Hygiene

Signs of ovulation that every woman should know

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To reliably determine the presence and time of ovulation, you can conduct ultrasound monitoring of follicular development and ovulation with a qualified specialist, and you can take a blood test for progesterone approximately one week after confirmed ovulation. Ovulation can also be traced by ovulation tests (which are based on an abrupt release of LH), after making sure on an ultrasound that ovulation occurs.

So, consider in more detail the methods for determining ovulation, their advantages and disadvantages.

The most reliable today are - ultrasound monitoring and ovulation tests (determining the level of LH in the urine):

ULTRASONIC MONITORING

The most informative method of the existing.

- allows you to assess the general condition of the uterus and ovaries, their compliance with the phase of the cycle and identify some abnormalities (for example, cysts and fibroids),

- allows you to monitor the development of follicles (or detect its absence) throughout the cycle, to predict the approximate timing of the approaching ovulation (as the follicles reach ovulatory size - 18-20 mm) and confirm the fact of ovulation that occurred (the presence of a yellow body in the place of the dominant follicle and free fluid in the backspace),

- allows you to evaluate cyclical changes in the endometrium and to identify some violations,

- allows you to identify such ovulation disorders as - premature luteinization of the immature follicle with the formation of the corpus luteum (with all other signs, including PH tests and BT, will indicate ovulation, but in fact - it is not and pregnancy is impossible), follicle regression, follicular cyst (a consequence of estrogen deficiency and lack of LH-peak),

- with irregular cycles and hormonal disorders, it helps to clarify the reasons for the delay and decide on the need for treatment (for example, if several months there is no dynamics of follicle growth or a slight delay of ovulation for 1-2 weeks, which does not require treatment).

- in the hands of an unqualified doctor, the method loses all its value and informativeness, turns it into a waste of money or (worse,) false diagnoses, incorrect treatment and continuous hassle.

- ultrasound does not allow to judge the patency of the tubes, the presence of adhesive processes, inflammation, endometriosis, etc. (only laparoscopy can provide such information).

Homemade Ovulation Test Strips

- allow you to predict the onset of ovulation with an accuracy of 24-48 hours,

- may show a “false” PH-peak (not indicative of ovulation) for various ovulatory disorders (for example, premature follicle luteinization or ovarian membranes that are too dense), therefore, prior to using these tests, it is recommended to conduct a preliminary ultrasound monitoring to confirm ovulation in 1 2 cycles (in parallel with it, you can start using tests to verify their effectiveness and adapt to the peculiarities of their work).

Good results are achieved when sharing ultrasound monitoring (or a combination of other additional features, if you know enough features of your body) and ovulation tests (you can not waste tests, but wait until the follicle reaches about 18-20 mm when he is able to ovulate, then you can begin to do tests every day).

Additional methods for determining ovulation

In addition to ultrasound monitoring and home test strips for ovulation (LH in the urine), there are other methods and symptoms that can be used as additional to the first two. At the same time, it is necessary to understand that in no case should they be taken as a basis, without being convinced of their reliability and indicativeness specifically for your body regarding the results of ultrasound, tests and hormonal analyzes):

These methods are very unreliable and should be used only as additional (for ultrasound and hormonal monitoring). They categorically can not be used for making any diagnoses and, especially, to determine the need or timing of the use of hormonal drugs!

Basal temperature

- the simplest, cheapest and most affordable method for home use of all existing (but to determine the degree of reliability of this method for each woman) it is necessary to conduct a preliminary comparison of temperature graphs with the results of ultrasound monitoring at least in 1-2 cycles, otherwise - not It is strongly to trust the thermometer readings),

- with regular and irregular cycles, it is possible to determine the cause of the delay - late ovulation, no ovulation or pregnancy (more than 18 days of elevated temperatures), provided that - if the graphs reflect the real picture (usually have a clear two-phase and correspond to the ultrasound results, see the previous paragraph) .

- does not give any information about the timing of the upcoming ovulation - does not allow to predict its occurrence, - does not give accurate information about the timing of ovulation occurred (the temperature can rise the next day, and a few days after ovulation - this is within the normal range, or there will be little differ from the picture in the first phase - this is also normal if the results of ultrasound and hormones are normal) - does not give accurate information about the presence of full ovulation even in the presence of two-phase graphs (for example, in the case of premature luteinization ikula), - does not give any information about the usefulness of the yellow body function - neither about the phase length (the temperature can rise several days after ovulation), nor about the level of progesterone produced by the yellow body (the thermometer does not allow to determine the quantitative level of progesterone in the blood - to assess the level of progesterone, it is necessary to have a blood test one week after ovulation), does not provide accurate information about the absence of ovulation in cases of a “fence” or the absence of an obvious second phase on the graphs (in this case it is necessary to conduct ultrasound monitoring and, in the presence of ovulation by ultrasound, a blood test for progesterone should be performed one week after ovulation, if the results of both studies are normal - such graphs can be considered as a “feature” of the body and stop measuring temperature if it is not indicative.

It is not recommended to use for the "diagnosis" of any "violations" and the appointment of hormonal drugs! This requires more modern types of diagnostics - ultrasound and hormonal.

Not recommended for pregnancy protection.

The nature of cervical (cervical) mucus

Additional feature. Usually, under the influence of an increase in the level of estrogen, by the time of ovulation, the nature and structure of cervical mucus change to a more fertile and favorable for sperm. At the same time, it can resemble raw egg white in consistency - it is transparent, very elastic and slippery (it can stretch up to 10 cm or more).

- on this basis, one can only judge about changes in the level of estrogen, but ovulation occurs only after an abrupt “release” of luteinizing hormone (see - “test strips for ovulation”), which does not affect the nature of the cervical mucus,

- increased estrogen levels (and a characteristic change in cervical mucus) can be observed not only on days close to ovulation, but also on menstruation days, in the middle of the luteal phase (corpus luteum) and during pregnancy,

- depending on the overall level of estrogen in each woman (or hormonal drugs taken), the cervical mucus can be fertile throughout the entire cycle, or vice versa - not at all to reach a fertile state, both of which are not pathological, if the blood test results are Estradiol is normal and there are no problems with ovulation.

Fern Method

Additional feature. This method is based on the work of various “microscopes” and “gadgets” to determine ovulation.

This method, like the previous one, is based on the changing nature of saliva and cervical mucus under the influence of estrogens. In this case, on the ability of saliva and cervical mucus when drying on glass to form “crystals” (patterns resembling fern leaves, which can be seen with some magnification).

- the same as the previous method,

- depending on the overall level of estrogen in each woman (or hormonal drugs), such “ferns” can be observed throughout the entire cycle, and completely absent - this is a standard situation, which is not a pathology, provided there is ovulation on ultrasound and no hormonal problems.

Not recommended for pregnancy protection.

Based on the same principles (changes in the structure and nature of saliva under the influence of estrogens), the work of the “May Be Baby” microscopes (according to the “fern” method) and electronic devices “Eva-test” (analysis of the chemical composition of saliva) is based. Depending on the individual level of estrogen in a woman, such tests will “deceive” - to show the absence of ovulation when it is, or to show “favorable days” for most of the cycle.

Cervix

Additional feature. By the time of ovulation, the cervix also begins to change. In its normal state, it is hard, closed, low and dry (which prevents sperm from entering the cervix through it). But under the influence of estrogen, it “rises”, becomes soft and loose. In addition, it also begins to produce fertile cervical mucus (a favorable environment for the penetration of sperm into the uterus).

- as in the two previous cases, depending on the individual level of estrogen in a woman, this symptom can be expressed very clearly (for most of the cycle), or vice versa (“difficult to see” even for an experienced eye).

Signs of ovulation to determine its occurrence

If suddenly one of the readers has forgotten school biology lessons, we will conduct a very brief educational program. Ovulation is the process of release of a ripe egg cell from a burst ovarian follicle into the abdominal cavity. At this point, the egg is ideally prepared to merge with the sperm and conceive a child.
Ovulation usually occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle (if it is regular and without failures).

At these moments, it is worthwhile to intensify your efforts for couples who want to conceive a child, and to slow down couples (that is, to be especially carefully protected), who are not planning to replenish the family yet.

Ovulation begins to occur every month with the onset of the first menstruation and does not stop until the onset of menopause. The only natural break is pregnancy, childbirth and a certain postpartum period.
There are cases when a woman has serious problems with reproductive health, then ovulation may not occur at all.

Naturally, the lack of ovulation makes it impossible to conceive, but modern medicine has learned in most cases to successfully cope with this problem, which can be caused by various factors.

In modern reproductive health centers, gynecologists artificially stimulate the onset of ovulation through hormone therapy. In the most extreme case, an IVF procedure is performed in which a successfully fertilized egg can be transplanted to a patient.

But back to the topic of ovulation. The timing of its occurrence and signs of ovulation is useful to know all women, without exception, since it helps to determine the days most favorable for conception, or prevent unplanned pregnancy. Of course, provided that the menstrual cycle is stable, otherwise it is difficult to predict anything.

By the way, there is a perception that a precise definition of the onset of ovulation can even help conceive a child of a certain sex. Allegedly, if you have sex one or two days before ovulation, the likelihood of having a girl is high, and on day X, a boy is likely. This is due to the theory that sperm carriers of male chromosomes move faster, but not so hardy, therefore, on the day of ovulation, they “reach” the egg cell more quickly. But slower, but persistent, like marathon, sperm with female chromosomes swim to the egg, even when the impatient "micro-men" die on the way - on the eve of the egg's release. However, officially gynecologists do not confirm this information, so we voice it exclusively to expand the reader's outlook.

Signs of ovulation in bright form may not be observed in all women, but you should still try to listen to your well-being on the desired days closer to the middle of the cycle.

Possible signs of ovulation:
- poured chest.
- It can be painful to whine in the lower abdomen (for a short time, otherwise it is a reason to be wary and to consult a doctor).
- Enhanced flatulence.
- Mood swings (especially outbursts of irritation and a desire to burst into tears for no particular reason).
- A sharp jump in sexual desire.
- Strengthening of vaginal secretions and a change in their structure (more viscous and in much larger quantities).
- During an ultrasound examination, the gynecologist will notice that the cervix has slightly opened and became softer and “friable” in structure.

True, some symptoms are similar to signs of premenstrual syndrome? Sometimes the symptoms of ovulation and PMS are even confused. And some gynecologists believe that painful ovulations should not be considered normal and require a search for possible pathologies of women's health.

So if you suffer from pain in the abdomen during ovulation, this is a serious reason to see a doctor.

Methods for determining ovulation

There are also several basic ways to determine the onset of ovulation, which is based on its symptoms.
1. Ovulation tests
They have the same principle of action as pregnancy tests, and are sold in the same way at any pharmacy. Using urine at home, it is easy to determine the level of luteinizing hormone. Such tests are done 5-6 days before the expected onset of ovulation.
2. Measurement of basal temperature
This method will require a little patience and skill. You need daily in the morning (without getting out of bed!) To measure the temperature by the rectal method for 5 minutes using the same mercury thermometer. From the obtained indicators it is necessary to build a graph, which should look like a single straight line, which one day will “fail” abruptly, and then it will also soar sharply. This will be the output of the egg - it is ovulation. True, the reliability of this method does not exceed 70% probability.
3. Calendar calculations (as well as an online ovulation calculator)
If you keep a calendar of your periods (and most women usually keep it), then with a regular cycle, it is easy to calculate on which day ovulation should occur on a certain number of days. It occurs 12-16 days (depending on the duration of the cycle) before the menstruation. If you are not sure of your mathematical abilities, it does not matter - you can easily find on the Internet an online calculator for calculating the day of ovulation.
4. Ultrasound examination
The most accurate and win-win way to determine the onset of ovulation - go to an ultrasound to a doctor. Ultrasound can even trace the development of the ovarian follicle - from its growth to the moment of rupture and release of the egg. True, it is worth being ready to spend time and money on surveys every day after the end of the monthly.

It is worth noting that even a healthy woman with a regular cycle can skip ovulation, since her hormonal background is affected by many external and internal factors, including stress, an abrupt climate change (that is, long journeys), an overstrain or a banal ARVI.

So consider this when planning conception or protection. Health to you, dear readers!

What is ovulation day and why do you need to know it?

According to statistical studies, every fifth couple in Russia is barren, even more couples are having difficulty conceiving. “Why doesn’t it work?” - the spouses turn to the gynecologist with this question. But everything turns out to be trivial: either the girl’s reproductive cycle is disturbed, as a result of which ovulation does not occur, or the conception takes place on an inappropriate day.

It is worth the girl, together with the doctor to determine the time of release of the egg, pregnancy immediately begins. That is why the day of ovulation is so important to know both girls and men.

A woman's menstrual cycle is counted from the first day of the last menstrual period to the first day after. Normally, this time period is 21 - 35 (average 28) days. A mature egg normally leaves 12-16 days (on average 14 days) from the first day of the reproductive cycle.

A young, physically healthy woman with a regular partner and regular sexual intercourse does not need to know the exact time of ovulation. Это скорее актуально для тех, кто не имеет постоянных половых отношений, либо если у мужчины выявлена низкая подвижность его сперматозоидов. В таком случае зачатие наиболее вероятно в день овуляции или за пару дней до нее.

Многим известно, что точное знание дня овуляции – один из методов предохранения от нежелательной беременности. Но необходимо помнить, что это не достаточно надежный метод. The average lifespan of male sperm cells is about three days, which is why after intercourse, which occurred on the eve of the day of the egg's release, fertilization occurs in most cases.

If you are not planning a pregnancy, then during the “risk” period and a few days before it, the use of a condom or other methods of contraception is necessary.

Methods for determining ovulation:

For women with a stable menstrual cycle, there are many different methods and methods for determining the exact time of ovulation. For women with any diseases of the reproductive system or hormonal disruptions, it will be difficult to determine the exact time correctly, and for young girls, when the menstrual cycle has not yet been established (in the first 1-3 years from the beginning of the first menstruation), it is completely impossible . Most accurately your menstrual cycle will be able to explore medical professionals.
We will tell you about the traditional methods of determining ovulation, and about modern, which are widely used and popular among the population now.

Gynecological examination by a doctor

Ovulation is determined during a routine examination of a woman on a gynecological chair. This is a traditional method that has been popular for more than a decade.

The fact is that two days before ovulation, certain changes occur in the uterus and cervical canal: the consistency of the muscle layer of the uterus and cervix becomes soft, the cervical canal opens slightly, and a large amount of viscous, viscous mucus can be observed inside it. In medicine, this phenomenon is called the "symptom of the pupil."

This method is based on identifying the above changes during the inspection of a woman. The advantages of the method is that these changes persist for 1-2 days after ovulation, and if you are examined by an experienced gynecologist, then it will not be difficult for him to notice them.

Ovarian ultrasound for ovulation

In terms of reliability and accuracy of determining ovulation, a woman has no equal to this method. An experienced diagnostician can easily determine the readiness of your body to conceive a child.

With the help of ultrasound, the entire process of follicle maturation is visualized, and it is even possible to record how a mature egg leaves the ovaries. In this case, the follicle in the reproductive organs will not be able to see, instead it is visible yellow body. In addition, after ovulation behind the uterus, the scanner will be able to fix a small accumulation of fluid that gets there from a bursting follicle.

This method has only one drawback: a woman in the middle of the cycle will have to go to the examination daily for a week, and sometimes more. But at the same time, this method is so accurate that determining the time of ovulation will not be a big problem.

Hormonal research methods

This is an expensive and rather time-consuming study. Appointed to a woman, the long-awaited pregnancy which has not occurred for many years. It is carried out, as a rule, in order to see whether ovulation occurs in the body of a woman.

The method is based on determining the level of hormones in the biochemical analysis of blood. An increase in gonadotropic hormones of the hypothalamus will tell about the approaching ovulation. The fact that ovulation has already been and are approaching new menstruation can be found by increasing progesterone.

How to determine ovulation at home

Many girls are well aware of how to determine ovulation, while not registering for an appointment with a gynecologist. There are many methods that have already been tested by more than a dozen women. Choosing the most suitable for you ovulation test at home, you need to remember that these methods are not highly accurate. Therefore, it is recommended to use not one method, but several at once, in order to get a more reliable result.

Basal temperature

A very well-known method was used in the century when modern methods were not invented. Widespread in our day. Therefore, we now consider how to measure the basal temperature to determine ovulation.

During the entire reproductive cycle, body temperature is also subject to cyclic changes. The method is based on the fact that the girl measures basal body temperature daily with an ordinary mercury thermometer every morning. Measurements are usually carried out in the rectum. It should be noted that this should be done at the same time of day, and the results of each measurement should be entered into a special schedule, where the measurement result itself (temperature) is recorded vertically, and the day of the cycle is horizontally.

In a healthy girl, starting from the second half of the reproductive cycle, the physiological rise in body temperature is recorded (approximately 0.5 o C). Before the next menstruation, the elevated temperature is maintained. A sharp decrease in temperature (about 0.6 o C) in the middle of the cycle, which should precede its further increase, will tell about the accomplished ovulation.

Constant body temperature that lasts throughout the entire cycle is a sign of a dysfunction of the organs of the reproductive system.

However, we must remember that there are a number of factors affecting the basal body temperature. They can distort the results, so the girl strictly notes their presence in the chart. Among them:

  • Infectious and other inflammatory diseases,
  • Short shallow sleep,
  • Alcohol consumption,
  • Sexual contact 3 hours before the temperature measurement,
  • Unstable temperature in the room where the girl is
  • Regular intake of hormonal drugs.

Feels like

Quite a subjective method for determining the day of ovulation. Not every girl is able to feel the rupture of the follicle. However, some women feel at the same time any non-specific signs: pain, discomfort, felt mainly in the lower abdomen. This is due to the fact that the fallopian tubes are reduced, capturing the egg and directing it to the uterus.

A change in hormonal levels will also manifest itself: a woman will become more alluring, self-confident and attracting the attention of men.

Saliva Ovulation Tests

Changes in hormonal levels on the eve of the release of the egg affects not only the vaginal discharge, but also the state of saliva, which also becomes more viscous, viscous. If you look through a microscope, then such a saliva will be characterized by the formation of a pattern in the form of a fern, which is not the case with saliva outside the period of ovulation. To fix such a change, you can use a special microscope, which you can buy at the pharmacy.

It is small in size, convenient to use. And if you feel difficulties in using it, then look at the enclosed instructions, where you can find all the information you need.

By mucous secretions from the genital tract

During ovulation, a woman may notice a change in secretions from the genital tract: mucus becomes more viscous, transparent, viscous, stands out in large quantities.

Attentive women sometimes even notice the ingress of moisture in their underwear. After ovulation, vaginal secretions return to normal.

Urinary Ovulation Tests

The modern method of determining ovulation, which is very simple and inexpensive at the same time. With the release of the egg in the blood increases the concentration of luteinizing (LH) hormone, which begins to be excreted in the urine. The method is based on the use of special test strips capable of detecting the appearance of this hormone in the urine. To determine whether ovulation has occurred, or is it only expected, it is enough to simply drop the test into a container with urine. Interpretation of the results is carried out by the number of strips:

  • One - ovulation has not yet been,
  • Two - ovulation has just occurred, or will happen soon.

The study is best done daily in the morning 17 days before the start of the expected menstruation. To increase the reliability of the results (and for this you need to hormones in the urine were highly concentrated), avoid drinking plenty of water and frequent urination on the eve of the test.

Recently, several more tests have been invented that are more accurate than test strips: a test tablet, an inkjet test, a reusable test, an electronic test. All of them you can easily find on the shelves of pharmacies.

Calculate ovulation using an online calculator

In the global Internet you can find a lot of online calculators to calculate ovulation. They will calculate your calendar of the menstrual cycle for the coming months, indicating fertile days (favorable for conception) and days when pregnancy is impossible. To do this, you need to know: the duration of the cycle, the estimated date of the expected menstruation and their usual duration. However, this method will be useful and reliable for women who have a regular cycle, since the calculation in such calculators is made on the basis of average data.

How to determine the days of ovulation?

With a menstrual cycle of 28 days, ovulation usually happens.mid cycleWith a longer or shorter cycle, ovulation most often occurs.12-14 days before the start of regular regulations.

Signs of ovulation are very subjective, but a woman, watching her body, can notice some changes these days and be guided by these signs.

For example, some women notice during ovulation increased sexual attraction. For some, in the middle of a cycle, tingling sensation in lower abdomen and pains. Occasionally noted in vaginal discharge blood streaks.

The amount and nature of the vaginal fluid may increase, it becomes more like clear stretching mucus, it can be stretched to 5 cm or more. If you enter the well-washed middle and index fingers into the vagina, capturing its contents, then you can check the resulting discharge for extensibility. A day after the passage of ovulation, secretions of the mucous character become less, they become cloudy and cease to stretch.
For the menstrual cycle in which ovulation occurred, it is characteristic breast engorgement before menstruationand low weight gainin the second phase of the cycle.

All methods for determining ovulation

Even in women with a constant menstrual cycle, ovulation is possible on different days, so when planning a pregnancy, you can use specially designed test strips, ultrasound and other methods that we will talk about to accurately determine the onset of ovulation.

  1. Ovulation Tests

    To determine the onset of ovulation, kits have been developed that measure the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine. Prior to ovulation, the increased flow of PH “signals” the ovaries to release the egg. This occurs approximately 14 days after menstruation. Ovulation kits contain detailed instructions, as well as a chart that will help determine the days when you need to start a urine test. If the test strip captures an increased level of LH, then this means that ovulation will occur within 48 hours.
    The kits are test strips resembling pregnancy tests. They are used as follows: the test is dipped into a container with urine, waiting for a few minutes. If one strip appeared on the test, the result is negative, but if there is two, then a positive one means that ovulation will occur in 1-2 days.
    Also, special devices have been developed for assessing the level of LH in the urine, which are sold with a kit for urine samples. The cost of such a set is 200-250 dollars, but its information content is not higher than the usual test strips.

  2. Determination of ovulation by basal temperature

    The second way to determine the onset of ovulation is a change in basal body temperature. For scheduling changes in BTT, it is necessary to measure body temperature after sleep for several hours. Making a graph of temperature indicators, it is possible to calculate when ovulation occurs. With ovulation, there is an active production of such a hormone as progesterone, which assists the uterus in preparation for the intended fertilization. It is an increase in progesterone level that causes fluctuations in BTT, which, after the release of a mature egg, increases dramatically.

  3. Determination of ovulation using ultrasound

    Another way to calculate favorable days for conceiving a child is ultrasound - ultrasound diagnosis. Ultrasound clearly shows the growth of follicles and the onset of ovulation. The ultrasound method is the most accurate in determining the onset of ovulation. However, to obtain a diagnostic result, the study should be carried out several times in a short period of time.
    However, this method of diagnosing the onset of ovulation is most often used for those couples who have difficulty conceiving and who do not have a long pregnancy.

  4. Determination of ovulation by saliva or vaginal discharge

    The following method for determining the time of ovulation is based on the measurement of an increase in the level of estrogen in saliva and vaginal mucus that occurs before ovulation. When the sample is dried out, a specific pattern appears. This research is done with a microscope. A droplet of saliva is applied to the glass (which is taken from the very morning before brushing your teeth and having breakfast). Then the glass is examined through a microscope. If during the drying of the secretions a clear pattern was not formed, but points were formed in a chaotic order, then this indicates that ovulation did not occur (in the photo in Fig. 1). When approaching ovulation fragments of the pattern are formed (Fig. 2), which becomes the most clear 1-2 days before the onset of ovulation (Fig. 3). After ovulation, the picture disappears again.


    This is a method for determining ovulation days. can be used at homebecause When purchasing a special microscope, schematic drawings corresponding to the day of the menstrual cycle are attached to it. This microscope is small and easily fits not only on a shelf in the bathroom, but also, if necessary, in a purse.
    The reliability of this method reaches 95%. However, the result may be distorted due to inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, smoking or taking alcohol before conducting the study.

In conclusion, I would like to emphasize once again that the lack of ovulation in one particular menstrual cycle does not indicate the absence of ovulation in general. The most accurate results can only be obtained. with a comprehensive examination.

What is ovulation

From the first day of menstruation, the woman begins the next menstrual cycle. Depending on the physiological characteristics of the organism (hereditary or acquired after birth), its duration is individual. In some women, the cycle is short (21-23 days), in others it is long (it may consist of 35 days or even more). The end of the cycle is considered the last day before the next menstruation. If menstruation comes after approximately an equal number of days, then it is said that a woman has a regular menstrual cycle, and if the number of days between menstruation is not constant, then it is irregular.

Ovulation is the time when a mature egg leaves the follicle, the capsule that surrounds it and is located in the ovary. Here, even before birth, an individual stock of ova is formed, which during the life of a woman can mature during a cycle. In the first (follicular) phase, a so-called dominant follicle with an egg cell is formed.

If there are no abnormalities in the reproductive system, then ovulation occurs, after which the second (luteal) phase begins. During this period, the mature egg moves into the fallopian tube, where spermatozoa enter during intercourse. It is possible fertilization and the onset of pregnancy.

If conception does not occur, the egg cell dies after about 12-24 hours and is removed from the uterus along with the functional layer of the endometrium. There is another menstrual bleeding.

Calendar method of determining

The time of release of the egg from the follicle can only be determined approximately, since it depends on the duration of the whole cycle and many other factors (functioning of the reproductive organs, changes in hormonal levels, general health).

Normally, the duration of the luteal phase is approximately 14 days. This means that the duration of the follicular phase is equal to the difference between the total duration of the cycle and the number 14. Therefore, theoretically, the day of the onset of ovulation is:

  • 7 - with a 21-day cycle,
  • 11 - with a 25-day,
  • 14 - at 28 days,
  • 21 - at 35 days.

This method of calculation is called the calendar. Regularly marking in the calendar the days of the beginning and end of menstruation, a completely healthy woman with a regular menstrual cycle can predict which days of the month she is most likely to conceive. Considering that cycles are quite often irregular, and not every woman can boast of perfect health, deviations in terms can be significant. In addition, anovulatory cycles may occur when conception cannot occur at all. In this case, a woman planning a pregnancy, it will be in vain to hope for its occurrence. Поэтому назвать такой метод определения начала овуляции эффективным нельзя.

First manifestations

Характер влагалищных выделений. Throughout the cycle, it changes repeatedly, as the work of glands that produce mucus is directly related to fluctuations in the ratio of hormones in the body. You may notice that immediately after menstruation, there is almost no discharge (they are so thick that they form a stopper in the cervix). By the time of ovulation, they become abundant, stretching, in color and appearance resemble egg white.

After it passes, the amount of mucus decreases. If there is no change in its consistency, it means that there was no ovulation.

It is not always easy to notice such a sign, as the state of mucus is affected by the presence of infectious diseases, the use of lubricant during sexual intercourse, and a woman’s sexual excitability.

Ovulatory bleeding. The fact that ovulation occurred can be judged by insignificant bleeding on a certain day of the cycle. They appear as daubs and quickly disappear. If the "bleeding" is prolonged and is accompanied by other symptoms of a violation of the cycle, this indicates diseases of the genital organs.

Changes in the state of the mammary glands. Before ovulation occurs, a feeling of swelling and soreness usually appears in the chest, nipple sensitivity is increased. Such a condition can persist until the onset of menstruation, therefore, it is almost impossible to determine the end of ovulation.

Pain in the abdomen. At the time of the rupture of the shell of the follicle and the release of the egg from it, particularly sensitive women feel a slight stabbing pain in the groin. Characteristically, short-term pain comes from the side of the ovary, where the dominant follicle grows.

Enhance sexuality. The body instinctively responds to the hormonal shift that occurs at the time of completion of the maturation of the egg and the appearance of the maximum possibility of its fertilization.

Saliva crystallization (arborization effect). An increase in the level of estrogen in the first half of the cycle leads to an increase in the salt content in saliva. This can be noticed already a few days before the onset of ovulation. If saliva is applied to the glass, then under the microscope it is noticeable that crystallization occurs in it, and a pattern appears in the form of fern leaves. After completion of the ovulatory process, the density of saliva decreases.

Addition: If a woman for several months draws attention to her feelings at different periods of the cycle, she may notice that, due to the approach of ovulation, she is more sensitive to odors. Some feel bloating.

All these signs are not accurate enough, as subjective feelings may be erroneous.

Changing the state of the cervix. By the time of ovulation, the cervix becomes softer, it increases the production of cervical mucus. In addition, the position of the neck changes, it shifts higher. This creates the conditions for the penetration of sperm into the uterus. Some women are able to recognize changes in the state of the cervix by touch.

The gynecologist during the examination detects them by the appearance of the "pupil effect". Approximately a week before ovulation, the diameter of the cervical canal begins to increase, so the outlet becomes like a pupil.

Home Ways to Track Ovulation

There are ways by which you can more reliably at home to make sure that ovulation is approaching.

Plotting basal temperature. A sign indicating the approach and occurrence of ovulation is an increase in basal temperature. It is usually measured rectally. This eliminates the influence of external factors on body temperature. To build a graph, it is measured every day at the same time throughout the cycle. Before ovulation, the temperature value is about 0.4 ° –0.6 ° higher than at the beginning of the cycle. After reaching a peak at the time of ovulation, it begins to decline.

If fertilization occurs, no decrease in temperature is observed.

To obtain a more accurate result, temperature measurement must be carried out within a few months. Should refuse to take alcohol. Measurements are not made during illness.

The use of tests. The principle of action of pharmacy tests for ovulation is based on the fact that before its onset in the urine of a woman, the concentration of the luteinizing hormone of the pituitary gland (LH), regulating the flow of phase 2 of the cycle, sharply increases. A sign of approximation of ovulation is a change in the intensity of the color of the strips impregnated with a substance that reacts to LH. The first bar is the control one. If the second strip is stained weakly, it means that 1-1.5 days are left before ovulation. Intense staining suggests that ovulation will occur in the coming hours.

Testing is done for several days in order not to miss the moment of interest. In order to find out from which day of the cycle it is necessary to begin the test, it is necessary to subtract 17 from the cycle duration (14 + 3 = 17, where 14 is the duration of the 2 phases of the cycle, and 3 is the possible error). Thus, it is determined that it is necessary to begin measurements, for example, on day 7, if the cycle continues 24 days or on day 11, if in a cycle 28 days.

Signs of End of Ovulation

Knowing which day ovulation is over, we can assume that in 2 days the probability of pregnancy will significantly decrease.

A warning: It is impossible to consider the following days to be completely “safe”, since deviations sometimes appear (for example, spontaneous maturation of another egg occurs), due to which conception is, in principle, possible on any day of the cycle.

Signs that ovulation has taken place are a decrease in the intensity and elasticity of the discharge, a weakening of the sexual attraction, the disappearance of one-sided stabbing pain in the ovaries. Measurement of basal temperature shows its decline.

Signs of anovulatory cycle

Anovulatory cycles often appear in girls at the onset of puberty, as well as in women on the eve of menopause. The reason is the instability of the hormonal background. In the first case, it is caused by the immaturity of the ovaries, and in the second - by their aging.

Often, cycles without ovulation appear in women during breastfeeding due to increased production of prolactin and a decrease in the content of FSH and LH hormones in the body.

An imbalance of hormones can occur with prolonged treatment with hormonal drugs. Artificial suppression of ovulation with the purpose of contraception is achieved by taking oral contraceptives. Cycles without ovulation can occur in women after stress, physical fatigue, a sharp decrease or increase in body weight, changing climatic conditions.

The absence of ovulation is indicated by the fact that during the cycle there are no signs of changes in the consistency of the secretions, the state of the mammary glands. There are also no ovulatory bleeding and ovarian tenderness.

If a young woman does not have ovulations for a long time, it is necessary to consult a doctor and find out the cause of this condition.

Fertile period

Fertility is the ability to bear children, the sum of the ability to conceive, bear and give birth to a child. Fertility days are a short period before, during and after ovulation. Only in this period of time can a woman become pregnant.

The fertile period should begin three days before and end two days after the follicle matures and the egg is released. That is, the fertility of a woman lasts only 5 days in each month.

How to calculate the fertile period

What is ovulation and how to calculate it - questions that sooner or later each woman will be interested in. Female ovulation is a physiological process in which a mature egg leaves the ovary and moves through the fallopian tube to the uterus for further fertilization. It comes about 14-15 days after the beginning of the last menstrual period.

The ideal time for the merger of the egg with the sperm - that's what ovulation is in simple words. There are various methods for calculating the favorable time for conception, but the most common among them are the following:

  • calendar method
  • basal temperature measurement and scheduling,
  • Ultrasound,
  • ovulation test.

Each of these options will easily help determine the days of ovulation in the weaker sex.

Calendar method

The ovulation calendar as the main way to determine it is used by so many women. It does not need anything except the calendar, knowledge of the characteristics of the menstrual cycle and the basics of mathematics.

From the duration of the menstrual cycle, which varies from 21 to 38 days, it is necessary to take 14 days, and the date most suitable for conception will be obtained.

The formula is as follows: 29-14 = 15, which means that on the fifteenth day there comes a moment of release of a ripe egg cell, that is, the day of ovulation. This is perhaps the simplest of all the options, but with irregular periods it is not informative. Usually use online menstrual calculators. Just install the program on the phone, and the girl is always at hand information about the upcoming favorable day to work on the conception of the crumbs.

Plotting basal temperature

The most accurate method is to compile a basal temperature chart, which must be measured rectally in the morning, without getting out of bed. The schedule should look like this: 36.4-36.7 - this temperature is maintained for the first 10-15 days after the onset of menstruation, then it drops a little, after which there is a sharp rise to 37-37.5 - these are fertile days. The method, of course, is laborious, but at the same time it is universal, and with irregular monthly periods it is ideal.

Ultrasound Detection

The method is a determination of the productivity of the ovaries using ultrasound. The first study is carried out 6 days before the expected date of maturation of the follicle. In case of irregular menstruation, an ultrasound examination is prescribed 3-5 days after it begins, and the procedure is repeated every 48-72 hours until they see signs of a released egg, namely, the appearance of a yellow body at the site of a burst follicle. This method is considered the most reliable, but in fairness it should be noted its considerable cost.

Symptoms approximation of the fertile period

Every girl from time to time wonders what ovulation is and when it occurs. In this case, an indispensable helper will make your own body, which tells you that the period of ovulation is approaching, with the help of the following symptoms:

  • increased sex drive
  • cervical change,
  • discoloration and consistency of secretions (like egg white),
  • increase in basal temperature
  • tenderness and swelling of the mammary glands,
  • flatulence,
  • lower abdominal tenderness
  • intolerance of pungent odors,
  • nausea,
  • irritability, mood changes,
  • crystallization of saliva.

So the body reacts to a sharp release of a large number of hormones, indicating readiness for a potential pregnancy. Some women note the appearance of small bleeding during ovulation - they are considered to be the norm.

The above symptoms are collectively called “ovulatory syndrome”. But this is not a complete list, because every woman's body is individual and may have other signs that fertility has already come or is about to come.

Early and late follicle maturation

So, the questions about what ovulation in girls and when it comes, clarity introduced. It remains to be noted that under the influence of certain factors, it is early or late. These reasons include the following:

  • overwork,
  • stresses
  • too frequent intercourse,
  • work in hazardous production,
  • heavy physical exertion
  • abrupt change of diet,
  • climate change
  • alcohol abuse
  • drug abuse
  • smoking,
  • medication
  • metabolic disorders
  • hormonal disbalance,
  • the consequence of abortion,
  • recent diseases,
  • lactation time.

Sometimes this period of ovulation is a consequence of banal chance. At the same time, the fertile stage will also start out of time, which may result in an unsuccessful attempt to conceive a baby or the onset of an unwanted pregnancy. This indicates the unreliability of such a method of contraception, as the calculation of "safe days", because the body can also fail.

Stimulation as a method of treating infertility

What is stimulation? The answer to this question is very simple: this is the appointment of a woman with special medical preparations from the 5th to the 9th day of the menstrual cycle in order to treat infertility caused by a violation of the process of follicle maturation. Along with this, the entire course of treatment is regularly done by ultrasound in order to track the growth dynamics of the follicle.

Stimulation of ovulation begins only after a complete survey of the couple who wants to acquire offspring.

Sphenoid resection and laparoscopy - surgical methods used in the ineffectiveness of drug stimulation. Along with this, women often try to stimulate the growth of the follicle with folk remedies, using infusions of red brush leaves, sage, boron uterus, rose petals and other herbs that can be purchased at the nearest pharmacy. But such self-treatment is effective only for preventing or enhancing the reproductive function of a woman, and if the problem is already pronounced, then you should still contact a specialist to prescribe a comprehensive, adequate treatment.

Conclusion

Studies show that even the sex of the unborn child depends on the time of conception. If sexual intimacy occurred precisely during the period of ovulation, it is likely that a boy will be born, and sexual intercourse of the day 3-4 before or several days after it are signs that a girl will be born. We must always remember that ovulation in women, because it is the basis of the planning of pregnancy. And, as popular wisdom says, notified - it means armed!

For early pregnancy, it is important to know and be able to determine the days when ovulation occurs, since the conception of a child occurs on such days. This article will describe how to determine the onset of ovulation

For early pregnancy, it is important to know and be able to determine the days when ovulation occurs, since the conception of a child occurs on such days. This article will describe how to determine the onset of ovulation.

Determination of ovulation by basal body temperature.

Measurement of the basal temperature is carried out in the morning, while it is not desirable to get out of bed before measuring, therefore, prepare a thermometer in the evening. To measure the temperature, you can use both a simple mercury thermometer and electronic. Carefully insert a thermometer into the rectum and hold it there for five to seven minutes. Record the measured temperature in the table every day, except for the days when a woman has monthly periods. After the measurements during the cycle, you need to build a graph. To build the table above, you can specify the days of temperature measurement, on the left, indicate the possible BTT on these days. At the junction of the lines we put points, which we connect with a straight line.

On days when a sharp rise in body temperature occurs, after its rapid decrease, and ovulation occurs. This jump is explained by the fact that during ovulation, the active production of the hormone progesterone occurs, which affects the thermoregulation center in the brain. Its increase leads to fluctuations in the BTT, which, after the release of the mature egg, rises sharply. If you notice strong, not typical changes in temperature, or it does not change at all, you need to see a doctor in order to find the cause, which may be in estrogen deficiency or other factors. Schedule a basal temperature easily with the help of special applications that are placed on some women's sites or in applications.

This method is available, but not reliable at 100%, because there is not always time to measure the temperature, you can just forget about the measurement, missing days can significantly change the picture and the schedule of building the BTT

In addition, factors such as medication, sexual intercourse, climate change, stress, etc. may affect the usual and normal schedule building BTT.
Therefore, for greater confidence in determining the day X can help test for the determination of ovulation, which is sold in any pharmacy.

Determination of ovulation using ultrasound

Another way to calculate favorable days for conceiving a child is ultrasound diagnosis of internal organs. Folliculometry or determination of ovulation by ultrasound is a study that cannot be done at home, however, it is most reliable because it consists in observing the growth of the dominant follicle in the ovary, the ultrasound clearly shows the growth of follicles and the onset of ovulation. This method of diagnosing the onset of ovulation is most often used for those couples who have difficulty conceiving and who do not have pregnancy for a long time. Исследование проводится в середине цикла, до наступления предполагаемой даты овуляции. Далее процедуру повторяют через 1-2 дня.By this period, a dominant follicle of about 20 mm is formed, and the ovary contains a corpus luteum. Such echographic signs indicate the approach of ovulation. A few days later spend another ultrasound. If the follicle is no longer present, and a small amount of fluid is visualized in the pelvis, it can be argued that ovulation has occurred.

Determining the day of conception using the menstrual cycle

Choosing the exact method of determining ovulation at home without the help of pharmacy tests, you must first learn how the female body functions every month.

The menstrual cycle consists of several phases:

  • The first begins with the appearance of secretions. Such a day in gynecology is considered the first day of the cycle. The female body under the influence of hormones "cleans" the uterus (it rejects the endometrium) and prepares for the birth of an egg, without which, as you know, pregnancy does not occur. Most often, the first menstrual phase is accompanied by painful sensations that go on for 2-3 days. The duration of the unpleasant period is 3-5 days.
  • The second phase (follicular) lasts from 12 to 14 days after the termination of the discharge. During this period, the female body produces a hormone stimulating the growth of follicles, in which the coveted eggs mature. It is important to understand that in one cycle usually one, a maximum of three eggs matures. Naturally, if a woman does not stimulate ovulation with medication.
  • The third phase (ovulatory) is the most transient. Its duration is 3 days. It is these days a woman must calculate in order to become pregnant.
  • The fourth phase (luteal) completes the menstrual cycle. In recent days, the body intensively produces the hormone progesterone, which is necessary both for the implantation of a fertilized embryo and for the further preservation of pregnancy.

The above picture is observed in the case when a woman has no problems in the gynecological area. But, unfortunately, the regular cycle pleases not all the fair sex. By the way, in order not to be mistaken with the day of the beginning of the cycle and to correctly calculate the moment of conception with the help of the menstrual cycle, experts recommend purchasing a special calendar and reflecting the moments of the beginning and end of the monthly calendar.

These phases are characteristic of the 28 day menstrual cycle. At the same time, the regular periods are visited by some women only after 35 days. Accordingly, the onset of the ovulatory phase falls on 21 days from the onset of menstruation. When the fair sex in the cycle is 3 weeks, the estimated days of conception begin after 8 days.

Since it is extremely difficult to accurately determine the day of “X” by the menstrual cycle, experts recommend that future parents make daily efforts to achieve the goal starting from the 7th day of their monthly period and for 3 weeks.

The method of self-awareness or determine the day of conception by external signs

Many women use special tests or specialist help to determine ovulation. But what if there is no opportunity to visit the ultrasound room? How to determine ovulation at home without a test? It turns out you can set the day of conception on the secretions.

Cervical mucus in the first phase of the menstrual cycle, forming a kind of plug, “clogs” the cervix. This is necessary so that the "fast" spermatozoa do not penetrate prematurely into the main female organ. In addition, the closure of the "entrance" into the uterus protects it from the harmful effects of pathogenic microorganisms.

During this period, women note the absence of any discharge from the genital tract. This is due to the fact that these days the mucus in composition is thick in consistency. Gynecologists call this period "sterile", and women "dry." A few days before the egg matures, the secret of acquiring a more liquid form begins to separate. This moment is noticed by all women, as they have discharge from the genital tract, transparent and stinging in composition. By the way, often the weaker sex compares fertile mucus with egg white.

Before ovulation or on the day “X”, the discharge becomes a sticky, sticky state. Experts advise patients to attempt to conceive from the moment the characteristic secretions appear until the moment they disappear.

Not only fertile mucus will help to recognize ovulation, but also other physiological "symptoms". So, many women before the approach of the day "X" note:

  • slight reddish or light brown discharge,
  • chest pains,
  • swelling of the mammary glands,
  • pulling pain in the side or unpleasant tingling in the lower abdomen.

Of course, to determine the day of ovulation on these grounds is problematic, but if you better listen to your body, you can establish a good time for conception.

Symptom fern or determine the conception of saliva

It turns out that it is possible to catch the moment of ovulation not only by vaginal discharge. So, you can guess the day of conception by crystallization of saliva. By the way, experts say that this the most accurate method determine the day "X" at home.

So, in order to understand that a good time has come for a pregnancy to occur, a woman needs to place her saliva on a clean, dry surface and allow it to dry. When the day of ovulation approaches or it has already arrived, the saliva will crystallize.

This method received such an unusual name, because under a microscope dried dried saliva looks like fern leaf.

Basal curve or temperature method for determining ovulation

Everyone understands that planning a pregnancy with an irregular cycle is very difficult. Help with such a problem to determine the day of conception can calendar basal temperature. By the way, experts note positive reviews about this method of conception. Yes, and as practice shows, this method is accurate and in many cases leads to the onset of the desired pregnancy.

To find out the day "X" on the temperature will have to make an effort.

It is worth noting that this method of "treatment" is used not only to determine the day of conception. It is also used for:

  • identify male infertility
  • check hormonal levels in women
  • "Programming" the sex of the unborn child,
  • prevent unwanted pregnancy
  • determine the quality of the thyroid gland,
  • counting the start of the next menstrual cycle,
  • confirmation of the diagnosis (for example, when a woman is suspected of having endometritis),
  • checking the correctness of the ovaries in accordance with the days of the cycle.

To determine ovulation without testby temperature it is necessary to learn correctly, measure and display the basal curve. To do this, experts recommend to follow a number of rules:

  • The thermometer when drawing up the ovulatory curve is placed in the mouth, rectum or vagina. Unfortunately, temperature measurement in the usual way does not give accurate results, since eating, stressful situations, overheating or overcooling, as well as physical activity affect its values. When the basal temperature is measured in the mouth, a thermometer is placed under the tongue and for 5 minutes they keep the lips closed. In the remaining two cases, a narrow part of the thermometer is inserted into the vagina or anus for no longer than 3 minutes. According to experts, it is possible to obtain the most accurate results by measuring the temperature in the rectum,
  • it is necessary to take readings of the thermometer daily, including the days of menstruation,
  • basal temperature is determined once a day in the morning and it is forbidden to get out of bed before taking a measurement,
  • it is necessary to find out indications of the thermometer at the same time. Permissible error in half an hour, but no more. For lovers to soak in the crib, you need to remember that an additional 60 minutes of sleep reduces by 0.1 degrees the basal temperature. In the case when the physiological impulses of the body awaken ahead of time, it is better to immediately measure the indicators, because at the usual time they will be of little informative,
  • important in the days of measurement in time to go to bed. If, due to circumstances, a visit to the kingdom of Morpheus is postponed, it should be noted that temperature indicators can only be measured after 3 hours of continuous sleep,
  • use to measure one thermometer of any sample. The most important thing during one cycle is not to resort to the help of another thermometer. It is important to remember that mercury thermometers must be carefully shaken, as the poorly performed “work” will affect its readings,
  • it is possible to carry out measurement only in a prone position, being at complete rest. Minor turns, unnecessary movements, in general, any activity will lead to incorrect readings. Under strict ban is getting out of bed. In view of this, it is necessary to take care of the evening and put a thermometer at arm's length. Some gynecologists even advise their patients not to open their eyes until they are measured, as daylight can trigger a change in hormonal levels,
  • draw basal temperature is better immediately after measurement. At the very least, it is required to immediately take temperature readings,
  • The diary should contain not only the days of the week and the thermometer data, but also the state of health. Especially if a woman has a cold. When the usual fever of the basal body temperature occurs, it is meaningless to measure, therefore, for the period of the disease, measurements can be stopped. In addition, it is necessary to record in the notebook all sexual acts, possible travels, business trips or flights.
  • should not be overlooked drugs. Better at the time of drawing up the curve to refuse medication, especially from taking oral contraceptives. For the most part, these hormonal drugs are able to distort the normal picture of ovulation,
  • alcohol abuse is also undesirable when determining the day of conception,
  • when working in night shifts, measure the temperature during the day, after at least 3 hours of sleep.

Temperature method of determining ovulation, although it gives a lot of problems, but along with other methods (except for the “fern symptom”), it is considered one of the most informative.

Folk methods for determining ovulation

It is much easier for women with a regular cycle to become pregnant than women with ovulation disorders. Since long-term treatment is required to restore the cycle, which does not always bring results, many women resort to traditional methods of increasing the chances of conception. By the way, reviews of this method of "treatment" are very positive.

So, to improve ovulation and, accordingly, increase the chances of conception with the help of medicinal herbs

  • Sage for many centuries in a row is used to increase the chances of getting pregnant. To improve the process of ovulation, it is necessary to take sage infusion no more than 3 times a day and 1 tablespoon,
  • plantain helps not only the weaker sex to achieve the desired result, but also men to overcome problems with conception. To stimulate ovulation, it is recommended to use medicinal decoction in the amount of 2 tablespoons 4 times a day for 2 months. It is important to take a healing infusion for half an hour of food,
  • Roses are not only fun, but also help to get pregnant. To do this, an infusion of pink or white petals is taken at bedtime for 1 teaspoon during the week. If desired, instead of broth, you can use ready-made floral syrup, simply adding it to the tea (no more than 1 small spoon).

With the help of these simple tips, women will be able to improve the process of ovulation, more accurately calculate the day of conception and, accordingly, make every effort to get pregnant.

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