally, the heart rhythm is generated in one place, after which the impulse is transmitted further. This leads to alternate contraction of the atria and ventricles. In case of malformations of the heart, congenital or acquired, the process of impulse formation may be disturbed, which leads to arrhythmias. Their frequency and duration depends on the severity of structural defects.
Many women are emotionally labile. And their psycho-emotional state can cause arrhythmias. And more often it is tachycardia and various kinds of extrasystoles. Arrhythmia may not appear immediately at the moment of shock, but after a while. In such situations, the intake of various sedative herbs, syrups, vitamins significantly improves the well-being of women.
With an imbalance of potassium, calcium, magnesium, the heart muscle can be disturbed. No other symptoms, except for arrhythmias and related manifestations, a woman may not feel. Most often, this occurs when a non-dosed medication (for example, diuretics), as well as kidney disease, diabetes, etc.
At the heart of premenstrual syndrome is an imbalance of sex hormones. Most often it is an excess of estrogen and a lack of progesterone. They also affect the functioning of the heart. At this time, an accumulation of fluid can occur in the body. This increases the load on the work of the heart muscle. As a result, women may notice various interruptions in work.
More than ever, women notice violations of the work of the heart during the period of the beginning of menopause and some time after its formation. This is due to the fact that sex hormones perform a kind of protective function for the body to develop atherosclerotic vascular changes, including in the heart, and also prevent conduction disturbances of the electrical impulse in it. And with their deficiency, pathology manifests itself.
The attacks of arrhythmia most often coincide with the tides or immediately follow them. Competent correction of menopausal disorders, including hormone replacement therapy drugs, eliminates all manifestations of the disease.
These are the most frequent reasons why women develop arrhythmia before menstruation or during their periods. The true problem can be established only by a specialist after a comprehensive examination.
See the video for the causes of arrhythmia:
Arrhythmia during pregnancy
The prognosis of pregnancy and the upcoming delivery depends on how the woman’s heart responds to the expected events. However, it must not be forgotten that pregnancy itself, being not an ordinary condition, can cause a rhythm disturbance and give arrhythmia. For example, the appearance of extrasystole or paroxysmal tachycardia during pregnancy, as a rule, does not indicate organic lesion of the myocardium, and occurs in approximately 19–20% of pregnant women. And if late toxicosis joins all this, then it is not necessary to wait for another from the heart, arrhythmias will intensify.
This type of arrhythmia, as complete or incomplete atrioventricular block, does not pose a particular danger to the health of a woman. In addition, pregnancy contributes to an increase in the ventricular rate, so measures are taken only in cases of falling pulse to 35 and lower beats per minute (obstetric aid - the imposition of obstetric forceps). But with organic heart disease, women are treated with increased attention, since the appearance of atrial fibrillation in such a situation is a contraindication to the preservation of pregnancy. In addition, the choice of mode of delivery before the term also requires special care. It seems so benign, in other cases, a cesarean section in such patients may be threatened with thromboembolism in the pulmonary artery system (PE).
Of course, no one can forbid pregnancy to anyone, so women with heart disease consciously take the risk driven by their cherished desire to become a mother. But since a pregnancy has already happened, the prescriptions and recommendations of the doctor must be strictly followed: observe the work and rest schedule, take the necessary medicines and be hospitalized if necessary under the supervision of physicians. Childbirth in such women, as a rule, takes place in a specialized clinic, where a woman at any time can receive emergency medical care (taking into account heart disease) in case of unforeseen circumstances.
Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias
In the case of a diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia, the choice of treatment tactics is carried out taking into account the cause, the type of heart rhythm disorder and the general condition of the patient. Sometimes, to restore normal heart function, it is enough to conduct a medical correction of the underlying disease. In other cases, the patient may require medical or surgical treatment, which must necessarily be carried out under the systematic control of an ECG.
Drugs used in drug therapy for arrhythmias:
- calcium channel blockers - verapamil / diltiazem,
- beta blockers - metoprolol / bisoprolol / atenolol,
- potassium channel blockers - cordaron / sogexal,
- sodium channel blockers - Novocainid / lidocaine.
Surgery is resorted to at the stages of severe degradation of muscular cardiac tissue. The following procedures can be assigned:
- implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator,
- radiofrequency catheter ablation.
The treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, especially of its complex forms, is done only by a cardiologist. Apply the above preparations only according to strict indications, depending on the type of arrhythmia. At the beginning of the treatment, the selection of the drug should be carried out under the supervision of a physician, and in severe cases only in the hospital. Given the diagnosis, the doctor selects drug therapy.
Immediately, we note that in the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia, folk remedies should be used only as an adjunct to traditional medicines, but in no case should they be replaced. In fact, herbs only accelerate the healing process, but are not able to cure a person completely. That is what should proceed when choosing your favorite recipes.
- Pour 30 hawthorn berries with a glass of boiling water and put the mixture on a small fire for 10-15 minutes. The decoction is used fresh in equal portions throughout the day.
- Mix one bottle of spirit tincture of valerian, hawthorn and motherwort. Shake the mixture well and place it in the fridge for 1-2 days. The medicine is taken 30 minutes before meals, 1 teaspoon.
- Boil a glass of water in an enamel saucepan, and then add 4 grams of adonis herb to it. Boil the mixture for 4-5 minutes over low heat, then cool it and place the pan in a warm, dry place for 20-30 minutes. Strained broth is stored in the refrigerator, taken 1 tablespoon 3 times a day.
- Cut 0.5 kg of lemons and fill them with fresh honey, adding to the mixture of 20 kernels, removed from the seeds of apricots. Mix thoroughly and take 1 tablespoon in the morning and evening.
The course of any arrhythmia can be complicated by ventricular fibrillation and flutter, which is equivalent to the arrest of blood circulation, and lead to the death of the patient. Already in the first seconds dizziness, weakness develop, then - loss of consciousness, involuntary urination and convulsions. Blood pressure and pulse are not detected, breathing stops, pupils dilate - a state of clinical death occurs.
In patients with chronic circulatory failure (angina pectoris, mitral stenosis), dyspnea occurs during paroxysms of tachyarrhythmias and pulmonary edema may develop.
With complete atrioventricular block or asystole, syncopal states (Morgagni-Adems-Stokes attacks characterized by episodes of loss of consciousness) may develop, caused by a sharp decrease in cardiac output and blood pressure and a decrease in the blood supply to the brain.
Thromboembolic disorders in atrial fibrillation in every sixth case lead to cerebral stroke.
The first thing that needs to be done to detect arrhythmias is to perform an ECG (electrocardiogram). But episodic cases and individual extrasystoles in this way can not catch. Then Holter monitoring comes to the rescue, during which the ECG is recorded during the day. After that, an analysis of the results. In this way, it is possible to detect even single rhythm disturbances per day, count the number and subsequently assign adequate therapy.
But it is not enough to establish the presence of arrhythmias; it is important to establish their true cause. It is based on this can build the most effective treatment. To do this, you need to go through a set of examinations, which is determined by the doctor. Most often this includes:
- blood for thyroid hormones, an ultrasound examination of this organ to detect pathological secretion foci,
- complete biochemical analysis of blood with electrolytes,
- blood lipid profile
- ultrasound examination of internal organs, if necessary - CT or MRI,
- determination of ECG during exercise, bicycle ergometry.
Is it so dangerous arrhythmia
Any suspicion of arrhythmia should not be ignored. After all, such violations can lead to serious, sometimes life-threatening consequences.
First, the constant episodes of arrhythmia will lead to a deterioration in the general well-being of women. Headaches, weakness, lethargy, decreased performance, dizziness, discomfort and discomfort behind the sternum and many other symptoms become constant companions. Due to arrhythmias, blood supply to organs and tissues is disturbed, and this leads to disruption of their work. This can contribute to the development of mental disorders up to dementia.
In addition, if violations arise as a result of changes in the functioning of an organ, this soon leads to its depletion. Also behind the arrhythmia may be hiding tumors of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands and other organs.
We recommend reading the article on menstruation pressure. From it you will learn about the impact of the female reproductive system on blood pressure, as well as the causes of high and low rates.
There is a large amount of funds to restore normal heart rhythm. However, they are effective only if the reason is not in the pathology of other organs.
In case of dysfunction of the thyroid gland, restoration of the normal level of its hormones in most cases leads to the disappearance of the arrhythmia.
Various dietary supplements, homeopathic remedies, sex hormones are indicated for the treatment of premenstrual and menopausal syndromes. As soon as their manifestations diminish, the signs of arrhythmia and all associated symptoms disappear.
Important is the observance of an active lifestyle, the basics of proper and balanced nutrition.
Various relaxation techniques also help, for example, the practice of yoga, etc. A calm perception of all surrounding information, preservation of peace of mind and balance in any situation helps to preserve health and prevent the development of pathology.
Arrhythmia is a serious disorder in the work of the heart. If the first symptoms appear, or even if you suspect it, you should seek medical help. Only a specialist can determine the true cause and prescribe the correct treatment. Often women may notice that an arrhythmia occurs during menstruation or on the eve of them. This is especially true for premenstrual syndrome and climacteric disorders. Correction of these disorders leads to the disappearance of arrhythmias.
3. Pathological conditions
- Anemia, especially severe (hemoglobin in the blood is less than 70 g / l)
- Stay in conditions of high (tendency to tachyarrhythmias) or low (tendency to bradyarrhythmias) ambient temperature,
- Acute infectious diseases
- Acute poisoning with chemicals, drugs, alcohol, drugs, etc.
How are episodes of sinus arrhythmia?
Symptoms of sinus arrhythmia can vary in different patients and depend not only on the severity of the arrhythmia, but also on the characteristics of the patient's perception.
Some people do not feel the arrhythmia in any way, and then a rhythm disturbance is detected during a planned electrocardiogram.
In another part of the patients, there are slight interruptions in the work of the heart by stopping or slowing down of the heartbeat, followed by a sensation of accelerated heartbeat. Эти приступы также могут сопровождаться вегетативными расстройствами — обильной потливостью, побледнением или наоборот, покраснением кожи лица, кистей и стоп, голубоватой окраской носогубного треугольника, чувством нехватки воздуха, повышенной тревожность и страхом смерти (по типу панической атаки), болевым синдромом в грудной клетке, дрожанием конечностей.
In adults with severe sinus arrhythmia, a faint state can be observed. There are also frequent fainting. This is due to the fact that during periods of rare heartbeat (40-50 per minute) the blood supply to the brain suffers, and hypoxia (acute lack of oxygen) occurs in its cells.
How to treat sinus arrhythmia?
Therapy of this pathology consists of several components.
First, each patient with sinus arrhythmia due to heart disease requires a lifestyle correction.
For example, persons with congestive heart failure need to monitor the amount of fluid consumed (no more than 1.5 liters per day) and the amount of salt in food (no more than 3-5 grams per day). This is required in order not to overload the heart with excess fluid, since it is harder for it to pump blood through the vessels. If heart failure is compensated, then the arrhythmia will be less manifest, thereby increasing the patient's quality of life.
Persons who have as a cause of IHD rhythm disturbances are strongly recommended to reconsider their diet - eliminate fatty and fried foods, first of all limiting the consumption of animal fats and foods containing them (cheese, egg yolks), since these are high in cholesterol arteries in the form of plaques.
In addition to the diet, all patients with episodes of sinus arrhythmia are recommended to spend more time outdoors, to perform adequate physical activities, such as walking, swimming, if there are no contraindications, etc. Also, you should follow the mode of work and rest with nocturnal sleep 8 hours, and also eliminate stressful situations.
Secondly, patients are prescribed medication.
So, in case of anemia, hemoglobin level correction with iron-containing drugs (sorbifer durules, totem) is required, up to blood transfusion at a critical hemoglobin level.
For diseases of the thyroid gland, the endocrinologist prescribes thyreostatic drugs (tyrosol and others) in order to suppress the hyperproduction of gland hormones into the blood.
In case of fever, acute infectious diseases, poisoning, detoxification therapy is carried out with the help of droppers, abundant fluid intake as prescribed by a doctor.
If cardiac pathology is detected, the prescription of such drugs is recommended:
- Beta-blockers, if the patient has rapid heartbeat (eg coronal 5 mg in the morning, egilok 12.5 mg twice a day, etc.),
- ACE inhibitors or blockers APA 11 in heart failure, after myocardial infarction (lisinopril 5 mg / day, prestarium 5 mg / day, lorista 50 mg / day, vals 40-80 mg / day, etc),
- M diuretics for heart failure caused by heart defects, postinfarction cardiosclerosis or the consequences of myocarditis - veroshpiron 25-50 mg / day, furosemide (lasix) 20-40 mg / day, indapamide 1.5 - 2.5 mg / day, etc.
In addition to these groups of drugs, after examining the patient may prescribe other drugs.
Thirdly, surgical treatment may be indicated as a treatment for a causal disease leading to sinus arrhythmia.
For example, the removal of thyroid nodules contributes to the normalization of hormonal status affecting heart contractions.
Cardiac surgery, in turn, is reduced to the installation of stents or to aorto-coronary bypass surgery for people with coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction.
In addition, persons with severe bradyarrhythmia, fraught with frequent fainting and cardiac arrest, are shown to install an artificial pacemaker, and individuals with
severe tachyarrhythmia, capable of causing more serious, life-threatening types of tachycardia, can be shown installation of a cardioverter-defibrillator. Both devices are variants of a pacemaker (EX).
In any case, individual treatment regimens are assigned to each patient only according to the results of an on-site examination by a doctor.
Features of sinus arrhythmia in children
In healthy newborn babies, in children of early and school age, sinus arrhythmia is common, but in most cases has a close relationship with breathing. That is, if a child has respiratory sinus arrhythmia, it is most likely that he is healthy. However, it is necessary for a child to receive a consultation from a cardiologist.
Sinus arrhythmia, not associated with breathing, may also occur in a healthy child due to the immaturity of its autonomic nervous system.
However, most often sinus arrhythmia in newborns is caused by prematurity, generic and hypoxic lesions of the central nervous system, as well as congenital organic lesions of the myocardium.
In older children and adolescents, sinus arrhythmia can be triggered by the effects of rheumatic heart disease and heart defects.
Clinically, sinus respiratory arrhythmia in most children does not manifest itself with any symptoms and can be detected during planned ECG. Sinus “non-respiratory” arrhythmia usually does not manifest itself either, however, in some older children who are already able to formulate their complaints, there are:
- Feeling heartbeat,
- Tingling pain in the heart,
- Increased fatigue.
In infants, parents may notice signs of sinus arrhythmia, for example:
- Increased fatigue and shortness of breath on exertion and even when breastfeeding,
- The bluish color of the nasolabial triangle,
- Common pallor
- The feeling of lack of air.
Treatment of respiratory-type sinus arrhythmia is usually not required. But it is better for parents to find out about this from a cardiologist or pediatrician who will examine the baby in person.
Therapy of sinus arrhythmia, especially due to the pathology of the heart, should be carried out only under the supervision of a cardiologist. Even if the sinus arrhythmia detected in a newborn or an older child is not associated with heart disease (for example, based on ultrasound of the heart), but due to other reasons, it is still necessary to observe the baby at a cardiologist in the children's clinic time (a year or more, depending on whether the arrhythmia persists or not).
The prognosis of sinus arrhythmia is generally favorable, but it is determined by the course of the underlying disease. For example, for heart defects, the prognosis is the more favorable the earlier treatment is started. The same can be said about the rest of the heart and non-cardiological pathology. In any case, sinus arrhythmia requires close monitoring by a cardiologist, as well as timely treatment and exclusion of more dangerous heart rhythm disturbances.
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Sinus arrhythmia implies a malfunction of the heart, when the difference between heartbeats is more than 10% (if this indicator is less, there is no pathology). At the same time, the pulse remains within normal limits (60-80 beats per minute).
Sinus arrhythmia should be present in a person, since the heart beats moderately in a calm state, and in response to anxiety or at the moment of physical exertion, the pulse is quickened. It allows you to see the level of fitness of the heart muscle to stress and is, within certain limits, a sign of good health.
According to statistics, the share of arrhythmias accounts for 10-15% of all heart diseases. In recent years, the number of cases is increasing. Sinus arrhythmia is most often observed in the elderly, as well as in those who abuse alcohol or drugs.
In children, sinus arrhythmia is present quite often, but, in most cases, it is not a pathology, since the nervous system simply does not keep pace with the growing organism.
The disease does not require treatment if it develops against the background of pronounced nervous experiences. As soon as a person relaxes, it passes by itself. Herbal remedies (valerian, motherwort) can be used to calm down in this case.
Symptoms of the disease, especially in the early stages, do not appear clearly. A person can quite a long time not to guess about the existence of his health problems.
In children and adolescents:
- severe stress, psychological depression,
- prenatal malformations
- tumors and heart defects,
- pathology of internal organs,
- long and severe infections,
- myocardial diseases.
Young people and middle-aged people:
- high blood pressure
- heart defects,
- chronic lung and thyroid disease,
- alcoholism and smoking
- viral infections
- heart surgery,
- lack of potassium and magnesium in the body.
In older people, sinus arrhythmia, in addition to the above reasons, is almost always a manifestation of another heart disease, a consequence of other health problems, including age problems. Risk factors can be: medication, rich fatty foods, abuse of coffee and cigarettes.
Symptoms and signs
Symptoms of sinus arrhythmia are associated with heart rhythm disorders. A person complains of "fading" of the heart, shortness of breath, lack of air, dizziness, weakness and fainting, he has panic attacks associated with a sense of fear and anxiety.
The first signs of the disease are:
- palpable heartbeat,
- pain on the left side of the chest, extending to the arm,
- inability to take a full breath,
- pulsation in the temporal region,
- bouts of severe weakness, dizziness, fainting,
- cold extremities.
The attack may be taken by surprise, it suddenly begins and ends the same way. The patient should call an ambulance.
Before the arrival of the brigade, you need to try to calm the person, create a comfortable environment, open the window, you can give a sedative (motherwort, valerian, valocordin).
If the patient loses consciousness, you need to tilt your head back and unbutton the collar. In the absence of breathing and heartbeat, it is necessary to do artificial respiration prior to the arrival of the ambulance brigade.
Treatment and rehabilitation
Treatment should be strictly under the supervision of a specialist. Basic techniques:
- healthy balanced nutrition (refusal from coffee, strong tea, alcohol, fatty and sweet food),
- to give up smoking,
- drug treatment (sedative drugs, tranquilizers, antiarrhythmic drugs),
- installation of a pacemaker (with severe disease),
- traditional medicine (only with basic treatment and with the permission of the doctor): treatment with asparagus, lemons, walnuts and honey, hawthorn,
- leech therapy.
How to treat sinus cardiac arrhythmia in each case, determines the attending physician.
Rehabilitation after an attack of sinus arrhythmia is to obtain medical care, which will be aimed at restoring the heart rhythm (drug or electrical stimulation), ensuring the most calm conditions.
Find out more about what sinus arrhythmia means from the video:
Prognosis, complications and consequences
The forecast is extremely ambiguous. Physiological arrhythmia does not pose a threat to human health. In young people, the prognosis is generally favorable. In other types of disease, the development scenario is determined by the nature of the underlying disease.
Complications and consequences:
- risk of sudden cardiac arrest
- heart attack
- heart failure,
- disorders of cerebral circulation,
Relapse prevention and prevention methods:
- positive emotions and good mood
- avoidance of stress
- avoidance of heavy loads on the heart
- sparing mode and maximum calm,
- treatment of concomitant diseases
- proper nutrition
- rejection of bad habits.
Sinus arrhythmia is a formidable disorder of the heart, since it is almost always a symptom of another disease. It is very important to timely diagnose the disease and take appropriate measures. Treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a specialist.
Concept of disease
Translated from the Greek word "arrhythmia" means inconsistency. In medical practice, the condition is considered as a pathological change in the normal heart rhythm. This disrupts the sequence of excitation of various parts of the body and its reduction. That is, any deviations from the sinus rhythm are diagnosed as arrhythmia. The physiological type of deviation is not dangerous for the life and health of the patient, unlike the pathological one. The latter occurs under the influence of various diseases of the cardiovascular system and for some other reasons.
The causes of arrhythmias are often organic. This refers to pathologies that are directly related to cardiac activity. As a result, the normal propagation of an electrical impulse through the body is disturbed, which entails a change in its rhythm up or down.
Coronary heart disease
For the normal functioning of the heart muscle, its continuous supply of blood, oxygen and other nutrients is necessary. Under the influence of blockage of the coronary arteries with blood clots, a person develops oxygen starvation of the heart or its ischemia. In the absence of treatment, the lumen of the vessels narrow, the myocardium constantly suffers from oxygen deficiency. Described pathology leads to heart rhythm disturbances. Patients suffer from angina (attacks of pain due to acute lack of blood flow in the organ), tachycardia (increase in heart rate above 90 beats / min) and other symptoms.
The causes of cardiac arrhythmias often lie in the presence of congenital or acquired defects in a patient. In the first case we are talking about the wrong formation of an organ in the womb. They appear under the influence of such factors as mother's transmission of viral and bacterial diseases, severe psychological stress, the use of certain drugs during pregnancy, and strong hormonal disruptions.
Acquired defects can be diagnosed at any age. Most often are the result of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, vascular atherosclerosis, cardiosclerosis and other pathologies.
The growth and scarring of myocardial tissue is called cardiosclerosis. This process entails the deformation of the valves, the deviation in their functioning, the replacement of muscle fibers. The disease is accompanied by persistent arrhythmias and pathological electrical conductivity of the heart.
Among the reasons for the change in the structure of myocardial tissue, there are metabolic disturbances, bad habits, a long course of hypertension, obesity, stress, and other precipitating factors.
Myocarditis is called the damage of the tissue layer of the myocardium. More often it occurs under the influence of various inflammatory processes. Due to organ dysfunction due to a change in the muscle layer, patients develop persistent arrhythmia, a change in heart rate, shortness of breath and other signs.
What causes myocarditis:
- viral diseases - herpes, flu, hepatitis,
- bacterial - staphylococcus, diphtheria, chlamydia, salmonellosis,
- fungal infections - candidiasis, aspergillis,
- parasites - echinococcus, trichinella and others.
Often, cardiac arrhythmias occur under the influence of persistent hypertension. Increased pressure greatly increases the load on the heart, which leads to its rapid wear, pathological changes in the heart rate above normal.
A large role in the formation of this disease has a genetic predisposition of the patient, as well as such factors as unhealthy habits, unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, late treatment of heart disease.
Arterial hypertension may be accompanied by rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) and slowing down of the body (bradycardia). A prolonged increase in blood pressure above the norm and the lack of appropriate treatment often entail serious complications, including acute heart failure and heart attack.
Under this concept imply rhythm disorders due to the negative effect of stress and excessive emotional stress on the human sympathetic nervous system.
- intense mental or physical exertion
- use of alcohol, tobacco,
- spicy food, strong coffee, tea, chocolate,
- stress, neurosis.
In addition, the excitation of nerve tone contributes to thyroid disease - thyrotoxicosis, fever, intoxication of the body, ingestion of viruses, toxins, blood diseases. Violation of the heart rate in women is sometimes swept away before menstruation, while developing sympathetic-dependent arrhythmias, discomfort in the chest, shortness of breath.
This type arises due to the impact of internal and external precipitating factors on the human parasympathetic system. This often affects the vagus nerve. These deviations appear more often at night, due to such pathologies as peptic ulcer of the stomach and intestines, diseases of the gallbladder and pancreas, deviations in the functioning of the bladder and kidneys.
The patient may feel a strong heartbeat, sweating, feeling of heat. After eliminating the causes of the described condition, the heart rate usually returns to normal on its own.
For the healthy functioning of the myocardium and the whole body requires a normal level in it of substances such as potassium, sodium and calcium. Under the influence of various causes, this balance is disturbed, which entails many complications. Against this background, hyperkalemia or hypokalemia, hypermagnemia or hypomagnesaemia may develop. Changes in the level of electrolytes adversely affect the functioning of the myocardium, which causes arrhythmia.
Iatrogenic arrhythmias can be caused by taking certain medications, such as beta-blockers, cardiac glycosides, sympathomimetics, diuretics. The side effects most often provoke cardiac glycosides. Against the background of their use, the patient may experience ventricular fibrillation, sinus arrhythmia or bradycardia, tachycardia, cardiac blockade, and other complications.
This type is the most dangerous, since an arrhythmia can appear suddenly in an absolutely healthy person. Most often, the mechanism of its development lies in additional conduction pathways that can be identified with the help of electrocardiography. Another suspected cause is a genetic predisposition.
Even insignificant physical activities and sports activities contribute to an increase in the frequency of heartbeats. Normally, in a healthy person, the rhythm is restored independently in 3–5 minutes and is no more than 90 beats per minute. For physically developed people, myocardial contraction at rest can be up to 55 beats per minute. This is not considered a deviation.
During sleep and immediately after it, the heart rhythm slows down. This is explained by normal physiological processes occurring in the human body during this period. But do not confuse minor violations with pathological nocturnal arrhythmia, which often indicates diseases of the heart, blood vessels and some other internal organs.
During the consumption of food, blood in large quantities enters the region of the organs of the digestive tract, which entails an increase in heart rate. During overeating, this symptom is pronounced, the patient may feel heaviness, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat. After some time, the rhythm is restored independently.
Long-term emotional distress, loss of loved ones, depression and other conditions negatively affect the health of the cardiovascular system. Such conditions can trigger atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and other diseases. Under the influence of negative emotions in the human body produces the hormone adrenaline, which increases the heart rate. It is stress that often causes a physiological arrhythmia.
Pathologies causing a change in rhythm
The most frequent provocateurs of heart rate disorders include such diseases:
- Hypertension is one of the most common pathologies among middle-aged and elderly people. Hypertension is an incurable disease, but it can be kept under control with medication,
- congenital pathologies of conduction of the heart - here are meant defects of the organ conducting system that cause disturbance of the heart rate upwards or downwards,
- internal and external bleeding - entail a decrease in circulating blood volume, which causes arrhythmias,
- pheochromocytoma - a tumor localized in the adrenal glands. This disease is currently not fully understood, but it is known that pheochromocytoma often causes a change in heart rate,
- hypothermia - a decrease in body temperature to the level of 35 degrees. The state develops under the influence of unfavorable factors (freezing) or as a result of severe pathologies, intoxication of the body with drugs, alcohol,
- hyperthermia - an increase in body temperature. At the same time, patients experience rapid breathing and heart rate.
Causes of arrhythmia depending on the type
Violation of the heart rhythm causes a lot of unpleasant manifestations in a person. These include the sensation of acceleration or, conversely, the slowing down of body contractions, pain in the sternum, shortness of breath, asphyxiation, dizziness and migraine. In severe cases, possible loss of consciousness. There are several types of pathological rhythm, each of which is caused by certain provoking circumstances.
Sinus bradycardia is a decrease in heart rate to 50–55 beats per minute. The condition is caused by pathological or functional provoking factors. Most often occurs on the background of arterial hypotension, diseases of the thyroid gland and other pathologies.
Signs of bradycardia include a feeling of fading of the heart, weakness, dizziness, loss of ability to work, and rapid fatigue.
Here, the heart rate exceeds the norm, may be more than 90 beats per minute. A person feels a strong heartbeat, shortness of breath, a panic attack, sometimes there is a headache.
Common causes of this condition are:
- stresses and excessive experiences,
- intense exercise
- high body temperature in viral and bacterial diseases,
- various pathologies, in particular hypertension, myocardial infarction.
Tachycardia is considered a dangerous condition. If it is not caused by physical exertion or stress, you should definitely look for the factor that provoked it.
Extrasystoles are a premature contraction of the heart muscle. The disease is caused by various conditions, for example, pathologies of a vital organ, smoking, lack of potassium, myocardial diseases, consumption of beverages containing caffeine, energy drinks.
Symptoms of extrasystole include the feeling of fear, difficulty falling asleep, loss of ability to work, decline in school performance, fading or increased heart rate, increased sweating.
It is considered the most dangerous among other types of cardiac arrhythmias. At the same time, a person has a chaotic flicker of the ventricles and atria. This entails the deterioration of blood flow and nutrition of the body with necessary substances. Long-term seizures lead to the development of such dangerous states as myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism and others.
Common causes of atrial fibrillation:
- hypertension - a constant increase in blood pressure affects the state of the blood vessels,
- heart failure - entails various deviations in the functioning of the myocardium, while atrial fibrillation acts as a frequent symptom,
- myocardial tumors - neoplasms that appear as a result of tissue growth, are a direct provocative factor
- heart damage during surgery,
- endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis - inflammatory, viral and infectious diseases often catalyze the violation of the alternation of ventricular contraction,
- congenital or acquired defects - while atrial fibrillation can develop regardless of the age and sex of the patient,
- pathology of vessels that feed the organ,
- long-term angina - persistent rhythm increase has a negative effect on the heart.
Extracardiac factors include pathologies of the thyroid gland, intoxication of the body with chemical and toxic substances (alcohol, drugs, food poisoning), diabetes. Often, this deviation is diagnosed in athletes after prolonged physical exertion, with bronchitis, pneumonia. Another contributing factor is sleep apnea.
This type is most often diagnosed in adolescents and children. It is associated with a violation of the reduction of different parts of the heart. The clinical picture at the same time is shown in the form of fading or frequent heartbeat. As a rule, this species does not require specific therapy, it passes with age on its own.
Blockades are a deviation in the work of the body associated with slowing down or completely stopping the transmission of an electrical impulse through myocardial tissues. In this case, a person may lose the pulse, increase sweating, he quickly gets tired, feels fading or fast heartbeat.
There are blockades on the background of myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, cardiosclerosis, myocardial infarction. There are also congenital blockade.
Rhythm disturbance is often caused by taking certain medications. This fact is necessarily taken into account by doctors when making a diagnosis. Consider which drugs are able to act as catalysts for disrupting organ activity:
- drugs including adrenaline, caffeine, atropine,
- reduces the heart rate of reserpine,
- lowers contractions of the heart and improper use of clonidine,
- beta blockers increase rhythm.
Cardiac glycosides and some other drugs can reduce the rate of organ strokes.
Prognosis for the patient
Arrhythmia is a common phenomenon in people of all age groups, due to a variety of precipitating factors. In most cases, the physiological type does not pose a danger to the health and life of the patient, which cannot be said of the conditions caused by various pathologies. With timely identification of the problem and its proper treatment, the prognosis for the patient is often more favorable. Lack of therapy often leads to complications and death.
Heart rhythm and conduction disorder
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