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Pathology of bartholinitis: symptoms and treatment of different stages

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It hurts in such an “interesting” place, that not only is it difficult to walk, but it is also inconvenient to say to someone. General weakness, the temperature is off the scale and one thing remains - to go "surrender" to the gynecologist.

Those who are familiar with the listed symptoms are well aware that this is an unpleasant disease - Bartholinitis. Bartholinitis in women, fortunately, does not occur very often and is diagnosed mainly in the child-bearing age.

Little anatomy

The vestibule of the vagina is reliably protected by small sexual lips, which are nothing but skin folds, but so tender that they look like a mucous membrane. Outside, the labia majora covers the labia majora, which bind at the top and bottom with the adhesions (front and back).

In the large lips of the lips there is adipose tissue and a lot of sweat and sebaceous glands, the lips themselves are intensely covered with hair (secondary sexual trait). But, in addition to the above in the depths of the large labia, the Bartholin glands are localized (they have a rounded shape and are no larger than 1 cm in size).

The duct of glands (they are also called the large glands of the vestibule of the vagina) is displayed at the entrance to the vagina, in the place where the hymen is located. Since both large and small lips, there are 2, respectively, the large glands of the vestibule of the vagina, too 2.

The main task of the Bartholin glands is to produce a secret that keeps the vaginal mucosa moist and produces lubricant during sexual arousal to facilitate the introduction of the penis.

Bartholinite - what is it?

Bartholinitis is a disease of the reproductive sphere, which is characterized by an inflammatory process in the Bartholin gland due to the penetration of infectious agents into it. As a rule, the Bartholin gland is involved in the process on one side only. As a result of inflammation, the parenchyma of the gland and its surrounding cellulose melt, forming an inflammatory capsule with purulent contents.

Why does bartholinitis occur?

The development of Bartholinitis is due to infectious causes, that is, the direct entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the Bartholin gland.

  • Often the causative agents of the disease are infections that spread sexually. Most often it is gonococci and trichomonads, less often chlamydia.
  • But often Bartholinitis causes non-specific microorganisms from the discharge of pyogenic flora (streptococci, staphylococci and E. coli).
  • The fungal nature of the inflammatory process (Candida mushrooms) is not excluded.

But when diagnosing a disease, it is often not one that stands out, but several infectious agents, that is, Bartholinitis is the result of an attack by an association of microorganisms. However, not all women suffering from gonorrhea, or, for example, trichomoniasis, fall ill with Bartholinitis. For this you need the effect of provoking factors:

  • weakening the body's defenses (antibiotic treatment, hypothermia, chronic stress, vitamin deficiency),
  • the presence of chronic foci of infection (chronic tonsillitis or caries can serve as a starting point in the development of the disease - pathogenic microorganisms reach the Bartholin gland by hematogenous),
  • menstruation or the end of the second phase of the cycle,
  • microtraumas in the area of ​​the vestibule of the vagina and / or the labia (for example, during depilation),
  • wearing tight and tight underwear (squeezes the excretory duct of the gland, which is why the secret concentrates in the gland cavity and becomes infected),
  • Neglect of intimate hygiene rules
  • promiscuous sexual intercourse (the risk of sexually transmitted infections increases)
  • gynecological intrauterine interventions or operations on the urinary tract in violation of the rules of asepsis,
  • inflammation of the urethra or vagina (urethritis, vaginitis), when the infection easily penetrates the excretory duct of the gland.

From personal experience: By the nature of my work, I often come across this unpleasant sore. The diagnosis of "Bartholinitis" can easily be made only by the way the woman entered the office. Feet “raspberry”, duck gait, on the face a grimace of pain. It is clear that it is very painful, not something to move around, but even to lie down. Of course, all patients go straight to the gynecology for the opening of the abscess. I would like to ask, and at the same time warn all women: “Why endure pain? What to hope for? ” Bartholinitis does not resolve itself, but if you try to use home self-treatment, it will only “mature” faster and in any case you will have to go to a doctor. Therefore, at the slightest discomfort in such a gentle intimate place, you should immediately run to the reception. And further. Not a single woman applied for an ambulance with acute Bartholinitis, because of the ticklishness of the situation, although it is possible and necessary to call an ambulance, especially if the symptoms of intoxication and the inability to move are pronounced.

As previously reported, predisposes to the occurrence of the disease cramped underwear. Now there are more and more fans of strings, especially among young women and young girls. Give up this "beauty", because in addition to mechanical inconvenience, wearing strings provokes the development of the disease.

  • Firstly, they are too narrow and constrict external genitals
  • Secondly, they are made of synthetic materials that do not allow the skin to "breathe."

Bartholinite: classification

Depending on how the disease progresses, acute and chronic bartholinitis is shared, which often recurs, therefore it is called recurrent. The acute process, in turn, can be in the form of a false and true Bartholin gland abscess. A false abscess or canaliculitis is talked about when the external duct of the gland becomes inflamed, it becomes blocked, and inflammatory exudate accumulates in the gland. In a true abscess, not only the gland itself is involved in the inflammatory process, but also the tissues that surround it.

Chronic bartholinitis develops as a result of an untreated acute process, after a spontaneous opening of the abscess. Acute symptoms subside, but periodically the disease is exacerbated. In the case of chronic bartholinitis, a Bartholin gland cyst is formed.

Canaliculitis

Inflammation of the Bartholin gland always begins with the canaliculitis, that is, with the suppuration of the excretory duct of the gland. Redness of the skin over the focus of inflammation and its swelling is noted. At this stage, many patients take Bartholinitis for pimple and try to squeeze it out. At the same time from the excretory duct of the gland there is one or two drops of pus, which are necessary for the tank. research. After a period of time, the duct becomes blocked (pus is a substance that tends to thicken and form a crust), as a result of which the pus accumulates inside the Bartholin gland, it stretches and forms the so-called “bump” located between the lower and middle third large labial lips. On the tumor formation there is a hyperemia, and the skin is easily displaced. Since a false abscess forms a protrusion of a large distended lip, the entrance to the vagina is closed. Patients experience pain while walking, running or coitus, burning in the crotch area. The general condition suffers slightly, the temperature does not rise above subfebrile numbers.

True abscess

With the introduction of pathogenic microorganisms in the tissue of the gland, as well as in the tissue that surrounds it, pyogenic (purulent) melting of the parenchyma of the gland occurs with the formation of a capsule in which pus is localized. Both the small and the labia are swollen, and from the unaffected side, too, turn red and sharply painful when walking, at rest and when touched. The pain is so intense that the patient cannot walk. There is a significant increase in body temperature (above 38.5 degrees), signs of intoxication appear (weakness, chills, dyspeptic disorders). The pain is characterized by constancy and pulsating character. On examination, hyperemia of the genital lips and puffiness are determined, the skin above the ulcer is hot to the touch, does not move, and on palpation a fluctuation is detected (free movement of the liquid contents in the inflammatory focus). In some cases, the inguinal lymph nodes are enlarged.

Chronic Bartholinitis

If you do not treat the acute process in a timely manner, it is converted into a chronic form. In this case, the disease often recurs, and relapses are characterized by minor inflammation and pain. Palpation of iron is somewhat compacted and sensitive. Chronic bartholinitis causes discomfort during intimacy. The longer the disease exists, the greater the chance that a Bartholin gland cyst will form as a result of accumulation of liquid contents in it.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of the disease is quite simple. The diagnosis of Bartholinitis can be made already at the first visit of the patient to the doctor. Clinical minimum examinations include: OAK, OAM, a smear on the vaginal microflora (see leukocytes increased in a smear), blood from a vein for HIV infection and syphilis. Bacteriological inoculation of either purulent discharge from the duct of the gland or vaginal discharge is mandatory for determining the infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics. Of the additional research methods, a PCR smear is prescribed to detect genital infections (chlamydia, genital herpes, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus).

Antibiotics

For this purpose, antibiotics are prescribed for a duration of 7, a maximum of 10 days. Antibiotic treatment is prescribed in conjunction with preparations of the imidazole group, which are effective against anaerobes (metronidazole, tinidazole). At the same time, local therapy is carried out. I consider the cold treatment offered by many sites to be inexpedient. Since the ice applied to the site of inflammation will undoubtedly reduce pain due to the deterioration of the blood supply to the inflammatory area, but it will also reduce the supply of antibiotics to the center.

Topical ointment treatment

Local therapy includes applications with medicinal ointments:

  • levomekol,
  • Vishnevsky ointment,
  • Ichthyol

Ointments with Bartholinite have a warming property, that is, they improve the microcirculation and lead to one of two options: either the inflammation center resolves, or “comes to a condition”, that is, to ripen (the appearance of fluctuation).

Folk remedies

Also in the local conservative treatment of Bartholinitis can be used folk remedies. From popular methods warm sit-down trays with broths of medicinal plants are appointed:

You can use a weak solution of potassium permanganate or furatsillina instead of infusions of herbs.

Physiotherapy - after the acute phase subsides, the therapy is continued by physiotherapeutic methods (UFO, UHF).

Surgical treatment

In the case of the formation of a Bartholin gland abscess, surgical intervention is unavoidable. The operation is also carried out in chronic Bartholinitis (Bartholin gland cyst). If a Bartholin gland abscess has formed, it is urgently opened (the golden rule of surgeons: “where pus is opened there”) under local or general anesthesia. The wound is intensively washed first with hydrogen peroxide, then with an aqueous solution of chlorhexidine or furacilin. A gauze turunda is introduced into the postoperative opening for a period of 5 to 6 days, that is, until the discharge from the wound becomes “clean” (without admixture of pus).

Dressings are carried out daily, with the treatment of wounds with antiseptics. In parallel after the opening of Bartholinitis, antibacterial drugs of various groups are prescribed:

  • macrolides (azithromycin),
  • cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefuroxime),
  • fluoroquinolones (ziprolet),
  • penicillins (amoxiclav).

Together with antibiotics appointed trichopol for a period of 7 days.

In chronic bartholinitis and the formation of a cyst, it is removed in a planned manner during the "cold" period, that is, without signs of inflammation. To do this, use 2 methods. Either marsupalization of the cyst is made, or the gland is removed (extirpated).

During marsupalization, the cyst is opened by a linear incision, and its edges are stitched to the wound edges of the skin, thus forming a false opening of the excretory duct. A catheter is inserted into the wound so that the contents of the cyst flow out, and by the end of the second month it narrows and the tube is removed.

During extirpation, the inner surface of the small confused lip is opened, the gland is healed with an acute route (scalpel) and removed, the wound is sutured.

In the case of diagnosing acute Bartholinitis (false or true abscess) during pregnancy, it is immediately dissected. And when a Bartholin gland brush is detected, its removal is postponed for the postpartum period. Acute bartholinitis during gestation is dangerous spontaneous abortion, intrauterine infection of the fetus and preterm labor.

A practical example: I had a patient of about 30 years old, which with enviable regularity, came twice a year with a relapse of the disease. And in quiet time she had no cysts, no seals of the Bartholin gland, but Bartholinitis recurred steadily, every 6 months. After the first opening of the abscess and successful antibacterial treatment, the woman with recovery was discharged home. But she did it again in six months. After the second opening of the abscess, the patient was referred for a genital infection for recovery. No infections were detected. After the third admission to the gynecological department, this woman, that is, her recurrent bartholinitis, made me think. After another successful anti-inflammatory treatment, I referred her to an immunologist. An immunologist, prescribing tests, revealed serious impaired immunity and prescribed appropriate treatment. The therapy passed benefited the patient and she did not recur with the recurrence of the disease.

Anatomy of the Bartholin glands

Bartholin's glands are paired glands that limit the threshold of the vagina. They are located in the thickness of the lower third of the labia majora, namely at their base. The labia majora are skin folds that contain fatty tissue and glands. The size of the Bartholin glands varies from 1 to 2 centimeters, and the size of their ducts is about 2.5 centimeters. The ducts open on the eve of the vagina, between the labia minora and the hymen.

The main function of these glands is the secretion of special mucus, which moisturizes the entrance to the vagina during intercourse and thins the seminal fluid. Basically, the mucus of the Bartholin glands is secreted by sexual arousal. Thus, its function of Bartholin glands provides a favorable sexual intercourse. If the secret is not enough, then sexual intercourse is painful. However, the secret of the Bartholin glands also contributes to the optimal stretching of the vaginal muscles during labor. It has an alkaline reaction, a grayish-transparent color and a viscous consistency. An analogue of the Bartholin glands in men are the Cooper glands.
With age, the function of the Bartholin glands decreases, and the amount of secretion decreases accordingly. This is due to a decrease in the concentration of estrogen, which is observed in women during menopause.

Causes of Bartholinitis

Inflammation of the Bartholin glands occurs as a result of infection by pathogenic microflora. Infection can be primary (which is extremely rare), when only Bartholin glands are affected. As a rule, secondary bartholinitis occurs, which develops against the background of primary inflammation. Most often, Bartholinitis develops on the background of vulvitis, vulvovaginitis, and cystitis.

Acute bartholinite

Acute bartholinitis occurs with pronounced symptoms on the background of inflammation. The most common acute gonorrheal bartholinitis, which occurs with the development of purulent inflammation.

Symptoms of acute bartholinitis are:

  • common symptoms of inflammation - fever, weakness, malaise,
  • throbbing pains that are aggravated by intercourse or rubbing against clothes,
  • itching in the region of the labia majora,
  • pathological discharge from the genital tract.
The patient's temperature rises sharply to 38 degrees, chills, weakness. There are initially moderate pains in the area of ​​the vestibule of the vagina. Further, the pain intensifies, and with the development of an abscess, they acquire a pulsating character. There are pathological discharge from the genital tract. In the lower third of the vulva, a tumor-like formation is formed on one or both sides. When walking or rubbing against clothing, this formation causes severe pain. If treatment is not undertaken on time, a true abscess forms on the site of the Bartholin gland and its surrounding tissue. It is a limited accumulation of pus that contains pathogens.

Causes of development

Bartholin gland has a special anatomical structure. It is located symmetrically in the region of the labia minora. The bulk of it is connected with the threshold of the vagina by a thin duct. Iron produces a mucus-like protein substance when a woman is excited. Поэтому при возникновении воспаления возле наружного отверстия происходит резкое нарушение оттока секрета.This also contributes to tissue edema with the progression of infection.

Gradually, pathogens penetrate to the gland itself, leading to its direct inflammation. As a result, a true abscess develops with its characteristic symptoms. As a rule, a similar process develops only on one side.

So, the main cause of bartholinitis is the development of an infectious process in the gland and all its structures. It is always a bacterial inflammation, and microbes can enter this area in various ways:

  • most often they enter the ducts of the gland and into it from the vagina, rectum and adjacent structures by retrograde current,
  • hematogenous drift of microbes from other foci of infection is possible, but this is less common.

The following main predisposing factors for the development of Bartholinitis can be distinguished:

  • Non-compliance with personal hygiene, especially during critical days. Blood creates a favorable environment for the reproduction of pathogens.
  • Microtrauma in this area, for example, with itching and scratching, with the appearance of small cracks after intercourse, etc.
  • Wearing cramped and synthetic underwear will contribute to duct compression, stagnant secretion and inflammation.
  • Indiscriminate sex, as a result of which a girl can have many sexually transmitted infections.
  • It is believed that even caries can be a source of germs with Bartholinitis. But more often it is pyelonephritis, proctitis, hemorrhoids, etc. In this case, the infection is easier to get into the canals of the gland.
  • Reduction of general and local immunity, including against the background of stress, hypothermia, etc.
  • Also, some gynecological interventions can provoke a violation of the outflow of secretions and cause inflammation. For example, after an abortion, etc.

But it is not always possible to single out some provocative moment, the clinic of the disease is able to develop quickly against the background of general well-being.

We recommend reading the article on the state of the vagina in different phases of menstruation. From it you will learn about the vagina during menstruation, the state of the uterus after menstruation, the factors causing pain.

Classification

There are several classifications of the disease. According to its flow:

  • acute bartholinitis,
  • subacute
  • chronic,
  • episodic appearing.

If you select the place of the greatest inflammatory process and stage, then the gradation is as follows:

  • vacation, develops when only the duct (channel) of the gland is affected,
  • stage infiltration
  • true abscess.

A Bartholin gland cyst is also excreted, which with suppuration has the same clinical symptoms. These concepts are closely interrelated. As often the Bartholin gland cyst is formed as a result of its chronic inflammation.

Signs and symptoms

Each stage has its own clinical picture. All symptoms can develop over several weeks (and in the case of cyst suppuration - for years), as well as within a couple of hours. Sometimes the disease itself also disappears, and the fact of the revealed Bartholinitis in a woman is established, sometimes repeatedly.

The following symptoms are characteristic of the disease:

  • Canaliculitis. General health and body temperature remain normal. A woman feels a burning sensation, discomfort in the region of the labia minora and the entrance to the vagina. Palpation of these areas is determined by the pain, stands out pussy secret.
  • False abscess - stage of infiltration. At the same time, the inflammation continues to grow. General symptoms of intoxication appear: body temperature rises to 38–39 degrees, chills, weakness. The woman notes that it is even painful for her to walk, to straighten at the urge to have a bowel movement, sexual contact is also impossible. When viewed from the region of the labia minora and labia majora, their pronounced puffiness is visible, sometimes even the entrance to the vagina is blocked. The skin is bright red, hot to the touch, the place is sharply painful when touched.
  • A true abscess is diagnosed from the moment when a clear formation with a symptom of fluctuation is determined over the inflamed area. This is a cavity with already formed pus inside. At the same time, body temperature rises even higher, all leg movements are sharply painful. Puffiness, hyperemia - still more pronounced.

The threat of pregnancy

Pathogenic microbes participate in the formation of Bartholinitis. Therefore, episodes of the disease during pregnancy are undesirable.

Chronic bartholinitis, especially without exacerbation during gestation, may not affect the baby in any way. But any active processes often become the cause of threatened abortion at different times. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that acute Bartholinitis can lead to infection of the fetal membranes, the placenta and even the fetus itself. This often puts the life of a future baby at serious risk.

Also, if an episode of acute Bartholinitis occurs at the time of birth, there is a chance that the bacteria will also get into the baby. It can develop eye inflammation, rhinitis and even pneumonia.

Look at the Bartholin gland inflammation video:

Surgical intervention

Bartholinitis surgery is necessary only at the stage of the formation of a true abscess. Formed cavity open, remove all its contents. As a rule, it is very fetid pus. Next, the cavity is washed intensively, a special small drainage is placed in it for daily processing, and also to prevent the wound edges from sticking together (this will complicate the outflow of exudate and slow recovery).

If it turned out to be a festering cyst, its marsupialization is carried out - the inversion of the walls and their fixation in this position. This is the prevention of cavity formation again.

Usually such an intervention takes 10 to 15 minutes.

The following steps are important in the healing of Bartholinitis after surgery:

  • careful daily (2 - 3 times a day) wound treatment,
  • prescription drugs (antibiotics, painkillers and others).

Conservative therapy

Conservative treatment is used when an abscess has not yet formed. In such situations, it is sometimes possible to do without surgical treatment. The following methods are used:

  • Topical treatment that helps reduce pain and reduce inflammation. This may be a hot-water bottle with ice (you need to apply at intervals of 10 to 15 minutes). It is also recommended to apply tampons with various ointments. Well helps pasta Vishnevsky and levomekol with Bartholinitis. They must alternate: the first - at night, the other - during the day. You can treat the gland area with various antiseptics.
  • Physiotherapy, especially they already help in the subacute stage of the disease, when the peak of all the symptoms passed. Used magnetic therapy, UHF and others.
  • Antibacterial therapy is always used, including after surgical treatment. The most optimal is the appointment of drugs, taking into account the sowing of purulent discharge, but sometimes this is impossible. Therefore, broad-spectrum antibiotics are used most often. It may be different medications: Ceftriaxone, Azithromycin, Amoklav, Metronidazole, Ciprofloxacin and others.
  • Also always need the appointment of painkillers and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ketorolac, no-spa and others).

Prevention

It is not always possible to prevent the development of Bartholinitis. But the recommendations will be as follows:

  • It should be regularly examined by a gynecologist, in a timely manner to treat all inflammatory processes.
  • In case of casual sex, it is better to give preference to barrier methods (condoms) of protection.
  • Proper hygiene involves washing from front to back. It is better to use soap baby, and not special for intimate hygiene.
  • It should abandon cramped and synthetic underwear.
  • If a woman has a cyst, it is better to remove it in a “calm period”.

Frequently asked Questions

Often women ask the following questions regarding Bartholinitis:

  • Is the treatment of the disease different during pregnancy? The principles of therapy are the same, but the drugs are selected taking into account the potential risk to the baby. Perhaps as a treatment with antibiotics Bartholinitis, and surgical intervention.
  • Can you be cured using traditional medicine? In the case of the chronic form, there is a sense in this, but in the acute process they are unlikely to help significantly.
  • When can you resume intimate relationships? As soon as the acute process subsides or the wound heals when the abscess is opened. On average, after 3 - 4 weeks from the onset of the disease.
  • What to do if a woman suspected Bartholinitis, but there is no possibility to go to the doctor yet? You should start drinking antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and pain medications. If there is no improvement within three days, you should consult a doctor.
  • What to do if the abscess opened itself? You should immediately consult a doctor. If you do not start the necessary treatment, the probability of formation of fistulas, cysts and other complications is high.

We recommend to read an article on vulvitis in women. From it you will learn about the causes of the disease and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment methods, preventive measures.

Bartholinitis - inflammation of the vestibular gland, which requires competent and timely treatment. In the opposite case, the risk of the development of both the more serious forms of the disease and its various consequences increases. Personal hygiene, sexual vigilance, regular examination are the basis for the prevention of illness.

Chronic bartholinitis cyst

Cyst is a frequent complication of chronic bartholinitis. The share of this complication is from 2 to 3 percent of all pathologies of the female genital organs. When the cyst outflow of inflammatory fluid from the duct is broken, resulting in fluid accumulates in it. The size of the cyst varies depending on the volume of fluid. So, the cyst can be very small, so that a woman can overlook it, or reach the size of a large nut.

The cause of cyst development is a delay in inflammatory secretion in the ducts of the glands. It is known that any inflammation is accompanied by the development of a fluid of an inflammatory nature. This fluid is initially transparent and contains cells of the inflammatory reaction (leukocytes, macrophages). The longer the inflammatory process, the more fluid is produced. In chronic bartholinitis, this process is delayed. Gradually accumulating in the ducts, the inflammatory fluid leads to their overstretching. As a result of this, the tubular form of the duct is transformed into a saccular formation containing fluid. The cyst is localized where the gland itself is located on the border of the lower and middle third of the labia. Sore cyst depends on its size. Small cysts, several millimeters in size, can often go unnoticed and be detected during a preventive gynecological examination. If the cyst is medium in size, it causes discomfort. The maximum is felt when walking, friction of the crotch on clothes or during sex. Large cysts larger than a few centimeters cause discomfort even at rest.

What is bartholinitis?

Bartholinitis is an infectious inflammation of large (Bartholin) glands located on the eve of the vagina, often one-sided (see photo below). The disease can occur in women of any age, but most often it occurs between the ages of 20 and 35 years. Its prevalence is quite large: it is 1 case per 50 women.

Bartholin gland is a paired organ and is located deep in the subcutaneous fat at the base of the labia majora. The main function of the Bartholin glands is to produce a viscous secretion that is secreted during intercourse through the excretory ducts of the glands and lubricates the entrance to the vagina.

Penetration of the viral infection into the excretory duct of the gland leads to blockage of its lumen. The secret produced by the gland accumulates and a Bartholin gland cyst is formed. In this case, the pathogen that provoked inflammation actively develops in the duct of the gland, thereby causing an abscess.

  • Bartholinite code according to ICD-10 - N75.

Inflammation of the large gland of the vestibule develops after representatives of conditionally pathogenic microbial microflora (staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli and others) or causative agents of specific genital infections (gonococcus and trichomonas) penetrate into it.

But when diagnosing a disease, it is often not one that stands out, but several infectious agents, that is, Bartholinitis is the result of an attack by an association of microorganisms. However, not all women suffering from gonorrhea, or, for example, trichomoniasis, fall ill with Bartholinitis.

As a rule, pathogens enter the Bartholin gland duct from the urethra or vagina with urethritis and / or colpitis. However, it is sometimes possible for an infection to directly enter the gland itself with the flow of blood or lymph.

There are other risk factors for Bartholinitis:

  • hypothermia,
  • venereal diseases,
  • avitaminosis,
  • sexual intercourse during monthly bleeding,
  • promiscuous sex,
  • stress,
  • neglect of personal hygiene,
  • weakened immunity
  • complications after abortion and other uterine surgeries.

The probability of developing the disease increases many times under the following circumstances:

  • the presence of microtraumas serving as entrance gates for germs
  • the habit of wearing tight underwear, which violates the outflow of secretions, resulting in its stagnation and the creation of favorable conditions for the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the ducts.

Initial stage (canaliculitis)

Canaliculitis is a unilateral (often gonorrhea with bilateral) inflammation of the excretory duct of the Bartholin gland. Initial symptoms of Bartholinitis: redness, limited duct exit area on the inner surface of the labia majora, soreness, palpation of the excretory duct is well felt, some pus appears when pressed.

Chronic Bartholinitis Form

The disease occurs for a long time with periods of subsidence and exacerbation (recurrence) of symptoms of the disease, which can be triggered by various reasons: hypothermia, menstruation, and others. Outside of an aggravation, a woman feels well, but can complain of minor pains on the side of the lesion and painful sensations during intercourse.

Symptoms of Bartholinitis in a Woman

The disease begins with infiltration of the Bartholin gland duct. Its lumen sharply narrows (and then disappears altogether), the outflow of the contents of the gland is disturbed, it accumulates in the gland. In response to these changes, the size of the gland begins to gradually increase, a rounded protrusion appears on the surface of the affected labia majora, surrounded by a zone of hyperemia and edema.

Bartholinitis is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • pain in the vulva,
  • temperature increase (sometimes up to 40 ° C),
  • weakness and malaise
  • decrease in working capacity.

During intercourse, itching and burning can be felt at the entrance to the vagina. When pressing on the gland appear purulent discharge. In subsequent stages of Bartholinitis, the inflammatory process spreads deep into the body with the formation of an abscess or cyst.

This is what Bartholinite in women looks like in the photo.

In the later stages, when the abscess is already formed, the woman will feel a rather strong, throbbing pain in the vaginal entrance area, her health will worsen, chills, fever up to 39 degrees or more, general weakness and indisposition, headache. Movement will be accompanied by discomfort or even pain in the perineum, a burning sensation.

Symptoms of acute bartholinitis:

  • Redness around the exit of the exit duct of the gland - while the patient's condition does not change.
  • Feeling for an increase in the excretory duct of the gland - while pressing, a small amount of pus is released from it.

Signs of chronic bartholinitis:

  • slight pain
  • discomfort when moving,
  • formation of a lump in the affected gland,
  • low-grade or normal temperature.

The rest of the time, the chronic form may show no particular signs. Sometimes there may be only slight pain during movement and sexual intercourse. Also, chronic bartholinitis can trigger a large gland cyst at the entrance to the vagina.

Bartholinitis during pregnancy

For any hints of inflammation in the Bartholin gland, women who are carrying a child should consult a doctor as soon as possible. A disease such as Bartholinitis, the symptoms during pregnancy are the same as in the normal state, so it will be easy to recognize the ailment.

It is very important to do this, since this disease, which developed in the period from the fifth day from the moment of conception to the thirteenth week, can lead to fetal fading.

When planning a pregnancy, you should definitely completely cure Bartholinitis before it occurs. If the disease first occurred during the period of childbearing - with all the responsibility and compulsory medical care, it is necessary to approach minimizing harm to the fetus and mother.

Complications

Without timely treatment, suppuration in the run-up to the vagina can lead to the spread of infection to other organs of the reproductive system.

There is a risk of spontaneous opening of the abscess inside with the subsequent spread of purulent inflammation to other tissues and organs, up to sepsis.

At the opening of the abscess out comes relief, but the disease without appropriate treatment becomes chronic, in some cases, a fistula forms at the site of an abscess breakthrough.

The following complications are possible with Bartholinitis:

  • Formation of a false abscess true, in which the infection spreads to the external genital organs and vaginal mucosa, that is, vulvovaginitis develops,
  • The appearance of a cyst, after which the inflammation turns into a sluggish process,
  • Transition of infection to neighboring organs (urethritis, colpitis),
  • Permanent relapses,
  • The large size of the formation can cause awkwardness when walking and discomfort during sexual intercourse,

Bartholinitis treatment

When detecting Bartholinitis, treatment should begin immediately. The earlier treatment is started, the better the prognosis of the disease. The easiest way to treat Bartholinitis is in the canaliculite stage, which can be treated at home.

Prior to prescribing the drug, laboratory material is taken to determine the type of pathogens and to clarify its sensitivity to antibiotics. This method significantly increases the effectiveness of subsequent therapy.

The treatment of Bartholinitis symptoms in women has the following objectives:

  1. elimination of pain in the focus of inflammation and intoxication of the body,
  2. prevention of the formation of a true abscess - the third stage of the disease,
  3. prevention of the formation of cystic complications of the Bartholin gland.

The course of treatment consists of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs, physiotherapy.

Additionally, to alleviate the condition, symptomatic treatment is prescribed:

  • spraying the affected areas with antiseptics - Miramistin or chlorhexidine,
  • anti-inflammatory drugs (baralgin, ibuprofen),
  • painkillers (nurofen, analgin),
  • ointments that improve the microcirculation of blood and thereby accelerate the absorption of pus (Vishnevsky, Levomekol, Ihtiolovaya).

After discharge from the hospital to prevent and prevent the appearance of symptoms of Bartholinitis on the other hand, the woman must strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene. As an independent measure, it is advisable to periodically take a sedentary bath with a diluted (slightly pink) solution of potassium permanganate or chamomile decoction. The time for taking such a bath is about twenty minutes.

The main goal of treatment during the acute stage is to prevent the formation of an abscess, cyst and chronic recurrent form of Bartholinitis. It is important to strictly maintain the mode and duration of medication, since there is a high probability of the formation of resistance in microflora.

During treatment, it is recommended to observe sexual rest, wear comfortable underwear made from natural fibers, carefully follow the rules of intimate hygiene.

How to treat chronic bartholinitis?

Since chronic Bartholinitis occurs with alternations of periods of exacerbation and abatement of symptoms, the treatment of pathology will be associated with the elimination of clinical symptoms and removal of inflammatory processes.

Between periods of exacerbation in chronic form, the following procedures are assigned:

  • sessile trays with decoctions of such medicinal herbs as calendula, chamomile, sage,
  • physiotherapy - magnetic therapy, ozokerite, UHF-therapy, infrared laser,
  • use of vitamin complexes to increase the body's resistance to infection,

A timely appeal to a specialist will prevent the development of chronic bartholinitis and greatly reduce the time of therapy and the degree of radical treatment. In the chronic process, an important role is played by immunostimulation and rehabilitation of chronic foci.

If the conservative treatment of Bartholinitis did not bring the expected effect, an operation to open a purulent abscess or cyst is indicated.

Surgical treat:

  • acute purulent or recurrent abscess,
  • non-healing fistulous course after opening a false Bartholin gland abscess,
  • suppurative cysts and ducts of the Bartholin glands.

For the operation, the patient must be in the hospital. The procedure is performed under intravenous anesthesia, because local administration of anesthetics is difficult and painful.

Surgical intervention with Bartholinite can solve the problem in 2 ways:

  • Marsupialization involves the creation of an artificial duct of glands to form a canal that does not stick together. Thanks to him, mucus, which is produced by the gland, falls directly into the vestibule of the vagina.
  • Extirpation is carried out in cases of frequent relapses and unsuccessful attempts to create an artificial duct.

The forecast of Bartholinitis in the bulk is favorable if it is timely to seek medical help and follow all the recommendations of a specialist.

How to treat Bartholinitis folk remedies?

Folk remedies for the treatment of bartholinitis at home should be agreed with your doctor.

  1. Baths with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate or chamomile extract, calendula.
  2. You will need: chamomile, oak bark or eucalyptus (you can brew separately, and you can mix all the herbs). Pour a tablespoon of herbs and a glass of boiling water and infuse for 30 minutes. After - pour into the bath and take it no more than 20 minutes.
  3. 50 grams of boiled garlic cloves, 25 grams of dill seeds, 200 grams of chopped walnuts and 0.5 liters of honey mixed into a homogeneous mass. Take 2 tbsp. l 3 times a day an hour after meals.
  4. To enhance immunity and enhance the body's ability to fight Bartholinitis for food, it is recommended to use bee products, garlic, aloe, walnuts and pine nuts. Instead of tea use decoctions from the seeds of dill, echinacea, ginseng, rosehip.

Before turning to popular recipes, it is important to visit a doctor and choose the appropriate course of treatment depending on how the disease proceeds.

Bartholinite Forms

An acute inflammatory process, called Bartholinitis, affects the Bartholin gland - a paired organ in women, located on the eve of the vagina. Bartholin gland serves an extremely important purpose - it produces a specific secret, resembling thick, viscid mucus of whitish or grayish hue, which is necessary for normal moistening of the entrance to the vagina and getting rid of external genital organs from dryness. With this gynecological disease, the Bartholin gland duct is blocked, and its normal functioning is impaired.

To date, Bartholinitis is classified depending on the stage of the disease, the site of the inflammatory process, as well as the form of its development. Depending on the stage of the disease there are:

  • Catarrhal bartholinitis - inflammation in the gland proceeds without an inflammatory process.
  • Abscess - this stage is considered severe, it is characterized by the development of suppuration on the gland. It is divided into a false and true abscess.

Depending on the characteristics of the development and course of the inflammatory process in women, the disease is divided into acute and chronic bartholinitis. Also distinguish this type of disease, as subacute bartholinitis.

Depending on which part of the Bartholin gland is infected during inflammation, Bartholinitis is divided into the following subspecies:

  • Kanalikulit - the initial stage of Bartholinitis, in which inflammatory activity develops in the area of ​​the excretory duct of the gland.
  • A cyst is most often formed as a complication of an abscess and is a cavity filled with fluid.

Causes of Bartholinitis

To date, there is a whole list of causes and factors that can trigger the development of the inflammatory process in Bartholin gland in women. These reasons include:

  • The careless attitude of a woman to her intimate hygiene, as a result of which infection of the genitals with various pathogens occurs. Especially often to the inflammatory process leads to non-compliance with the basic rules of personal hygiene during menstruation.
  • Regular wearing of narrow, cramped, squeezing underwear - such underwear can injure the Bartholin gland excretory ducts in women, as a result of which the specific secretion process is disrupted, and its active accumulation begins immediately inside the gland.
  • A sharp decrease in immunity in women - this phenomenon is often the result of prolonged use of certain drugs, hypothermia, beriberi.
  • In frequent cases, Bartholinitis develops as a complication after abortion.
  • Inflammatory activity in the Bartholin gland ducts can be caused by various microtraumas in the external genitalia.
  • Indiscriminate sex life without the use of special methods of contraception. In this case, the risk of infection with pathogenic pathogens that are sexually transmitted increases significantly.
  • Surgical manipulation of the uterus and other internal genitals.
  • Inflammatory processes in the organs of the urogenital sphere, during which infection of the Bartholin gland ducts is infected.

Symptoms of canaliculitis

Canaliculitis is the initial stage of the inflammatory process in the area of ​​the Bartholin gland, in which the symptoms do not yet have sufficient severity:

  • A slight reddening can be seen around the excretory duct of the Bartholin gland - this is due to a disturbance in the normal process of secretion outflow.
  • The excretory duct of the gland is clearly palpable, a small amount of purulent substance can be emitted from it, the gland becomes edematous.
  • A woman may feel discomfort in the area of ​​the external genitalia, which is especially aggravated during active movements.

False abscess

In the absence of proper treatment, canaliculitis proceeds to the next stage, which is called the false Bartholin gland abscess. The main symptoms of this form of the disease in most women are:

  • Large labia swell up, turn red, when touched to them a woman feels pain. Pain becomes more pronounced during active movements, as well as sitting.
  • Pain during intercourse.
  • Body temperature can rise significantly, a woman feels weakness, apathy, fatigue, drowsiness, chills.

Bartholinitis cyst treatment

Treatment of cysts involves surgery. It can be directed either to remove only the cyst, or to remove the entire gland as a whole. In the first case, the duct of the gland is removed (the process is called marsupialization), and the gland itself is left. With this option, the formation of a new excretory duct and its opening occurs within a few months. Marsupialization of the excretory duct of the gland is a less traumatic surgical method of treatment. However, in this case, there is an increased risk of recurrence (re-development of Bartholinitis). Complete removal of the Bartholin gland with a cyst is a more traumatic method of treatment, but the risk of relapse (re-exacerbation of the disease) in this case is minimal.

Among modern methods of surgical treatment of Bartholinitis, the method using a word catheter is particularly popular. Word-catheter is a silicone tube, at the end of which is a ballooning balloon. Under local anesthesia, a catheter is inserted into the gland in such a way that the ball fills the body of the gland, and the silicone tube forms a new passage. The ball that changes its size prevents the gland walls from falling, supporting its structure. The catheter itself forms a new outlet. After 1.5 to 2 months, the catheter is removed. Thus, the gland itself remains intact and continues to function, and the secret necessary for moistening (in common people lubricant) leaves through a new opening.
Whatever method is used, the responsibility for relapse lies mainly with the woman herself. To prevent re-inflammation of the gland can only be subject to the rules of personal hygiene. It is also important to fight chronic infections and improve immunity.

Bartholinite stages

During Bartholinitis there are several stages that differ in the degree of localization of the infectious process. So, in the Bartholin gland a duct, through which secretion occurs, and the body are distinguished. In the initial stages, the inflammation covers only the duct of the gland (or ducts, if it is double-sided bartholinitis), but then extends to its body.

Stages of Bartholinitis are:

  • canaliculitis - inflammation of the Bartholin gland duct,
  • pseudoabscess, in which pus accumulates in the ducts of the gland,
  • true abscess, in which the infection spreads to both the duct and the body of the gland.
Stage of canaliculitis
At this stage, the inflammatory process covers only the excretory channels of the Bartholin glands. The mucosa above the glands becomes red and edematous, pain syndrome is present moderately. A red inflamed plaque is formed around the external opening of the duct of the gland. When pressing on the opening of the Bartholin gland, pus or mucus is secreted (depending on the nature of the inflammation). The temperature at the stage of canaliculitis rarely exceeds 37.5 degrees.

Pseudoabscess stage
At this stage of the Bartholinitis, the purulent or mucous secretion ceases to stand out and begins to accumulate inside the ducts of the glands. The result is a blockage of the glands and the formation of a kind of "bumps". This bump is very painful, and the mucous over it is very red. The iron itself is strongly stretched and bulged out, but its structure is preserved. A distinctive feature of a pseudo-abscess from a true abscess is that the skin above it, despite the swelling, remains mobile. Pain at the stage of pseudo-abscess increases during intercourse or when walking. The pain is localized in the area of ​​the vulva lips.

Stage of a true abscess
In true abscess, pus penetrates directly into the gland itself, and is not localized only at the level of the ducts. At this stage, the structure of the gland is completely destroyed, and its tissue is melted. In place of the gland, a cavity containing a pus is formed - an abscess. Symptoms of Bartholinitis worsen at this time. The temperature rises, the pain increases, and it begins to throb. At the medical examination revealed enlarged inguinal lymph nodes and painful rounded education in the lower third of the labia. Small and large labia swell up, and the skin above the abscess becomes immobile. Sometimes an abscess can break through on its own. This is accompanied by the outpouring of purulent yellow-green contents.

Bartholinitis Medication

Drug treatment of Bartholinitis is especially important in its acute course. At the same time, not only Bartholinitis is subject to medical treatment, but also concomitant sexually transmitted infections, against which it developed. Most often it is colpitis, vaginitis, cervicitis.

Antibiotics used in the treatment of Bartholinitis

What type of bartholinitis is prescribed?

When Trichomonas Bartholinitis.

By 500 milligrams (one tablet) twice a day, for 5 days.

With trichomonas bartholinitis and bartholinitis caused by nonspecific anaerobic flora.

On the first day, the dose of the drug is 2 grams - 4 tablets of 500 mg each. The remaining 5 days, 1 gram per day, which equals 2 tablets of 500 milligrams.

With trichomonas and gonorrhea Bartholinitis.

One tablet twice a day for 10 days. It is recommended to take a pill 2 hours after a meal.

With gonorrhea bartholinitis.

250 to 500 milligrams intramuscularly once.

With gonorrhea bartholinitis.

400 milligrams once.

When chlamydial Bartholinitis.

500 milligrams per day, intravenously for 2 days. Next, take the drug in pill form, 250 milligrams per day for 5 days.

When gonococcal and chlamydial Bartholinitis.

On 500 milligrams 4 times a day (daily dose of 2 grams). The duration of treatment is determined by the severity of the disease.

Bartholinitis operation

Options for cyst removal are:

  • removal of cysts only,
  • removal of the entire gland
  • cyst removal with duct restoration.
Removing only cysts
This surgery is less traumatic than the others. It involves the removal of only cysts and the preservation of the Bartholin gland itself.

The stages of cyst removal are:

  • the introduction of the anesthetic in the gland itself and the surrounding fatty tissue for the purpose of pain relief,
  • then an incision is made on the labia minora,
  • the edges of the incision are slightly stretched so that the cyst is better visible,
  • dissecting the bundles of connective tissue, remove the cyst,
  • it is necessary to remove the cyst carefully so that it does not burst and does not spill onto the surrounding tissues,
  • at the same time they ligate (bind) blood vessels so that they do not bleed,
  • then the layer where the cyst was previously sewn up in layers.
Минусом данной операции является то, что формирование нового выводного протока для железы происходит долго и не всегда удачно.

Удаление всей железы
Удаление всей бартолиновой железы является наиболее радикальным методом лечения. It excludes recurrent relapses (exacerbations of the disease), but, nevertheless, is a more traumatic method and less physiological.

The stages of the Bartholin gland removal operation include:

  • anesthesia (pain relief),
  • skin and hypoderm section in the region of the labia minora,
  • removal of cysts and bartholin gland,
  • suturing bleeding vessels,
  • Layer-by-layer stitching of the incision and stitching.
The main problem of this method is that it ceases to produce the secret necessary for moisturizing the vagina. Therefore, extirpation (complete removal) of the Bartholin gland is extremely rarely used today.

Removal of a cyst with duct restoration
This method of surgical treatment involves the removal of a cyst and the preservation of the gland itself. However, in order for the secret of the gland to continue to stand out, the gland duct is created anew. To do this, use special mechanisms (catheters), which are introduced into the tissue of the labia minora to create a new artificial duct. The most commonly used word-catheter, which is a small silicone tube with a ball at the end. This device is introduced into the place of the former duct in order to form a new one. Word-catheter is installed under local anesthesia, the procedure lasts from 15 to 20 minutes. A catheter is inserted for a period of 1.5 months. During this time, a new excretory duct is formed, through which the liquid will exit. The very same silicone tube prevents the falling of the forming duct walls. This method of treatment of chronic bartholinitis is the most preferred because it preserves the function of the gland.

Anti-inflammatory decoctions for Bartholinitis

In the treatment of Bartholinitis phytotherapeutic drugs of anti-inflammatory action play an important role. The effect of such funds is mild, therefore, to achieve a result, they must be taken over a long period of at least a month.
One of the most affordable anti-inflammatory drugs is chamomile. The drug from it can be taken both for prevention and at the time of inflammation. The composition of chamomile is mucus, which removes toxins that accumulate in the body during inflammatory processes. Therefore, the use of chamomile decoction reduces symptoms during an exacerbation and allows the body to more effectively resist infection. Patients who can not take chamomile inside due to intolerance, can use the plant for water procedures (baths and wash).
In addition to chamomile, a number of herbs, fruits and vegetables also have anti-inflammatory effects. Various herbal teas are prepared from herbs (a teaspoon of raw materials per cup of boiling water), and fruits and vegetables are used to make freshly squeezed juices.

Products with anti-inflammatory action are:

  • Cornflower blue (flowers). Drink the cornflower broth portions (2 - 3 tablespoons) after meals. The plant has a weak toxic effect, so during the course of treatment it is necessary to take breaks. Cornflower preparations are prohibited for pregnant women.
  • Elecampane. It is taken three times a day in a tablespoon on a full stomach. Nines is contraindicated in diseases of the heart, kidneys. You can not take a decoction for gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
  • Oregano. Take 1 - 2 cups of broth per day in pure or diluted form (boiled water). Do not drink the drink to pregnant women.
  • Linden. Lime decoction is taken a glass every other day, regardless of the meal. Failure to follow the recommended dosages may cause heart problems.
  • White cabbage. Juice is drunk once a day, in the amount of 1 cup. With a tendency to gas formation, as well as with increased acidity of the stomach, cabbage juice is contraindicated. To refrain from taking such a remedy is necessary for those patients who have a history of myocardial infarction in the history (medical history).
  • Carrot. It is accepted on 1 - 2 glasses a day. For better digestibility, the juice is mixed with a teaspoon of vegetable oil. For stomach problems (ulcers, gastritis), carrot juice is not recommended.
  • Raspberries. Accepted ground with sugar (1 - 2 tablespoons per day) or fresh. For gastritis, ulcers, gout and urolithiasis, the berries should be discarded.

Antiseptic infusions with Bartholinitis

Plants with antiseptic action are used to prepare infusions that are used for water treatments. Medicinal decoctions allow to stop inflammation, reduce pain and prevent the development of a purulent process.

Plants with antiseptic action are:

  • calendula,
  • celandine,
  • marshmallow (root),
  • eucalyptus,
  • oak (bark)
  • plantain.
Prepare a convenient container and a ladle for washing. Make a decoction of 3 tablespoons of raw materials and 3 liters of water. To do this, pour boiling water over the vegetable mass and let it stand for 20-30 minutes. Filter and cool the herb infusion to a temperature of 30 - 35 degrees. Pour broth into the bucket and sit down on the pelvis. Start pouring liquid from the ladle in a thin stream so that it washes the area of ​​inflammation.
Herbal remedies with antiseptic action can also be used for lotions. Dab a small piece of cotton cloth with broth and attach it to the Bartholin gland. Put on top of thick underwear, covering the gasket with polyethylene. Take a horizontal position for several hours.

Restorative drugs with Bartholinitis

This group of herbal remedies includes funds that are allocated a significant number of useful elements. Their use strengthens the immune function, restores the physical and energy resources of the body.

Plants with a strong firming effect are:

  • mountain ash is red
  • chokeberry,
  • Meadow clover.
Mountain ash red
Red Rowan contains an impressive amount of vitamin C, beta-carotene (a form of vitamin A) and potassium. These substances increase the body's stamina and improve its ability to independently fight bacteria. During periods when the probability of exacerbation of chronic Bartholinitis is high (in autumn, spring), it is recommended to take a mixture of rowan berries and lemon. To make this remedy, scroll 250 grams of fresh fruit and 2 medium lemons in a meat grinder. Add 50 grams of natural honey. Take the mixture you need to eat one teaspoon. You can use in its pure form or as an additive to tea.

Chokeberry (aronia)
Chokeberry (aronia) is rich in vitamins such as A, C, E, PP. Rowan fruits also contain many minerals. Due to this composition, preparations from aronia strengthen the immunity and inhibit the activity of some pathogenic bacteria. Also black chokeberry removes intoxication products from the body, which accumulate during the inflammatory process.
Take Aroniya need at least 1.5 months. 100 grams of fresh or ground with honey berries are consumed an hour and a half before meals. Compotes, jams and other canned products can also be made from chokeberry.

Meadow clover
Clover is characterized by a balanced composition of the elements that are required by the body in order to be normal. Acceptance of decoctions from this plant improves physical fitness and strengthens protective functions. Also, clover can reduce the temperature and reduce pain, so it can be taken in the period of exacerbations of Bartholinitis.
For treatment, fresh juice is used from all parts of the plant (fresh) except the root. Juice is taken in 50 - 60 milliliters per day for 3 - 4 weeks. In the absence of fresh raw materials from dry clover, you can make a decoction. A tablespoon of the product is poured with a glass of boiling water and infused for 50 - 60 minutes. The whole amount of infusion you need to drink during the day, dividing it into 3 - 4 servings.

Chamomile and other trays used in Bartholinite

At the stage of Bartholinitis healing, it is recommended to conduct sit-down trays with various antiseptic infusions. Such procedures improve blood circulation and tissue nutrition in the area of ​​inflammation. This contributes to the rapid healing of those areas that were affected by the inflammatory process. Antiseptics stop the activity of pathogenic (harmful) microorganisms and prevent the relapse (re-aggravation) of the disease.
For the procedure you need to prepare the pelvis with low sides. Liquid solution is poured to half the tank. Water temperature should not be too high - from 33 to 37 degrees. During the procedure (15 minutes) it is necessary to maintain the temperature of the water. To do this, every 5 to 7 minutes, the liquid in the basin should be diluted with boiling water.
After preparing the container with the solution, take a comfortable position over the basin and submerge the crotch area in water. Wrap a blanket or a towel in order not to chill the genitals. After completion of the procedure, the area of ​​inflammation is recommended to be treated with sea buckthorn oil. It is best to spend the bath at night, as this way you can avoid hypothermia. Procedures are done for 7-10 days without a break.

Antiseptic solutions for baths
As an antiseptic solution can be used tincture of calendula on alcohol. Calendula effectively fights inflammation and accelerates tissue regeneration. This plant also prevents the formation of a cyst with Bartholinitis, as it has a resolving effect. To prepare the solution for the bath, 2 tablespoons of tincture are used for 5 liters of water.
You can buy tincture at the pharmacy or prepare it yourself. To prepare this tool at home, fill a glass of dried flowers with a glass of alcohol with a strength of 40 degrees. The remedy is infused for a week, after which it is filtered and used for treatment.
Another means for holding baths with Bartholinite is potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). Potassium permanganate has a disinfecting effect and fights inflammation. For the procedure used a weak solution of pink color, which is prepared from 1.5 tsp of potassium permanganate and 10 liters of water.

Bartholinite Compresses

For carrying out compresses use special medicines in the form of ointments. Such procedures are done in the presence of a “ripening” abscess. Drugs have the ability to "pull" pus out, with the result that the abscess is opened faster. Also, these tools reduce pain and prevent the development of infection.
To make a compress, apply a thick layer of ointment on a bandage of gauze, folded in several layers. Attach the swab to the site of inflammation, covering it on top with plastic wrap. Put on heavy clothes and leave the compress for 1 - 2 hours. To keep the appli cation better, take a horizontal position during the procedure.

Means for compresses with Bartholinite are:

  • Vishnevsky ointment,
  • Ichthyol ointment
  • Levomekol (effective after the purulent capsule has opened).

Bartholinite lotions

Applications from the dressings impregnated with drugs, remove fluid from the tissues, thereby reducing edema. At the initial stage of inflammation lotions contribute to the resorption of the source of infection. Also, such procedures can be carried out after the abscess has broken through or has been opened surgically. In this case, the applications lead to a quick wound healing.

Solutions for lotions are:

  • hypertonic solution
  • miramistin
  • chlorhexidine.
Hypertonic solution
Hypertonic solution is prepared from salt (20 grams per cup of warm water). Treatment is effective in the early stages of the development of the inflammatory process. For lotion you need to prepare a piece of soft cotton fabric. Gauze dressings for such procedures are ineffective because they retain fluid poorly. Dampen a tissue with saline and apply to the area of ​​inflammation. Attach the plastic wrap on top and put on thick underwear. It is recommended to wear a lotion 5 - 6 hours. At the same time, it is necessary to replace the old gaskets with new ones every 1 to 2 hours, also moistened in a hypertonic solution. The duration of treatment is from 3 to 5 days.

Miramistin
This tool effectively fights a wide range of pathogens. Influencing the membrane (shell) of pathogenic bacteria, the drug prevents the growth of new and the destruction of existing microbes. At the initial stage of the disease lotions prevent the development of a purulent process. If you do the procedure after opening the purulent capsule, healing will be faster.
The drug is available in the form of a liquid, which needs to be moistened with a tissue and applied to the inflamed Bartholin gland. Duration of application - no more than 5 minutes, because, otherwise, the drug can cause a burn. Make lotions should be 2 - 3 times a day. If itching or burning, it is necessary to stop the treatment.

Chlorhexidine
This drug changes the structure of pathogens, causing them to die. Chlorhexidine lotions are carried out at any stages of exacerbation of Bartholinitis. For the procedure, moisten the fabric with a liquid and apply to the area of ​​inflammation for 5 minutes. During the day, the lotion is done 2 - 3 times. In the intervals between procedures do not use soap or alkaline hygiene products.
In pregnancy, chlorhexidine is not used.

Firming tinctures
The initial form of Bartholinitis and the exacerbation of the chronic stage of the disease often occur on the background of reduced immunity. Therefore, in the treatment of this disease it is necessary to take drugs that strengthen the immune system. The best option are alcohol tinctures on the basis of various medicinal plants. Such tools have a minimum number of contraindications, and their reception is rarely accompanied by side effects. Before taking (three times a day) half a teaspoon of tincture should be mixed with water and drunk before meals. Take the drug must be daily for 25 - 30 days.

Preparations for improving immune function are:

  • Echinacea tincture. Effectively strengthens the protective function and protects the body from the action of free radicals. It is not recommended to carry out treatment with echinacea during pregnancy.
  • Tincture of ginseng. It has a strong tonic effect. Not used during the exacerbation of the disease. Not recommended for problems with sleep, liver disease and with increased excitability. When pregnancy or breastfeeding tincture of ginseng should be abandoned.
  • Rosehip tincture. Contains a large amount of vitamin C, which increases the body's resistance to infectious agents. Not recommended for diseases of the stomach and the tendency to thrombosis. After taking the oral cavity should be rinsed with water, as rosehip has a negative effect on tooth enamel.

Regular visits to the gynecologist

Regardless of well-being and existing symptoms, a woman is recommended to undergo a routine check-up at a gynecologist twice a year. The need for systematic visits to the doctor increases with a history of abortions or other surgical operations. During surgery, mechanical damage to tissues adjacent to the Bartholin gland may occur, which increases the likelihood of an inflammatory process.
An indication for observation by a gynecologist is the presence of chronic diseases of the genitourinary system. Infection can penetrate the mucous tissues of the vestibule of the vagina and provoke bartholinitis.

Chronic diseases that can cause Bartholinitis include:

  • adnexitis (inflammation in the ovaries),
  • endometriosis (proliferation of the inner layer of the uterine wall),
  • cystitis (inflammation of the bladder),
  • pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys).

Personal hygiene

In the prevention of Bartholinitis, it is of great importance for the woman to observe intimate hygiene. Lack of proper care for the external genital organs can cause infection and the development of the inflammatory process.

The rules for feminine personal care are:

  • Mode. It is necessary to wash the genitals twice a day - in the morning and in the evening. In the absence of time in the morning, washing can be replaced by rubbing the genitals with a wet towel. In the evenings, water treatments are mandatory.
  • Water. Wash genitals should be warm water, a stream which should be directed from the pubis to the anus. Using cold water can cause hypothermia, so even in summer you should use warm water. The jet of water should not penetrate deep into the vagina, but only to wash the labia, pubis, clitoris, anus.
  • Accessories. Scrubbing pads or sponges are not recommended for cleaning, as they may scratch the vaginal mucosa. The towel for intimate hygiene should be made of natural fabrics and used only for its intended purpose.
  • Detergents. For water procedures it is necessary to use special detergents for intimate hygiene. The use of conventional soap (lump or liquid) can lead to disruption of the healthy composition of the vaginal microflora. При отсутствии специальных средств туалет половых органов рекомендуется проводить кипяченой водой.
  • Белье. Tight tight panties made of synthetic materials can cause infection. Such underwear prevents free circulation of air, which is a favorable environment for the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.

Recurrent

An abscess characterized by periodic relapses is a manifestation of the chronic form of the disease. The exacerbation of symptoms occurs during menstruation, in the case of the accession of a secondary infection or with a decrease in immune protection. The characteristic signs of recurrent abscess include:

  • low-grade body temperature
  • low intensity of pain,
  • the presence of a seal in the gland area,
  • development of edema in the period of exacerbation of the disease.

With the formation of cysts

If the chronic form of bartholinitis is not treated, the gland develops cystic tumorwhich most often has a small size. Sometimes a woman does not even suspect her presence. In the cavity of the cyst is inflammatory exudate, formed as a result of violation of the outflow of fluid. The tumor is located on the border between the middle and lower third of the labia. The intensity of the painful sensation depends on the size of the cyst. Discomfort is aggravated by sexual intercourse, during walking and as a result of friction of clothing.

To provoke the development of the disease can pathogens. The probability of their reproduction increases with a decrease in immunity. The main pathogens of the inflammatory process are E. coli, trichomonads, klebsiella, streptococci and gonococci. The factors that increase the risk of developing Bartholinitis include:

  • sexually transmitted diseases
  • wearing linen made of synthetic materials
  • lack of nutrients
  • violation of hygiene rules
  • exacerbation of chronic infections during pregnancy,
  • local microtraumas
  • inflammatory processes in the body,
  • hypothermia
  • complications after surgery and endoscopic studies.

Bartholinitis is most commonly developed. against the background of existing inflammation in cystitis, vulvitis or vulvovaginitis. In rare cases, infection is primary. The most prone to pathology are women who have undergone childbirth or surgery. Lifestyle is also very important because it forms the immunity of the woman.

The initial stages of the pathology can go unnoticed by a woman. In this case, there is a small seal in the area of ​​the vestibule of the vagina, which does not cause significant discomfort. Pain may be completely absent. The acute form of the disease is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • increased pain in a sitting position or while walking,
  • significant increase in body temperature
  • reduced performance
  • the formation of mobile swelling at the entrance to the vagina,
  • redness of the skin,
  • suppuration,
  • feeling of heat in the affected area,
  • throbbing pain and feeling of fullness in the perineum.

Bartholinitis during pregnancy

Exists high probability of development of the disease in women in position. Immune protection weakens during this period, chronic diseases are activated, the risk of infection is increased. If the causative agents of the disease entered the body for up to 12 weeks, they pose a particular danger to the embryo. In the first trimester, the child is not protected from external factors. Penetrating into the amniotic fluid, the infection can trigger developmental pathology or termination of pregnancy.

Diagnostic methods

The most common diagnosis is made by visual inspection vestibule of the vagina. With the help of laboratory research the causative agent of the disease is determined, since the treatment is primarily directed to its elimination. Diagnostic measures include:

  • bacterial culture,
  • PCR diagnostics,
  • smear to determine the degree of purity of microflora,
  • study of inflammatory exudate.

ethnoscience

The use of medicinal plants is agreed with a specialist. Most often, this method is necessary as a supplement to drug therapy. Recipes based on herbal ingredients are used for local use in the format lotions, baths and compresses. Beforehand, it is necessary to exclude the possibility of the development of an allergic reaction.

Anti-inflammatory decoctions

The main function of folk treatment methods is to eliminate the infection. Infusions with an antiphlogistic effect are daily treating the surface of the vagina with a cotton swab or medical bandage. The procedure is carried out once a day. To help relieve inflammation decoctions of chamomile, St. John's wort, oak bark and yarrow.

Antiseptic infusions

There are a number of tools that have a disinfecting effect on the body. They may be used orally or topically. For the manufacture of infusion herbal mixture is filled with water and left for several hours. The following recipes help to cope with Bartholinitis:

  1. Valerian root, Iceland moss, immortelle flowers and pine shoots mix, taking each ingredient for 20 g. The mixture is filled with 400 ml of water. Take the medicine should be 50 ml after a meal.
  2. Three spoons are poured into 50 ml of liquid. dry immortelle and insist under the cover. The resulting decoction wipe the affected area.
  3. Knotweed and Nettle in a volume of 100 g is mixed with 50 g of a pickle and 40 g of horsetail. After infusion and percolation, one-third of a cup of medication is taken for seven days.

Regenerative means

They help speed up the healing process of the skin and are used in the recovery period. Plants are ground to a state of gruel, which is applied to the damaged area for several hours. The following plants have a pronounced regenerative effect:

Restorative

Funds aimed at strengthening the immune system, contain a large amount of vitamins. Replenishing their stock allows the body to recover faster. Responsible for the work of the immune system vitamins A, C, E and PP. In large numbers they are presented in meadow clover, red mountain ash and chokeberry.

At home

Healing activities at home are carried out at an early stage of the disease or during remission during the chronic course of the disease. Such therapy is aimed at reducing inflammation and alleviating symptoms. In some cases, it contributes to the rapid opening of the abscess. The list of home treatments includes lotions, firming tinctures, compresses and baths.

Baths

This is a convenient and relaxing way to treat a disease. The procedure is carried out in a large basin with high sides. Water temperature should be as comfortable as possible (approximately 33-37 degrees). It is maintained by adding hot fluid throughout the procedure. Herbal infusions or antiseptic solutions are added to the bath. The most successful components are:

  • decoctions of eucalyptus, chamomile and oak bark,
  • tincture of calendula,
  • manganese solution.

Compresses

They are used to pull pus out of the problem area. Ideal for manufacturing medical ointment. They are applied in a thick layer on clean gauze and applied to the area of ​​the abscess. From above, it is advisable to wear tight underwear, pre-covered gauze with plastic wrap. It is recommended to be in a horizontal position for two hours. Then the compress is removed, and the genitals are thoroughly washed with water. For this method of treatment used the following types of drugs:

  • Vishnevsky ointment,
  • Levomekol,
  • Ichthyol ointment.

Lotions

Remove the swelling and stop the inflammatory process help lotions from medicinal solutions. Most often they are used after the opening of a purulent focus. As a basis use Chlorhexidine, hypertonic solution or Miramistin. Gauze cloth moistened with one of the means is applied to the problem area for 15 minutes. Per day is shown up to three procedures.

Firming tinctures

Strengthen the immune system during the recovery period help alcohol based on herbal ingredients. They have a minimum number of contraindications and side effects. Infusions can be prepared by yourself or purchased at a pharmacy. They are taken before meals in half a teaspoon. The general course of treatment is 25 days. The most effective have:

  • dogrose and ginseng tinctures,
  • alcohol extract of echinacea.

Use of contraception

One of the causes of Bartholinitis are infectious diseases. Barrier methods protection can reduce the risk of their occurrence. The most effective way to protect is considered condom use. The uterine coil and contraceptive sponges do not protect against infection in the body. Antimicrobial effects also have vaginal suppositories and gels.

Timely treatment of foci of infection

Bartholinitis is capable of provoking any inflammatory process in the body. If you immediately take steps to eliminate the disease, you can avoid complications. Even caries can cause inflammation in the vulva. This is due to the fact that pathogens tend to move through the lymph.

Balanced diet

The quality of the diet depends on the state of the immune system. Food should be enriched with carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Eating fruits and vegetables will ensure the intake of vitamins. High calcium content is present in dairy products. The protein responsible for muscle growth is found in beef, chicken, eggs and legumes. Fish is rich in healthy fats, phosphorus, iodine, selenium and magnesium.

Full sleep

Disorders of the immune system appear in the background of physical exhaustion. It often develops as a result of lack of sleep. A person becomes more scattered and vulnerable in relation to various pathologies. The probability of exacerbation of chronic illnesses increases. The minimum sleep time should be at least eight hours. It is recommended to ventilate the room and go to bed at the same time.

Conclusion

Bartholinitis is referred to as difficult-to-tolerate pathologies. On the eve of the vagina is a large number of nerve endings, so the pain syndrome is expressed quite clearly.

With the right approach, it is possible to eliminate the disease and prevent the development of complications. The slightest suspicion of blocking the Bartholin gland is considered a serious reason for seeking medical attention. Preventive measures do not take much time and effort, but they can prevent serious consequences.

Bartholinite - what is it?

Inflammation of the Bartholin glands, one or two at a time, is known as Bartholinitis. Accompanied by painful swelling of the labia, sometimes leads to surgery.

Each gland has a short tube with a length of 2, 5 cm, which is called the Bartholin duct. It brings a glandular secret to the surface, just behind the inside of the lip of the vulva. Violation of the free flow of fluid leads to its accumulation in the cavity of the gland.

The duct is blocked, preventing the outflow of secretions. The gland is enlarged, palpable on palpation. Congestive secretion leads to the development of microbes and inflammation of the Bartholin gland.

From the nature of the inflammation Bartholinitis is divided into forms:

  • acute,
  • chronic
  • false abscess (purulent process in the formed cyst),
  • true abscess.

Forms of Bartholinitis in women have characteristic features and symptoms, the treatment is selected taking into account the specificity of inflammation.

About 40 years, doctors believed that the function of the Bartholin glands to produce the secret to moisturize and lubricate the vagina during sex. American scientists have proven this to be wrong and the lubricant comes from the top of the vagina. The glands separate a small amount of fluid in response to sexual arousal, its purpose in moisturizing the labia.

At birth of the girl and before her puberty, the Bartholin glands are underdeveloped, so the children do not fall ill with Bartholinitis.

Diagnostic methods

To make a diagnosis, you must conduct:

  • Interviewing the patient, finding out how long she has been experiencing pain, edema and fever.
  • Finding out the number of abortions, pregnancies, infections and surgeries.
  • Examination on the gynecological chair, the definition of redness and localization of edema.
  • Taking a smear to determine the causative agent of Bartholinitis.
  • Bacteriological analysis, a method of sowing secretion of gland secretions on a nutrient medium for identifying the pathogen and selecting an antibiotic for treatment,
  • Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.
  • Complete blood count (leukocyte count, ESR),
  • General urine analysis.

Why bartholinitis occurs: the main reasons

The culprits of the occurrence of the disease are bacteria such as staphylococcus, Escherichia coli, Trichomonas, streptococci, Candida, etc. Most often, Bartholinitis begins as a result of the entry of pathogens into the Bartholin gland as a result of human infection with sexually transmitted diseases: chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis.

There are a number of factors that significantly increase the risk of Bartholinitis:

  • Violation of personal hygiene.
  • All sorts of local microtrauma (excellent entrance gate for infection): scratching, scuffing, diaper rash.
  • The presence in the body of chronic foci of neglected infections (pyelonephritis, caries) - in this case, the pathogens enter the Bartholin gland with a current of lymph or blood.
  • In some cases, operations affecting the urogenital area, with non-compliance with sanitary standards during their implementation or in violation of the prescribed rules in the postoperative period.
  • Frequent change of sexual partners, greatly increasing the risk of contracting diseases that are sexually transmitted.
  • Wearing too tight linen - as a result, the normal outflow of secretion is disrupted, as a result of which it stagnates, thus creating ideal conditions for the development of infection.
  • The general decrease in immunity, vitamin deficiency, hypothermia - all this weakens the body's defenses, as a result of infection pathogens, without encountering significant obstacles on the way, they easily get into both the excretory duct of the gland and the gland itself.

Bartholinitis: Symptoms

In the overwhelming majority of cases, the very first symptom of Bartholinitis is inflammation of the excretory duct of the gland located in the vestibule in the vagina. The symptom manifests itself through reddening of the opening of this duct and the appearance of insignificant purulent-mucous secretions. In this case, the skin of the labia minora next to the duct orifice softens somewhat, and when probing, an increase in the Bartholin gland duct is detected. This is the stage preceding Bartholinitis, the disease itself occurs when the duct is blocked, it thickens and accumulates mucus, and, as a result, the inflammatory process goes directly to the gland.

Symptoms of acute bartholinitis:

  • Redness around the exit of the exit duct of the gland - while the patient's condition does not change.
  • Feeling for an increase in the excretory duct of the gland - while pressing, a small amount of pus is released from it.

The inflammatory secret, continuing to accumulate in the lobes of the gland due to blockage of the duct, soon leads to a false abscess. This condition is already manifested through the following symptoms:

  • Suddenly appeared severe pain in the area of ​​the labia majora, where the abscess developed - it is so pronounced that the patient experiences real agony when walking, sitting and stool discharge.
  • Increase in body temperature to 39 degrees.
  • Weakness, chills, weakness.

Among the local signs of a false abscess are the following:

  • The swelling of the labia majora on the side of the onset of pathology - sometimes its size is so large that it completely blocks the entrance to the vagina.
  • Redness of the skin over swelling while maintaining its mobility.
  • Painful sensations during palpation of the affected labia majora.

If a softening of the swelling is suddenly detected, this is a sign of the development of a true abscess with the formation of a purulent capsule in the cavity of the Bartholin gland.

Among the common symptoms of a true Bartholin gland abscess, the following are common:

  • Deterioration of the patient’s general condition, characterized by a rise in temperature of up to 40 degrees and an increase in the intensity of intoxication symptoms (weakness, headache, chills, dizziness).
  • Increased pain in the labia majora, from which the pathology was formed: the pain becomes pulsating and constant.
  • Increased leukocytes and ESR, detected by the results of laboratory blood tests.

Local signs of a true abscess are:

  • pronounced swelling of the labia majora, the volumes of which can be very significant,
  • bright red skin over the swelling - while it is motionless,
  • sharp painful sensations during palpation of swelling,
  • in some cases, an increase in the inguinal lymph nodes.

Sometimes an abscess is opened independently, after which the patient’s well-being immediately begins to improve: the temperature normalizes, the edema subsides, and the pain disappears. However, one should not put too high hopes on self-healing, and at the first signs of Bartholinitis, seek qualified medical assistance.

With regard to chronic Bartholinitis, then this disease is characterized by a long course, accompanied by periods of exacerbation and subsidence. Relapses are usually caused by factors such as menstruation, hypothermia, etc. And at this moment the symptoms of chronic Bartholinitis repeat the symptoms of acute Bartholinitis. The most frequent result of the untreated chronic Bartholinitis is the occurrence of a cyst of the large gland of the anterior vesicle.

Is bartholinitis the cause of infertility?

Many are worried about whether Bartholinitis can cause infertility. By itself, the disease is not an obstacle to conception. But the chronic pathological process in the vagina, which causes regular inflammation of the Bartholin gland, is often the true reason for not being able to become pregnant.

What is dangerous bartholinitis during pregnancy?

Bartholinitis and its causes during pregnancy always have an adverse effect on the development of the fetus. And the protective mechanisms provided by nature, unfortunately, are not able to prevent the transmission of infection to the fetus by hematogenous means - that is, through blood.

If the cause of Bartholinitis is Trichomonas or gonococcus, the effect on the fetus of these infections can cause disturbances in the development of various organs and systems of the fetus.

If a woman becomes ill with Bartholinitis between conception and the twenty-second week of pregnancy, the probability of a miscarriage or death of the fetus is high. In cases where the future mother is diagnosed with this disease in the last periods, the risk of premature birth and infection of the child during the passage of the birth canal significantly increases - the eyes, umbilical ring, lungs are affected.

Bartholinitis: prevention

Naturally, like any disease, Bartholinitis is easier to prevent than to treat for a long time. And simple preventive measures gain the most importance in the time of a woman bearing a child. All these recommendations may well become a way of life - none of them require special efforts for their implementation. So, the prevention of Bartholinitis includes the following activities:

  • observance of hygiene of the external genital organs - is of fundamental importance,
  • the use of contraceptives during casual sex or the presence of a single sexual partner,
  • timely treatment of foci of chronic infection: urethritis, colpitis, caries, pyelonephritis, etc.
  • annual preventive visits to the gynecologist, even in the absence of complaints,
  • avoiding wearing tight underwear, especially synthetic,
  • general strengthening of immunity: proper sleep, proper nutrition, an active enough lifestyle, avoidance of hypothermia, etc.

About pathology

Bartholinitis is an inflammatory pathology, usually associated with a decrease in immune defense or venereal diseases. Bartholin's glands are inflamed - a pair formation that lies in the thickness of the woman's large sexual lips. They got their name by the name of the anatomist who described them - Caspor Bartolini, who studied the female reproductive system in the 17th century. Their auxiliary function: they emit a small amount of mucus on the eve of the vagina, which plays the role of natural lubricant during sexual intercourse. With inflammation, the Bartholin glands increase in size, become painful and cause significant discomfort to the woman.

Often, patients suffer Bartholinitis without any treatment, in the hope that the situation will resolve itself. Such frivolity leads to a serious gynecological problem - chronic Bartholinitis. To cure it many times more difficult than the acute form of the disease, inflammation takes persistent recurrent nature. How to recognize the disease at an early stage and how to treat bartholinitis, read on.

To better understand the principles of treatment of Bartholinitis, it is worth knowing a little about the structure of the gland itself. Bartholin gland is a hollow rounded education the size of a pea, from which the excretory duct in the form of a thin tube to the skin surface. The inner part of the gland lies in the fatty tissue that fills the labia majora. Normally, it is soft, elastic and difficult to feel under the skin.

The gland is lined on the inside by the secretory epithelium - cells that produce mucus. The secret accumulates in the inner part and when its full filling occurs or the woman is excited, it is released through the duct to the outside. Bartholin gland mucus has good lubricating properties. It facilitates the insertion of the penis into the vagina and protects the vestibule from damage during frictions. Dysfunction of the Bartholin gland is felt dry and discomfort during sexual intercourse.

About the causes of the disease

As mentioned above, the causes of Bartholinitis are infections and reduced immunity. Both of these factors are combined in the following cases:

  • lack of personal hygiene,
  • metabolic disorders (diabetes),
  • sexually transmitted diseases
  • invasive interventions on the genitals - surgery, endoscopic examination, abortion,
  • pregnancy combined with a foci of chronic infection in the body,
  • wearing synthetic linen,
  • inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system.

The main pathogens of Bartholinitis are:

  • Trichomonas,
  • gonococcus
  • streptococcus,
  • Staphylococcus,
  • E. coli
  • Klebsiella,
  • Proteus.

Both true pathogenic bacteria and conditionally pathogenic bacteria can cause disease. The latter are activated only in conditions of reduced immunity. Microorganisms enter the gland from the surface of the skin, ascending along the excretory duct, or are carried with the flow of blood or lymph from other foci of infection.

About Bartholinite Forms

Bartholinitis can leak:

  • acute - signs of inflammation are pronounced, the immune system actively reacts to the pathogen, the disease lasts no more than 8 weeks,
  • in chronic form, inflammation takes a wavelike course: periods of calm are replaced by exacerbations. Symptoms do not appear brightly, often Bartholin gland cysts are formed. The disease lasts more than 2 months and can last for years.

Depending on which part of the gland is affected, the following are distinguished:

  • Canaliculitis - inflammation affects only the excretory duct. Its walls swell, but do not close completely and the outflow of the secret is not disturbed. This form is easy, its symptoms are mild.
  • False abscess - the duct of the gland sticks together and the outflow of secretion stops. Mucus accumulates in the inner section, gradually stretching it. The gland tissue is not destroyed, it continues to function normally. A cyst gradually forms - a cavity bounded by the walls of the gland, filled with mucus.
  • True abscess or purulent Bartholinitis - develops when the secretory gland section is destroyed by bacteria. It is filled with pus and increases in size. Microbial toxins and cell breakdown products are absorbed into the bloodstream, which leads to disruption of the patient's state of health and an increase in body temperature.

About the manifestations of the disease

Symptoms of Bartholinitis can be expressed in varying degrees, depending on the type of inflammation and the extent of the lesion of the gland. Mild forms of the disease flow unnoticed by a woman: she does not attach importance to a slight discomfort in the region of the vestibule. However, even a small inflammation leads to an increase in the size of the gland and its consolidation. It is felt under the skin of the labia and may be somewhat bulging above the surface. If the inflammation is mild, the gland is moderately painful or does not hurt at all.

Acute bartholinitis with purulent inflammation proceeds differently. Its symptoms are pronounced:

  • the temperature rises to 38-39 degrees C,
  • a woman is difficult to sit, walk because of pain in the perineum,
  • fever, throbbing pain, pain in the labia,
  • general well-being deteriorates - weakness, fatigue, headache,
  • sex life becomes impossible because it causes a woman suffering
  • the inflamed gland dramatically increases in size, swells outward in the form of a rounded formation, dense, painful. The skin above it changes its color to red or purple, its temperature is elevated compared to other areas.

When the disease is chronized, the Bartholin gland is transformed into a cyst filled with pus or mucus. It gradually increases and can reach the size of a chicken egg. Since its function is disturbed in this case, dryness and discomfort during sexual intercourse become the main complaint in addition to the tumor. The chronic form with aggravations proceeds: periodically the woman feels heat and soreness in the labia, the iron increases in size.

Excessive or sharp increase in the size of the abscess often leads to the fact that he opened himself. A similar situation may occur during sex, mechanical compression of the perineum while riding a bike, or playing horseback riding. In this case, the pus is poured out in the form of a yellow-green thick mass with an unpleasant odor. Under unfavorable circumstances, an abscess can open up in the fatty tissue of the labia, which leads to its inflammation - cellulite. The pain in such a state increases sharply, the tissues around the gland swell.

Both one and both Bartholin glands can become inflamed. In the latter case, complaints of discomfort during intercourse come out on top. The necessary lubricant for the smooth introduction of the penis is completely absent, and women have an unpleasant sensation of friction during frictions.

About diagnostics

The diagnosis is established by a gynecologist, and for this he needs to examine the patient on the chair, take a history and examine complaints. It is important for the doctor to find out how long the disease has arisen and what it is connected with: with the change of sexual partner, stress, hypothermia, abortion or surgery. He finds out if the patient had any symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases. As a rule, these measures are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. If the gynecologist has doubts about the nature of the pathology, then the diagnosis includes additional procedures:

  • complete blood count - acute purulent Bartholinitis is manifested by an increase in the number of leukocytes and their immature forms, accelerated ESR,
  • biochemical blood test - allows you to identify possible diabetes in a patient,
  • microscopy of a vaginal smear - used to detect pathogens of genital infections, diagnose concomitant bucvaginosis,
  • bakposev discharge from the inflamed Bartholin gland - allows you to accurately determine the pathogen Bartholinitis and its sensitivity to antibiotics,
  • PCR smear from the vagina and the cervical canal - even a minimal amount of pathogenic microflora is detected.

Bartholinitis is treated by a gynecologist on an outpatient basis. Hospitalization and registration of the hospital, as a rule, are not required. Therapeutic tactics depend on the form of the disease and its stage. When a sexual infection is detected, treatment with Bartholinitis is mandatory in conjunction with STD therapy. To do this, prescribe candles with vaginal antiseptics (Hexicon, Polizhinaks, Betadine) and antibiotics (Clindamycin, Metromicon-neo). The treatment must necessarily pass and the patient's sexual partner.

Acute Bartholinite Form

The main task of therapy at this stage of the disease is to suppress the pathogen and prevent the infection from passing into the chronic stage. Which antibiotics to take the doctor first decides based on his experience and the alleged pathogenic microflora in the patient. Subsequently, he makes the exact choice of the drug after receiving the results of bakposev. If the improvement in the patient's condition does not occur more than 3 days, then the originally prescribed antibiotic is changed to a more suitable one. Suitable for the treatment of bartholinitis:

  • Doxycycline,
  • Ciprofloxacin,
  • Ofloxacin,
  • Metronidazole,
  • Ceftriaxone.

The doctor can combine two types of antibiotics to expand their spectrum of action. For example, doxycycline is prescribed together with Metronidazole - together they have a detrimental effect on gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. These drugs are prescribed for oral administration in tablet form.

Bartholinitis is treated with antibiotics and in local form. The drug in the ointment is applied directly to the skin in the area of ​​the inflamed gland. So antibiotics act more locally, create a high concentration in the tissues of the gland and its surrounding tissue. Their impact on the entire body is eliminated, thereby minimizing the risk of side effects.

Well suited for the local treatment of ointment Levomekol. It combines antimicrobial with healing, successfully copes with inflammation. The ointment is easy to apply and quickly penetrates into the focus of inflammation. Apply 1-2 times a day with a thin layer. Effective for the treatment of bartholinitis and tetracycline ointment. It is applied to the skin of the labia with a thin layer 3-5 times a day.

Acute Bartholinitis requires a woman to rest for the entire period of treatment. She should follow a diet with the restriction of spicy dishes, marinades, smoked meats, fatty and fried foods. It is necessary to completely eliminate alcohol - while taking antibiotics, it can cause a toxic reaction. Compliance with all the recommendations of the doctor in most cases can cure Bartholinitis without surgery.

In pregnant women

During pregnancy and after childbirth, Bartholinitis is treated with local anti-inflammatory drugs, sitz baths with antiseptic solutions (Manganese, Chlorhexidine). In this case, antibiotics are prescribed only when absolutely necessary - if the woman has developed acute purulent Bartholinitis. Self-treatment in pregnant and lactating mothers is unacceptable, only the doctor decides what to do to each patient individually.

Bartholinitis treatment at home is allowed if the severity of inflammation is minimal and the woman is not bothered by anything except a slight increase in the gland. However, in this case there is a risk of transition of the Bartholinitis to the chronic form. You can not take antibiotics yourself - the wrong dose or choice of an unsuitable drug will lead to the formation of resistance in microorganisms.

How to treat bartholinitis at home? You can take 1 time per day sit-baths with a decoction of herbs: chamomile, calendula, oak bark, St. John's wort. At night, you should make compresses with ichthyol ointment, Vishnevsky ointment. It is necessary to limit sex life at the time of treatment and be examined with a partner for sexually transmitted infections. If a positive result of the analysis is necessary to urgently consult a doctor.

Can bartholinite pass by itself? Yes, but only in those cases when the gland is not transformed into a cyst or abscess. This is easy to understand by the persistent change in its size, besides, it becomes dense, sometimes it is soldered to the underlying tissues.

Prevention of Bartholinitis is a series of simple rules, the observance of which will reduce the risk of infection of the glands:

  • wearing cotton underwear
  • using condoms during sex and douching Miramistin after unprotected sexual acts,
  • timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the genital organs,
  • rehabilitation of foci of chronic infection - carious teeth, chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis.

The consequences of the disease are in the formation of a recurrent cyst, which can be cured only by complete removal of the gland.

Bartholinitis - causes, symptoms and treatment of various forms of the disease - all about genital diseases, their diagnosis, operations, problems of infertility and pregnancy on MedNews.info

Women's body can rightly be called another wonder of the world. This is the source of human life, its carrier, and is there really a higher value on Earth? Therefore, it is so important for women to take care of their health, and above all - about the reproductive system. If she fails, there will be neither a complete conception of the child, nor a calm pregnancy, nor a safe delivery. To improve the gene pool of our planet, we need gynecology - the oldest branch of medicine that studies and treats diseases that are characteristic only of the female body.

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And the most important thing that this project will teach all women is not to be afraid of going to gynecologists regularly and in time. Это позволит забыть о проблемах, быть всегда жизнерадостной и красивой. Ведь женская молодость на 90% зависит от здоровья репродуктивной системы. Сайт MedNews.info готов помочь предоставить самую полезную информацию на эту тему:

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