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Gynecological ultrasound: on which day of the cycle, where to do, transcript

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Ultrasound research appeared not so long ago. But the benefits of its use are invaluable. Thanks to him, obstetricians and gynecologists can monitor the state of health of not only pregnant women and babies in the womb, but also ordinary patients who come to the appointment daily. The study of the pelvic organs has its own characteristics, and therefore it is worth knowing which day of the cycle is best suited for this procedure.

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs

The doctor may prescribe such a procedure for various reasons:

  • Lower abdominal discomfort,
  • Unplanned or re-bleeding from the vagina,
  • Inflammatory processes.

What can be determined by such a procedure:

  • Uterine or ectopic pregnancy
  • Determine the size and shape of the uterus or ovaries,
  • See the presence of uterine fibroids, cysts, fibroids, tumors.

Diagnosis is done in several ways. Which one to choose depends on your diagnosis and the decision your doctor will make. There are three options here:

  1. Transabdominal ultrasound is a common option for all, when a sensor smeared with gel is guided across the surface of the abdomen. In such a case, you should know that this procedure is done on a full bladder. Due to this, the result of the study of the pelvic organs will be carried out as accurately and efficiently as possible
  2. Transrectal ultrasound is a fairly rare version of the study, although it is quite applicable depending on your problem. Most often it is used for men
  3. Transvaginal ultrasound is a commonly used diagnostic option. Here, an absolutely opposite picture is formed for the first variant - the procedure is done on an empty bladder. Therefore, try not to drink liquids a few hours before the study. And do not forget to tell your doctor if you have an allergic reaction to latex products.

Whatever diagnostic option your doctor chooses, you should remember that for all sorts of gynecological examinations there is an appropriate day of the menstrual cycle. Let's talk about this in more detail.

Which day to choose

Universal time in order to carry out various manipulations with respect to a pelvic organ is considered the first five days after the end of menstruation. Or it is the first 10 days of the general menstrual cycle. At 5-7 days of the menstrual cycle, it is possible and recommended to conduct studies of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of the ovaries is carried out several times throughout the cycle for more accurate and reliable results.

If there is no delay in menstruation, fever, but the test shows a negative result, also see a doctor immediately. At the beginning of the cycle, it is easy to detect the formation of a cyst.

Why the first phase of the cycle

There are reasons for doing research in the early days.

If you want to do an ultrasound examination of the uterus, then you should know that during this period its mucous membrane is the thinnest. If a tumor, an obscure formation or any other kind of pathology is present inside this organ, then it is possible to discern them with maximum accuracy and reliability during this period. Starting from the second phase of the cycle, the mucous becomes much thicker and the visibility through it is not so clear. It is important to know on which day of the cycle to prescribe an ultrasound of the uterus, so that the medical diagnosis is 100% accurate.

Ovarian research will also be the best at this time. This will make it possible to accurately determine the presence of a cyst, and not the follicle, which is formed immediately before the beginning of the menstrual period and is very similar to it. In the first half of the cycle, the diagnosis of this pelvic organ will show a 100% result. In addition, you should know that cysts are divided into several types. This may be a formation that is natural and is associated with the normal functioning of the ovary or it is a pathology. In the middle of the cycle, it is quite difficult to answer this question precisely, which means you cannot be sure whether surgery will be necessary or you can do without it. Agree that this is a rather serious decision and doubts are unacceptable here. In this case, you will have to wait for the start of the next cycle, and valuable time will be lost.

In the best way all researches pass after full completion of the monthly. During this process, an ultrasound scan of the uterus is not recommended. The fact is that the bleeding will not allow for qualitative research and your doctor may miss something important. If you are not sure when to go for this procedure, contact your doctor and he will tell you the day of the cycle that is most favorable. But in the event that you have problems with the ovaries, the menstrual flow will not be an obstacle at all. Here it is already a matter of the patient's personal sensations — in many ultrasounds during menstruation, especially transvaginal, or when a full bladder is necessary, causes discomfort — and in aesthetic considerations.

In order for everything to be successful, it is necessary to competently do an ultrasound examination of one or another organ of the small pelvis. Vigilance and awareness should not only a doctor, but also the patient. The attending physicians repeat their instructions a day several dozen times and cannot always remember who was told about the features of the ultrasound and who was not. If you do not know the details, do not hesitate to ask the doctor yourself or read about it in the relevant literature. Such knowledge will help you not to waste time because sometimes such minutes can be worth its weight in gold. If you know what needs to be done, the ultrasound scan will always be 100% efficient for you.

Purpose of the survey

Doing gynecological ultrasound is necessary for women at least once a year. If there are any complaints, the doctor may order an additional examination. The reason for the diagnosis will be the following symptoms:

  • long periods or breakthrough bleeding in the middle of the cycle,
  • pain in the lower segment of the peritoneum, general malaise and weakness,
  • discharge with an unpleasant odor and unusual consistency,
  • delayed menstruation in the absence of pregnancy
  • suspected pathologies such as endometritis, endometriosis, salpingitis and adhesions,
  • the presence of tumors in the pelvis: myoma, ovarian cysts and endocervix.

Ultrasound diagnosis is also performed for women receiving therapy. In this case, it helps to study the effectiveness of the selected treatment. Often, physicians prescribe complex studies, which, in addition to ultrasound, include a lot of laboratory diagnostics.

Free survey

In recent years, almost all the representatives of the weaker sex are aware of where ultrasounds are done. You can conduct a study in a public or private clinic. In order for the diagnosis to be free, you need to get an appointment from a doctor. To do this, consult your doctor and tell about the disturbing symptoms. If you have a passport and an insurance policy, you will receive an ultrasound x-ray. In this case, the client does not have to pay.

Some of the weaker sex still prefer to go to private clinics. This has a definite meaning, for example, if an ultrasound scan is performed in a public institution, then there is always a queue for the procedure. Many have to wait for weeks. But the untimely manipulation can show, respectively, an incorrect result. It will all end with the fact that the diagnosis will be set incorrectly and the therapy will be useless. That is why it is important for every woman to know when gynecological ultrasound is performed (on which day of the cycle). This you can find out later in the article.

Paid research

At your request or recommendation of the doctor, you can visit the medical center ultrasound. In such institutions you do not have to wait. Experienced specialists will quickly diagnose and give you the result. In addition, in some paid clinics is the latest equipment that helps to accurately consider all the departments of the small pelvis.

The most popular clinics are “Medicine 21 Century”, “Ultramed”, “City-Lab”, “Invitro”, “Zdravitsa” and so on. Only experienced and qualified specialists work in them. They will help you correctly calculate the day of the survey. Indeed, much depends on the individual situation. Most patients are interested in, how much is a gynecological ultrasound? The price can vary from 500 to 3000 rubles. She will be announced for you before the examination. If there is a need for additional manipulations, the cost may be higher.

How do ultrasounds?

All studies are divided into two types: vaginal and transabdominal. This or that method is selected in accordance with the individual characteristics of the patient. Also play the role of the potential capabilities of the device and the qualifications of the doctor.

Vaginal diagnosis

This method is used most often. It uses an elongated fixture, which is called a sensor. It is covered with a special condom and lubricated with gel. After that, the sensor is inserted into the vagina and transmits the image to the screen. With this device you can reliably identify many pathologies. The duration of the study is from 5 to 20 minutes. Before manipulation, a woman needs to clean the intestines and urinate.

Transabdominal study

How do ultrasound through the abdominal wall? To conduct such an examination, it is necessary to pre-fill the bladder. Thus, the reproductive organ will be in the most favorable position for diagnosis. Before the procedure, the specialist applies the gel to the lower abdomen, and then with the help of the sensor determines the state of the organs on the screen. This type of research is assigned to girls who are not sexually active - virgins. Also, the manipulation is carried out for future mothers and with the impossibility of vaginal examination.

Gynecological ultrasound: on which day of the cycle?

Many experts advise to conduct diagnostics immediately after the end of menstruation. However, it is impossible to give such recommendations for all patients. Some women are still recommended to wait for the middle of the cycle or its end. Also important role played by the duration of the menstrual cycle and the duration of bleeding. Standard ultrasound recommendations are the conduct of the study from the 5th to the 7th day of the cycle. Let's try to understand each case separately.

Routine examination

If you are assigned a gynecological ultrasound - on which day of the cycle is it better to visit the doctor? In this situation, the standard method works. It is better to diagnose immediately after the end of menstruation. However, it is worth paying attention to the duration of the cycle.

  • With an average period length (28 days), a study conducted on the 7th day will be the most informative. During this period, the growth of new follicles has not yet begun, and the endometrium has a minimum thickness.
  • If your cycle is short and is approximately 21 days, then it is better to make the diagnosis on the 3-5th day, because on the 7th day ovulation may already occur. At the same time under the action of progesterone will be a thickening of the endometrial layer. The data obtained will not be completely informative and accurate.
  • Some women may have a long cycle. The duration of the period varies from 35 to 40 days. Diagnosis in this case can be carried out a little later. Dates from 7 to 20 days are considered normal.

Ovulation Tracking

If you need to monitor the follicle rupture, it is recommended to visit the ultrasound medical center several times during the cycle. This procedure is called folliculometry. The doctor will correctly calculate the days of the examination. Usually it is done 5-6 days before the expected ovulation, and then - according to the results of the survey. Here are some estimated days:

  • during the normal cycle: the 10th, 12th and 14th day after the onset of menstruation,
  • in the short period: 5, 7 and 10 days from menstruation,
  • long cycle provides for diagnostics on the 16th, 18th and 22nd day.

Depending on the results obtained, the specialist may shift the time of the examination in one direction or another.

Establishment of pregnancy

If a woman suspects that she is pregnant and wants to establish this fact with the help of an ultrasound, the timing of the diagnosis will be different. Manipulation can show the correct result only two weeks after the delay. In the short cycle it will be the 35th day, in the normal - the 42nd, and in the long - the 49th.

Some modern devices are able to detect the ovum in the uterus within 3 weeks after conception (7 days delay). However, they are more common in private clinics than in state medical centers.

Ultrasound during menstruation

Is it possible to carry out an ultrasound during bleeding? If the discharge is recognized by menstruation, then such a diagnosis does not make sense. At the time of the procedure, the genital organ will be filled with blood. To see any tumors or pathology is not possible.

When bleeding has nothing to do with menstruation, it is acceptable to do an ultrasound. With the help of such a survey it will be possible to reliably determine the source of the discharge and their cause.

How to decipher the figures?

After you have undergone an examination (ultrasound), the data is interpreted by a gynecologist. Pay attention that the physician who carries out the manipulation cannot diagnose you. He only gives a conclusion. After that, you need to re-visit your gynecologist and get the final verdict. Rate indicators may vary depending on the day of the cycle. Consider what the numbers and values ​​should see women undergoing examination on the recommendation of the doctor at the beginning of the cycle. The following indicators are normal:

  • a genital organ of size 50-54-35 millimeters, which indicates the length, width and thickness,
  • echogenicity should be uniform, and the contours are clear and even,
  • the thickness of the mucous membrane (endometrium) depends on the day of the menstrual cycle,
  • The ovaries before the maturation of the follicles are 37–20–26 in size, while the right one is always of larger diameter.

The size of the fallopian tubes are usually not defined, since normally they are simply not visible. In some cases, a specialist can indicate the length of the cervical canal and the state of the internal os (closed).

Any deviations from the specified values ​​can be both the norm and pathology. Usually, the ultrasound protocol always shows acceptable values ​​for a particular day of the cycle.

Small conclusion

From the presented article you can learn about the features of the gynecological ultrasound. Decoding indicators should be made only by a doctor. Remember that the data obtained is not a diagnosis. The expert only describes what he sees on his monitor. Further actions are undertaken by the attending gynecologist. You may have to pass additional tests or undergo research to clarify the picture.

To obtain the most accurate data through ultrasound, it is necessary to conduct research on certain days. If you want to assess the condition of the uterus, it is advisable to choose the first half of the cycle, since in the second part of it the layer of the endometrium can hide minor defects and tumors. Contact your doctor and find out more information about this. Good luck to you!

Indications for the appointment of diagnosis

Ultrasound examination today has found widespread use in all areas of health care. To determine the presence of abnormalities or confirm their absence, prescribe a gynecological ultrasound, which allows you to assess the current state of the pelvic organs.

Indications for the study may have a different character:

  • Identification of structural changes in the uterus and appendages, inflammatory processes.
  • Determining the presence of fibroids, tumors, cysts, polyps.
  • The establishment of ovulation, diagnosis of pregnancy.
  • Detection of signs of polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • Research to determine the cause of infertility and others.

During the study, the condition of the uterus, the presence of congenital or acquired pathologies, the location of the intrauterine device is also diagnosed. When determining pregnancy establish the location of the ovum. In the case of the development of the inflammatory process exclude or determine the presence of adhesions.

Ways to

Before performing a gynecological ultrasound, the specialist usually warns how the examination will take place. If the patient is a child, or a girl who has not lived sexually before, then a transabdominal sensor is used. In other cases, transvaginal is most often used. The first is different from the second way of conducting the study - through the stomach. In the second case, the sensor is inserted into the vagina.

If the specialist needs a more detailed study during the diagnostic process, then both sensors can be used alternately. Существует также трансректальный датчик, который используется путем введения в прямую кишку через анальное отверстие.This method is resorted to if there are abnormalities in the development of the genital organs or the inability to perform a gynecological ultrasound using the other two methods described above.

How to prepare for the procedure

When it comes to transabdominal research, before going to the doctor you will need to drink 0.5-1 liter of liquid, you can tea. The main thing is that by the time of diagnosis the bladder is full. This will allow you to get a clear picture on the screen and accurately determine the parameters of the pelvic organs.

For transvaginal examination, additional training is not required, moreover, a specialist who will conduct gynecological ultrasound may ask to empty the bladder. For women who want to determine not only the state of the uterus and appendages, but also to prepare for pregnancy, it is important to come on certain days after menstruation. This is because in the first phase of the cycle, the state of the endometrium and the degree of maturity of the follicles are best determined.

Therefore, as a rule, the gynecologist advises in advance on what day to do gynecological ultrasound, so that a woman can prepare, and the doctor received the necessary information to determine the optimal date of conception.

For transrectal examination, it is recommended to carry out a cleansing with an enema, not to eat gas-forming products.

Subject of study

For a woman planning a pregnancy, it is very important to know on which day of the cycle to do a gynecological ultrasound. At best, it is 3-5 days from the start of menstrual bleeding, but no later than the 7th day. This period is symbolic in that the inner lining of the uterus has a fine structure and shows well the presence of small tumors, polyps, cysts. The thickness of the endometrium also allows you to determine the probability of a successful conception in the current cycle.

Among the standard parameters for any girl, woman, the subject of the study is the measurement of the thickness, width and length of the body of the uterus, the state of its appendages. If the reason for the ultrasound is an inflammatory process, then the specialist additionally determines the structure, size and location of its focus.

Ultrasound examination of the ovaries

If we talk about determining the work of the ovaries, then on the 5-7 day of the cycle gynecological ultrasound will be more effective. As a result of the study, you can get the following information:

  • Dimensions - normally, their length is 30-41 mm, thickness - 14-22 mm, width - 20-31 mm.
  • The location of the organs should be on the sides of the uterus, at a small distance from it, while the ovaries should not be identical to each other, have an oval shape.
  • At the beginning of the menstrual cycle, follicles are visualized at different stages of maturity. If the study is carried out in the second phase of the cycle, then the corpus luteum should be visualized, which will indicate that ovulation has occurred.

Diagnosis of the uterus

It is the central organ of the pelvis and its role in the body is very important during pregnancy. However, even outside this state, a woman should monitor its normal functioning, since the likelihood of the formation of various tumors, polyps occurs when late diagnosis and treatment. In most cases, it does not matter on which day of the cycle gynecological ultrasound is performed. For diagnostic purposes or for emergency indications, it will be no less informative.

What is considered normal

There are certain rules that are usually indicated in decoding the results. Average values ​​depend on the age of the patient, the presence of pregnancies, childbirth, the duration of menopause. Normally, the width of the uterus should be between 46-64 mm, thickness - 30-40 mm, length 45-70 mm.

It matters how to conduct and on what day gynecological ultrasound to measure the thickness of the endometrium. Depending on the day of the cycle, it varies from a lower value to a larger one. So, from the first to the fourth day from the beginning of menstruation, it is 1-4 mm, from the fifth to the tenth day - up to 10 mm, from the eleventh to the fourteenth - up to 15 mm, from the fifteenth to the twenty-third - up to 20 mm, from the twenty-fourth and until the end of the cycle - up to 17 mm. The diagnostician during the procedure can also establish the structure of the endometrium, which at the beginning of the cycle is anechoic, at the end hyperechoic. As for the myometrium, it should be homogeneous, without visible pathological inclusions (adenomyosis, fibroids).

Norms M-echo on ultrasound

To determine the state of the endometrium, it is not enough to know its thickness, it is also important to determine its structure. Before the onset of ovulation, the ultrasound diagnostician can determine the extent of growth of the inner layer. It is noteworthy that when the egg is released, it stops growing and begins to thicken. If implantation has not occurred, then endometrial rejection occurs.

There are certain norms of M-echo, the deviation from which may indicate the presence of deviations. So, talking about hyperplasia is a thickened and ovoid form of the inner layer with even and distinct contours. Special attention in this case deserves a resistive index. If its value is less than 0.6-0.8 mm, then there is a possibility of the development of a neoplasm in the endometrium. The increase in M-echo by 1-3 mm is also subject to control, provided that its structure is within the normal range.

Deviations from the norm

You should not look for the answer to the question: "What gynecological ultrasound is better?". Because any method of conducting research can reveal certain abnormalities. Naturally, modern sensors have high sensitivity and can detect deviations in the photo. What from this can be determined by ultrasound? For example, anomalies in the development of the genitals, uterus, appendages.

Thanks to this study, you can visually determine its structure. It happens that a woman's uterus has a septum, is divided into two or one part (two-horned, single-horned with one fallopian tube), has very small dimensions or is completely absent (agenesis). Without gynecological ultrasound, it would be difficult to identify such abnormalities. As well as the presence of fibroids, polyps, endometriosis and others.

When can pregnancy be determined

Thanks to the positive experience and feedback, gynecological ultrasound is safely done at an early stage of pregnancy. It allows you to determine the location of the ovum, to eliminate the risk of developing ectopic pregnancy. Normally, it should be inside the body of the uterus. At 6-7 weeks of gestation, you can visualize the head, arms, legs, body of the fetus.

The optimal time for the first study is 10 to 12 weeks, when the fetal heartbeat, the thickness of the neck area can already be determined. When abnormal, there is a risk of developing Down syndrome. Next comes the second screening at 22–23 weeks of gestation, when the likelihood of the development of malformations of internal organs is established or excluded. At this time, you can already determine the sex of the child.

The third screening is sent when reaching 31 - 32 weeks of pregnancy. At this time, you can determine late developmental disabilities, the degree of maturity of the placenta, the condition of the child and amniotic fluid. Ultrasound is performed using a transabdominal sensor. Intermediate diagnosis is appointed when there is evidence or deterioration of health of the pregnant.

The best day of menstruation for examination

As a general rule, gynecological ultrasound examination of the uterus is carried out after menstruation - on the third - the fifth day. If we count from the first day from the beginning of the new monthly cycle, then it should be done in time not later than on the tenth day of the monthly cycle.

Why is the timing of menstruation so important?

The fact is that in the first phase of the monthly cycle the endometrium (uterine mucosa) is the thinnest and is very easy to see. And if he has pathologies such as polyps, fibroids, mucosal modifications, it will also be easier to consider them. If the thickness of the uterine mucosa is greater in the second half of the menstrual cycle, then it will be much more difficult.

The need to adhere to this rule is also explained by the fact that cyclical changes occur in the body of women of childbearing age. And the results of the examination will depend on which day the ultrasound is done better.

Virgins

Sometimes ultrasound may be done by girls. In this case, if they did not have menstruation yet, it can be performed at any convenient time. But if the girl already had a menstruation, then it is necessary to build on the time of her start and conduct an ultrasound method of research in ordinary time.

With menopause

If the patient has a period of menopause, then she can do an ultrasound of the uterus at any time convenient for her. And the question of which days of the cycle it is better to do ultrasound, disappears by itself, because the endometrium is no longer subject to such frequent changes. In some cases, the study may be conducted on other days of the monthly cycle. Everything will depend on the testimony of the doctor.

This survey is the most informative, but it can be done only on certain days of the cycle.

And depending on when the ultrasound is done, on what day of the cycle, such changes can be indicated in the protocol:

  • During the regeneration phase (that is, on the third - fourth day), when the endometrium of the uterus is restored after the end of menstruation.
  • From the fifth to the seventh day, the proliferation phase occurs (lasts until the 14th day). At this point, a gradual thickening of the endometrium occurs, so that if a specialist needs to see the dysfunctions occurring in the uterus, then the examination should be carried out as soon as possible. In some cases, the gynecologist may notice such changes as cyst, induration and other phenomena that require more detailed diagnosis and treatment.
  • The secretory phase of the cycle begins on the 15th day, when the maximum development of the endometrial glands occurs, that is, the uterine lining (since under normal conditions it is prepared to receive a fertilized egg). Sometimes a doctor needs to know the extent of the changes occurring in the mucous membrane.

It must be remembered that the effectiveness of such a study of the uterus directly depends on what day of the cycle it is made.

Every woman needs to know that on the 3-4th day of the monthly cycle, the thickness of the endometrium is from 3 to 4 mm (increasing by the time of ultrasound to 9 mm). But in the second half of the cycle, the thickness of the uterine mucosa is maximum and can reach up to 13 mm.

The best time to examine the uterus

A woman in reproductive age should choose the most appropriate time for an ultrasound examination of the uterus and ovaries, depending on the day of the cycle.

Patients do ultrasound at any age, as gynecological diseases can always occur. The doctor will tell you which days of the cycle is best to do an ultrasound. Regular gynecological diagnosis can be carried out after menstruation, on any day of the cycle, the main thing is to name the exact day to the gynecologist.

The advantages of this type of examination is the absence of any inconvenience and discomfort, and it can also be carried out on any day of the cycle.

With the following indications, an ultrasound scan is done on certain days:

  • uterine inflammatory process
  • fibroids in this organ,
  • tumor processes of varying degrees of malignancy, stage of development and localization,
  • the presence of cysts in the uterus,
  • allowable pregnancy,
  • varying degrees of ovarian dysfunction.

In such cases, the best time for an ultrasound examination is the first days after the end of the menstrual flow.

It happens that a woman has an irregular cycle. It is imperative to inform the doctor about this fact: he will select the most suitable time for the examination.

It is easy to explain the dependence of the survey time on the day of the cycle. The fact is that the endometrium at this time has the smallest thickness. So you can most easily recognize all changes in the mucous membrane of the uterus, including difficult to diagnose.

If there is no menstruation, then the recommended time for a diagnostic examination of the uterus is approximately the 5th day of delay.

But at the same time, it is not necessary to delay the diagnosis and try not to do an ultrasound later than on the 10th day from the beginning of the delay. This is explained by the fact that the mucous membrane of this organ undergoes significant changes, so it is much more difficult for a doctor to diagnose various changes in the female genital organs.

Ultrasound is safe for the health of women, so the doctor may recommend a woman such tests on various days of the cycle. And when it is better to do an ultrasound in this case - only a specialist will tell.

A woman, in turn, cannot be ignored planned examinations: they help the gynecologist to detect dangerous pathologies in time.

Successful days for the diagnosis of ovaries

Often such an examination is done for preventive purposes, during the passage of an annual medical examination. A woman can find out on which day of the cycle it is best to undergo such a procedure directly from her doctor.

As a general rule, an ultrasound examination of the ovary is done on the same day as the diagnosis of the uterus. This is the period between the 5th and 7th day of the monthly cycle.

However, the doctor sometimes needs to evaluate the work of the sex glands on different days of the cycle. In this case, he assigns additional examinations to the woman.

The purpose of additional examinations on different days of the monthly cycle is due to the fact that the follicles function differently. The doctor needs to trace how the corpus luteum is formed, whether there are any pathologies in this process, according to the dynamics of which one can judge the probable causes of infertility.

The most likely timing of an ultrasound of the ovaries, therefore, will be as follows:

  • from 5 to 7 days of the monthly cycle,
  • from 8 to 10 days,
  • on days 14 to 16 (after ovulation)
  • between 22 and 24 days of the cycle, that is, on the eve of the next menstruation.

Sometimes a woman may have a delayed menstrual cycle, and this is despite the fact that pregnancy tests are negative. This is an indication for additional ultrasound, in order to exclude a possible ovarian cyst.

Why should an ultrasound of the ovary be done without fail in the first half of the menstrual cycle, that is, before ovulation occurs? The fact is that at the indicated time it is possible to study the state of the studied organ in more detail. At the same time, it is possible to examine in more detail cysts and other structures in the ovary for the degree of their malignancy.

Ovulation is the process by which an already mature egg leaves the ovary. This phenomenon occurs about 14 days before the onset of menstruation.

It often happens that in the second half of the cycle the doctor definitely cannot say what type of cyst a woman has, since it is difficult to examine it.

Due to the fact that the functioning of the ovaries on different days of the cycle is not the same, the doctor must periodically repeat the study.

In particular, additional examinations of the ovaries are urgently needed while establishing the cause of female infertility and further determining treatment methods.

So, the effectiveness of an ultrasound examination directly depends on which day of the cycle an ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries is done. And if such a diagnosis is passed in the most favorable time for this, then the probability of establishing an accurate diagnosis increases significantly.

In some cases, surveys may be required on other days. In any case, the attending physician will tell you on which day of the cycle it is better to do an ultrasound.

Fear such a survey, of course, not worth it. Ultrasound is not dangerous for humans, and it can be used to diagnose internal organs as often as necessary.

Diagnostic methods

Obtain reliable information about the state and anatomy of the internal genital organs is possible thanks to high-frequency ultrasonic waves. With the help of ultrasound, you can assess the studied organs in real time, to check the blood flow in the vessels. The duration of the procedure is small.

Examination of the pelvic organs using ultrasound allows you to assess the structure and condition of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. This study is carried out with myoma, cysts, inflammatory diseases and other pathologies of the pelvic organs. Ultrasound carried out in three ways:

  • Transvaginal study. Carrying out an ultrasound through the vagina, will help to accurately diagnose the presence of genital pathology. With the introduction of a special sensor inside the vagina, a clear visualization of all departments of the surveyed area is provided. Excessive vaginal examination allows for a procedure such as folliculometry, which is a method for performing an ultrasound of the ovaries in women. It is possible to assess the degree of maturation of follicles in the ovaries. Given the physiological features of the female reproductive system, be sure to discuss with your doctor what day is the procedure. In order to diagnose infertility, a transvaginal method may be used to assess the patency of the fallopian tubes, or, as they are also called, the fallopian tubes.
  • Transabdominal examination is carried out by keeping the sensor on the surface of the anterior abdominal wall, that is, not invasively, without penetration of the sensor into the patient's body. With this method it is allowed to conduct ultrasound during menstruation.
  • Трансректальное исследование которое представляет собой альтернативу трансвагинальному обследованию, можно проводить девственницам путем введения датчика в прямую кишку.

Показания для проведения

A preventive gynecological examination is recommended for all women at least once a year. The frequency of examinations in the presence of chronic diseases, such as fibroids or cysts, can be increased. Also, the gynecologist may prescribe an unscheduled and sometimes emergency examination if the patient has the following symptoms:

  • Painful menstruation,
  • Delay or absence of menstruation (amenorrhea),
  • Irregular menstruation (cycle failure, when there is less than 20 days and more than 35 days between periods)
  • Sudden hemorrhages or bleeding between periods,
  • Pain during intercourse,
  • Suspicious vaginal discharge,
  • Atypical enlargement of the uterus, which is detected upon examination of the uterus in mirrors or a two-handed examination,
  • Pregnancy,
  • Infertility.

The optimal time for

If you delve into the physiological characteristics of the female body, you can independently figure out on what day of the menstrual cycle do gynecological ultrasound. Favorable time for ultrasound is the first 3-5 days after menstruation, counting from the very first day of the onset of menstruation. However, it is not recommended to conduct a study later than 8-10 days of the menstrual cycle. The appointment of gynecological ultrasound exclusively in the first phase of the menstrual cycle is not accidental.

This is due to the fact that it is during a given period of time that the mucous membrane of the uterus, the so-called endometrium, has a minimum density. And with a reduced endometrial layer, such pathologies of the uterus as fibroids, hyperplasia, cysts and polyps are quite easily visualized. Therefore, only a qualified specialist can correctly set the date of the ultrasound scan.

In the second phase of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium is significantly compacted; therefore, the smallest pathologies may be hidden in its layers, which will remain unnoticed in this time period.

It is noteworthy that in the period from the middle and in the second phases of the menstrual cycle, small cysts, with a diameter of about 2 cm, can alternately form in the ovaries. As a rule, this is either a follicle that should be sulphated in the near future, or a peculiar cyst of the corpus luteum, which is formed in place bursting follicle and can last up to two weeks. Both formations are physiological structures characteristic of the female body. Therefore, when carrying out ultrasound in this phase, gynecologists find it difficult to determine what kind of structure the given formations have.

An indication for an ultrasound scan before menstruation is the diagnosis of the formation and development of the follicle to establish the phase of ovulation that has taken place. Usually this procedure is carried out for the examination and treatment of women with infertility or in preparation for in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Ultrasonography of the uterus and appendages, as well as the fallopian tubes should be carried out in the above terms, namely, on the 6-8th day of the menstruation cycle. But there are circumstances in which the doctor needs to assess the functionality of the ovaries, namely the development of the follicle and the subsequent formation of the corpus luteum. In such cases, the question arises when it is better to do ultrasound of the ovaries. It should be noted that this examination should be carried out several times throughout the entire menstrual cycle, for example, the first time on the 8-11 day of the cycle, the second time on the 15-18 day, and the third time on the 23-25 ​​day.

If the patient, who applied to the gynecologist, complains of pain in the lower third of the abdomen, purulent discharge or excessively heavy menstruation, then on what day of the cycle to do an ultrasound is not significant. When a menstruation is delayed, the procedure is carried out on the fact of treatment in order to exclude serious pathological processes.

Ultrasound during menstruation

Many patients before going to the doctor are wondering if it is possible to do an ultrasound during menstruation? The answer to this question is rather ambiguous. It is not recommended to conduct a routine examination in the presence of bleeding, as this can create additional discomfort and pain to the woman, and the available blood in the uterus can significantly complicate the examination, interfering with the review, and making the procedure insufficiently informative. In general, this is not a contraindication and during menstruation you can do ultrasound, for example, in case of emergency.

Common diseases

As a result of the study, many diseases can be identified, for example:

  1. Uterine fibroids - a tumor in the muscle layer of the uterus benign character. The use of ultrasound in myoma is a mandatory diagnostic method. This disease is characterized by symptoms that depend on the size of the neoplasm and its location: intermittent aching pain in the lower abdomen, prolonged menstruation and uterine bleeding in the middle of the cycle. On the monitor, in the presence of fibroids, an increase in uterine volumes and the formation of a myoma nodule is observed. Ultrasound of uterine fibroids can detect even small nodes, up to 1 cm in diameter.
  2. Endometriotic polyps are an uneven growth of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus. This disease is most often asymptomatic and the main study in this case is ultrasound. Sometimes there are individual pathological symptoms in the form of infertility or bloody spotting in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
  3. Endometriosis is a pathological process of growth of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus, lining its cavity (endometrium). The disease is characterized by extremely painful menstrual periods, an unpleasant odor of vaginal secretions and the occurrence of bleeding in the middle of the cycle. Ultrasound examination with endometriosis, in contrast to ultrasound examination of uterine fibroids, is not a reliable method of examination, but contributes to the appointment of additional diagnostic measures for diagnosis.
  4. Ovarian cysts - rounded formations filled with fluid and located in the cavity of the ovary. Common symptoms include disruptions of the menstrual cycle, pain in the lower abdomen, infertility. In the presence of this disease, ultrasound can be done even during menstruation.

Preparation for the study

Despite the fact that the patient can be examined at will, it is still necessary to consult with a doctor on which day of the cycle it is better to do an ultrasound.

Before the procedure, the bladder should be emptied, stripped to the waist and lay down on the couch. Before a transvaginal examination, the doctor puts a special nozzle on the transvaginal sensor and treats it with a gel, which improves the passage of ultrasonic waves. With the introduction of the sensor does not occur discomfort.

Thanks to ultrasound, the level of diagnosis of gynecological diseases has improved significantly, the number of accurate and timely diagnoses has increased. Only a treating gynecologist can say with confidence on what day it is worth doing a uterine ultrasound. Observing the recommendations for an ultrasound gynecological examination taking into account the menstrual cycle, the doctor will be able to correctly and accurately diagnose and begin timely treatment.

Features of ultrasound in different phases of the menstrual cycle

Each gynecologist should have knowledge of the most important physiological features of the menstrual cycle.

The healthy menstrual cycle, ideally, lasts 28 days, with the onset of ovulation on the 14th day.

At the same time, the whole cycle consists of several successive phases: proliferation, secretion and, directly, menstruation. The phases of proliferation and secretion, in turn, are divided into the early, middle and late phases. In each of these phases, important physiological changes in the state of the endometrium and ovaries occur, which can be monitored by ultrasound. But in order to properly evaluate the data obtained by ultrasound, the doctor must necessarily know what is the norm and what is the pathology for a particular phase of the menstrual cycle.

Phases of the menstrual cycle:

  • What does the endometrium look like on ultrasound in different phases of the menstrual cycle?
  • How do ovaries look at ultrasound in different phases of the menstrual cycle.

How does the endometrium look at ultrasound in different phases of the menstrual cycle

Depending on what phase of the menstrual cycle the ultrasound examination is performed, the endometrium will be visualized in different ways:

  • on days 5-7 of the menstrual cycle, in the early proliferation phase, the endometrium will have a uniform echostructure and relatively low echogenicity. Its thickness, on average, is 5 mm (fluctuations from 3 to 6 mm), and in the center of the M-echo a hyperechoic thin line can be determined, which represents the boundary between the posterior and anterior endometrium sheets,
  • on the 8-10th day of the menstrual cycle, in the phase of medium proliferation, the endometrium thickens, on average, up to 8 mm (fluctuations from 5 to 10 mm), while its echo structure remains almost unchanged,
  • on the 11-14 day of the menstrual cycle, in the late proliferation phase, the endometrium continues to thicken, averaging 11 mm (fluctuations from 7 to 14 mm), and its echogenicity rises slightly, becoming average,
  • on the 15-18th day of the cycle, in the early secretion phase, the growth rate of the endometrium slows down, and its thickness is, on average, 12 mm (fluctuations from 10 to 16 mm). The echogenicity increases from the periphery to the center, as a result of which, the hypoechoic central fragment of the endometrium takes on a drop-like appearance: the wide part in the region of the uterus bottom, and narrowing towards the cervix. In the phase of early secretion, the hyperechoic line in the center is not clearly visualized,
  • on days 19-23 of the menstrual cycle, in the medium secretion phase, the thickness of the endometrium becomes maximum - on average, 11 mm (fluctuations from 10 to 18 mm). The echogenicity of the endometrium rises even more, and the hyperechoic line in the center is very badly visible,
  • on the 24-27th day of the menstrual cycle, in the late secretion phase, the thickness of the endometrium decreases slightly, averaging 12 mm (fluctuations from 10 to 17 mm). The echogenicity of the endometrium in this period is very high, and its echostructure is heterogeneous, due to which the line of closure of the endometrial sheets is not visualized,
  • during the menstruation phase, a thin hyperechoic band or hyperechoic echostructures, which are blood clots, are visualized in the uterine cavity. Sometimes the uterus may look slightly enlarged due to the echo-negative contents, which is liquid blood.

How do the ovaries on ultrasound in different phases of the menstrual cycle

There are important features of visualization of the ovaries during ultrasound in different phases of the menstrual cycle:

  • on days 5-7 of the menstrual cycle, in the phase of early proliferation or the early follicular phase, mainly 5-10 tertiary or antral follicles are visualized, which have the appearance of rounded echo-negative inclusions located mainly on the periphery of the ovary, and having a diameter from 2 to 6 mm,
  • on the 8-10th day of the cycle, in the phase of the average proliferation or the average follicular phase, a dominant follicle appears, the diameter of which is 12-15 mm, and continues to increase. At the same time, the growth of other follicles stops, and, reaching from 8 to 10 mm in diameter, they undergo atresia. On ultrasound, it looks like a gradual decrease and disappearance of other follicles by the end of the menstrual cycle,
  • on the 11-14 day of the menstrual cycle, in the late proliferation phase or late follicular phase, the dominant follicle increases by 2-3 mm per day, and reaches in size from 18 to 25 mm by the time of ovulation. The fact that ovulation will occur in the coming hours, says the diameter of the dominant follicle is 18 mm, the presence of a double contour around it, as well as fragmentary thickening and unevenness of the internal contour of the dominant follicle,
  • On the 15-18th day of the menstrual cycle, during the early secretion phase or the early luteal phase, a yellow body appears at the site of ovulation, the diameter of which is 15 to 20 mm, having an irregular shape, uneven contours, as well as a very diverse internal echostructure with varying degrees of echogenicity ,
  • On days 19-23 of the menstrual cycle, the diameter of the “flowering” yellow body slightly increases, reaching 25 to 27 mm, and a thickened echo-positive roller appears. The echogenicity gradually decreases, until the formation of a "cystic" yellow body,
  • on the 24-27th day of the menstrual cycle, in the late secretion phase or late luteal phrase, the corpus luteum decreases in size from 10 to 15 mm (“fading” corpus luteum), its echogenicity rises slightly, and the echo structure becomes more uniform,
  • in the menstruation phase, the corpus luteum is often not detected, or a fuzzy echostructure of increased echogenicity, whose diameter ranges from 2 to 5 mm, remains in its place. This is a white body that usually disappears without a trace during the next menstrual cycle.

There is a pronounced relationship between the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the uterus and ovaries, and the phase of the menstrual cycle.

Each specialist performing an ultrasound examination is required to possess the knowledge necessary for the correct interpretation of the image obtained on ultrasound.

Only by knowing how the uterus and ovaries should look on ultrasound in each phase of the menstrual cycle, the doctor will be able to determine whether the patient is experiencing a pathological condition, or all of his indicators are within the physiological norm.

What is this diagnostic method?

At present, the determination of the presence of diseases in humans with the help of ultrasound is the most modern and accurate method of research. It is used in almost all areas of medicine, gynecology and obstetrics is no exception.

This method is based on the principle of sound echolocation (ultrasound - high-frequency mechanical vibrations, and the human ear does not catch them). They are reflected from the tissues and cavities of the body in different ways. All these processes are displayed on the screen, and the doctor interprets them as different states of internal organs and tissues.

The sensor apparatus can simultaneously emit and receive waves. But most of the time it is in receive mode. Patients should not worry about the fact that radiation is harmful to health.

Moreover, for several decades of diagnosis, not a single case of harmful effects and the development of pathologies from the survey was observed. Any allegations that ultrasound diagnostics is hazardous to health are groundless.

Indications for examination

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs in women is indicated in the following cases:

  1. Early diagnosis of pregnancy.
  2. Any violations of the monthly cycle (delay, early onset of menstruation, the presence of bleeding in the days when it should not be, the absence of menstruation, discharge in the lower abdomen of different content and origin, not associated with menstruation).
  3. Inflammatory gynecological pathology.
  4. Benign and malignant pathologies of the female genital organs.
  5. Diagnosis of salpingoophoritis, endometriosis, ovarian cysts.
  6. Early diagnosis of myoma.
  7. Monitoring of the follicular apparatus.
  8. Diagnosis of infertility and complex therapy of this disease.
  9. Reception woman contraceptive, hormonal drugs.
  10. The presence of an intrauterine device (ultrasound is done to monitor the position of the contraceptive and monitor the effectiveness of contraception).
  11. Diagnosis of the causes of urination disorders, diseases of the urethra and other urological pathologies.

When it is necessary to do an examination

When is it better to do an ultrasound? Often, not all doctors warn their patients that they need to go for an ultrasound scan on certain days of the cycle. It is best to do an ultrasound between 5 and 7 in the afternoon.

This is due to the fact that after the end of menstruation, the structural features of the uterus are easier to determine. This is interrelated with the early phase of proliferation. In this state, you can see a polyp, hyperplasia, determine the exact size of the tumor nodules. At this time, you can accurately exclude the presence of a functional cyst in the patient.

After ovulation, the structure of the uterine mucosa changes significantly and becomes loose. In such circumstances, the doctor can not notice tumors in the uterus, especially if they are in the early stages of their development. At this time, you can diagnose functional cysts, they do not require treatment, because they pass with the onset of menstruation.

It is better to do an ultrasound at the beginning of the cycle, in which case it is possible to accurately diagnose the existing pathology. Women are interested in whether it is possible to conduct such a survey during menstruation? This is not prohibited, and in certain cases, the doctor may order an examination for 2-4 days. Just at this time the excretion of blood is abundant. This type of ultrasound is assigned to patients who are preparing for an extracorporeal examination.

If for several days after the end of the month to do an ultrasound, its results will be more accurate. And in order to monitor the process of follicle formation, a second ultrasound is done on the 5th, 7th, 9th, 14th and 17th day of the cycle. Depending on the duration of the monthly cycle, shifts are possible in the indicated dates.

What does the survey show

На основании того, что врач видит на картинке, делается заключение, и ставится окончательный диагноз. Сонолог определяет:

  • положение и структуру матки, ее размер, толщину стенок,
  • наличие фолликулов и их размеры,
  • наличие посторонних образований в матке и яичниках,
  • наличие посторонних объектов в толстой кишке и мочевом пузыре,
  • other important diagnostic signs depending on which organ is being examined.

Deviations from the ultrasound rate indicate the presence of violations in the body. Here are some signs of pathology that are visible on ultrasound:

  • thickening of the fallopian tube (this means that a woman has a high risk of developing an oncological process),
  • if round or oval objects are visible, then these are most likely cysts, fibroids,
  • if the uterus shrinks and the ovaries increase, on the contrary, this may indicate that the woman has polycystic
  • changes in echogenicity indicate the presence of uterine fibroids or endometriosis.

A sonologist cannot make an accurate diagnosis. This requires the consultation of a narrow specialist. The entire transcript of the ultrasound examination is recorded in the protocol. On its basis, the doctor and makes the main conclusion and diagnoses. It is possible to record the entire diagnostic process on a disk, which is used to clarify the diagnosis in doubtful cases.

Basic ultrasound indicators of the norm

It will be interesting and useful for women to know the rate of pelvic examination:

  1. The uterus is normally located in the center of the pelvis, closer to its front wall. If longitudinal scanning is done, then the organ has a pear-shaped form, and if it is transverse, it is egg-shaped. Normally, the uterus has an average echogenicity. The internal structure of the uterus is homogeneous, has point and linear objects. Size is about 5.2 cm, body thickness is 3.8 cm, its width is 5 cm.
  2. The ovary may not always be visualized. Normally it is oval, with medium echogenicity. Inside there are pinpoint impregnations.
  3. The vagina has the form of a tubular object that connects to the cervix. If the scan is transversely, then it has an egg-shaped appearance. Normally, the wall thickness of the vagina is from 3 to 4 mm.
  4. Ultrasound signs of the endometrium vary with the monthly cycle. In drawing up the protocol takes into account the day on which the ultrasound was done.

Ultrasound method and its capabilities

The method is based on the ability of body tissues to absorb ultrasonic radiation in different ways, depending on their consistency and density. Ultrasonic waves are directed to the study area at different angles. This allows you to get a video image of cavities filled with liquid or air, as well as seals of any size.

Ultrasound research is one of the main methods for detecting benign and malignant tumors, abnormal growth of tissues (mastopathy), polyps and cysts in the mammary glands. The method allows to study the state of the lymph nodes.

Breast ultrasound is used to monitor biopsy (sampling tissue from a suspicious area of ​​the gland), as well as laparoscopic breast surgery. With this method, you can follow the process of recovery of patients after drug treatment or surgery.

The advantages of ultrasound

The main diagnostic methods for pathologies in the mammary glands are ultrasound and mammography. These methods often complement each other. If mammography allows you to determine the nature of the formation, then with the help of ultrasound you can find out whether the adjacent tissues are affected, to detect metastases.

Ultrasound has the following advantages:

  1. The examination is absolutely harmless, since radioactive radiation is not used here. This makes it possible to assign it to women younger than 30 years. Sensitivity to the effects of radiation at this age is increased, so mammography is not used unless absolutely necessary.
  2. Ultrasound can be performed during pregnancy and lactation.
  3. It is possible to repeat the study without harm to health as many times as necessary to observe the growth of the tumor or the state of the breast after treatment.
  4. Using this method, you can explore the lymph nodes, detect metastases in them.
  5. The method is suitable for examining women with any breast size. With the help of mammography, it is impossible to see small neoplasms in large glands. For a small breast, only ultrasound is also suitable, since mammography cannot be done.
  6. Ultrasound examination allows you to examine the gland in the presence of the inflammatory process, as well as after injury, as the diagnosis does not require direct contact with the organ, unlike mammography.

Such an examination is available to almost every patient, since relatively simple equipment is used, the cost of the examination is low.

When is ultrasound done?

The indications when doing breast ultrasound is a violation of the size and shape of one or both glands, the asymmetrical arrangement of the nipples, the appearance of secretions not related to lactation. Any type of discharge (clear, bloody, purulent) is a pathology.

If the nipple is retracted, the skin of the breast flakes off, and when the arms are raised, hollows are formed on it, this indicates a malignant process. The study will help determine the location and characteristics of the development of tumors. To clarify the nature of the tumor is done biopsy under ultrasound control.

The method is used to detect seals of any size and type. A woman can notice their education by self-diagnosis. Without this study can not do with injuries of the chest.

The reason for visiting a mammologist and studying the state of the glands is the presence of pain in one of them or immediately in both. Often, pain, burning, a feeling of heaviness and swelling in the chest are worse during menstruation. It also speaks of diseases.

For preventive purposes, such a study is recommended to be done once a year for all women of reproductive age. The main cause of the formation and growth of mammary tumors is an increased estrogen content in the body. In young women, the hormonal surge is associated with endocrine diseases, the use of contraceptives. Prophylactic examinations are especially necessary if there is a familial susceptibility to breast cancer.

After 50 years of aging and reduced immunity contribute to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, which leads to hormonal disruption. Sometimes women take hormonal drugs to eliminate the symptoms of menopause. All this greatly increases the likelihood of breast tumors. Therefore, women over 50 are recommended to do ultrasound twice a year.

On which day of the cycle is better to carry out ultrasound

The state of the mammary glands is in direct connection with the phases of the menstrual cycle. In order for the results of the examination to be most accurate, breast ultrasound should be done immediately after the end of menstruation, before the onset of ovulation (approximately 5-12 days after the start of the cycle). At this time, there are no edemas in the chest, the ductal network is most clearly visible. In the second half of the cycle, the breast becomes swollen and more dense, which is associated with the preparation of the body for the onset of pregnancy.

Note: If a woman has an irregular cycle, menstruations come with delays of 2 months or more, then research can be done on any given day.

During pregnancy and lactation, ultrasound is performed mainly in cases of suspected oncology. The structure of the mammary glands during these periods changes so much that small nodes cannot be detected. Therefore, using ultrasound can not diagnose cancer at an early stage.

After 50-52 years, when the menstruation of a woman stops, ultrasound can be performed at any time, because the state of the mammary glands is stable.

How is the procedure performed?

During the examination, the woman lies on her back with her arms raised to her head. Breast skin must be cleansed of cosmetic creams, otherwise the result will be inaccurate. The glands are treated with a special gel so that the sensor can smoothly slide over the skin.

When diagnosing, a healthy chest is examined first, and then pathological changes in the patient are examined. In prophylactic ultrasound examinations of the glands and the areas in which the lymph nodes are located. The procedure lasts 15 minutes.

When deciphering the data is determined by the ratio of glandular, fibrous and adipose tissues, the expansion of the ducts, the structure of the lobules and the skin.

On which day of the cycle it is better to do an ultrasound scan of the uterus: what do experts advise?

To ultrasound diagnosis of the uterus and its appendages showed the most accurate results, it must be done on certain days.

This is due to the peculiarities of the physiological processes in the female body. Many women are interested in which days of the cycle to do an ultrasound of the uterus. Let us consider this issue in more detail.

Ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs

Ultrasound of the uterus and appendages is a simple and effective way to obtain a sufficient amount of information about the female reproductive organs. Due to its availability, it has gained wide popularity among the population. The method is considered absolutely safe, so it is actively used in the diagnosis of pregnancy and the assessment of its development in screening studies.

Teratogenic and other actions of ultrasound on the fetus have not been proven. Ultrasound examination of female reproductive organs is used both for routine examination and for the diagnosis of emergency conditions. However, despite all the advantages of the method, it is necessary to understand that its capabilities are limited. In addition, you need to carefully prepare for the study and make the right choice of its date in the context of the menstrual cycle. Compliance with these requirements reduces the risk of diagnostic errors and increases the effectiveness of the method.

When an ultrasound scan is indicated

Ultrasonography of the uterus and ovaries is used to diagnose diseases of the female reproductive organs, follow-up examination after therapy, monitor pregnancy, and for other purposes. The scope of this method is quite wide.

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs should be prescribed by your doctor. However, there are cases when it is impossible to get to the doctor. then knowledge of when implementing this method can help. Ultrasound of the female genital organs can be performed if it occurs:

  • pain of different nature and intensity in the pelvis,
  • before the in vitro fertilization procedure,
  • diagnosis of pregnancy and its determination,
  • patency of the fallopian tubes,
  • endometrial polyps and hyperplasia,
  • great blood loss during menstruation,
  • prolonged menstruation,
  • bloody or brown discharge between menstruation,
  • tumors of the uterus and appendages,
  • screening studies during gestation,
  • complaints during pregnancy,
  • ovarian dysfunction,
  • infertility.

What is the essence of the procedure

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs is performed lying on the back on the couch. In the office dim light for better visualization of images on the screen. The procedure varies slightly depending on the type of examination chosen. Currently, there are 4 types of ultrasound examination of female reproductive organs:

  • transabdominal,
  • transvaginal
  • transrectal
  • intrauterine.

During transabdominal ultrasound, an ultrasound transducer is placed on the anterior abdominal wall. The study is carried out using a special gel, which improves the performance of ultrasound. This method is actively used in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, for women who are not sexually active, and also for the detection of gross gynecological pathology.

A transvaginal ultrasound transmits the necessary information using a transducer inserted into the vagina. This procedure is painless, but a woman can feel discomfort when holding it. To reduce discomfort, the patient is recommended to relax. Transvaginal ultrasound is used to diagnose ectopic pregnancy, short term gestation, with endometrial polyps, endometriosis and other gynecological pathology. Do not be afraid of transmission, as the condom is used during the examination.

In difficult diagnostic situations, transrectal and intrauterine ultrasound are used.

When is it better to do

The effectiveness of the examination depends on which day of the cycle to do an ultrasound of the uterus. Reproductive organs of women work cyclically. This determines the timing for the survey. The doctor, depending on what she wants to see with the help of the study, chooses the day for it individually for each woman. The main selection criterion here is the purpose of the study.

What can tell ultrasound

Decoding ultrasound of the uterus can be made only by the attending physician. The same results of the study in different women can talk about the norm and pathology. In addition to the day of the menstrual cycle, it is necessary to take into account the age of the woman, taking hormonal preparations and so on.

The size of the uterus is individual for each woman and is determined by age (since the beginning of puberty, the uterus increases, and when the amount of hormones in menopause falls, the organ is subinvolution), the number of births and pregnancies in history. The organ increases with myoma, adenomyosis and pregnancy and decreases with infantilism.

Endometrial ultrasound should correspond to the day of the menstrual cycle. M-echo in menopause should be linear or not exceed 4 mm in thickness, otherwise it may be an endometrial hyperplasia, an endometrial tumor.

Ultrasound of the cervix allows you to evaluate its structure and characteristics of the cervical canal. Using these data, it is possible to diagnose inflammatory processes and polyps of the cervix, cervical insufficiency during pregnancy. The examination of appendages helps to identify cysts, neoplasms, and ectopic pregnancy.

How is the ultrasound of the fallopian tubes

The patency of the fallopian tubes by ultrasound can be checked using a contrast agent. This research method is called ultrasound metrosalpingography. The examination is carried out after menstruation on the 7-12th day of the cycle.

A thin and flexible catheter is inserted into the uterine cavity of a woman on a gynecological chair. It receives a warm sterile solution of a contrast agent. On the monitor screen, the doctor observes how the solution is evenly distributed in the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. The emergence of a contrast fluid in the inferior space indicates patency of the fallopian tubes.

Why do you need gynecological ultrasound with TsDK

TsDK stands for "color Doppler mapping." Ultrasound using this method allows you to register a different blood flow velocity. Ultrasound examination with DCT assesses blood flow in the uterine and ovarian arteries, in the endometrium, appendages and pathological formations. It is actively used for the diagnosis of neoplasms and inflammatory processes of the female genital organs, as well as during pregnancy.

And now check yourself and find out how many times you need to visit a gynecologist.

  • Once a year.
  • 2 times per year.
  • Of necessity.
  • When will send another doctor.

According to # 171, law # 187, women under 35, if they hadn’t been bothered by anything before and never had gynecological problems, go to the gynecologist, as well as to the dentist, once a year. If you observe the growth dynamics of an ovarian cyst or uterine myoma, the time between visits to the gynecologist can be reduced.

The correct answer is 1 time per year. According to # 171, law # 187, women under 35, if they hadn’t been bothered by anything before and never had gynecological problems, go to the gynecologist, as well as to the dentist, once a year. If you observe the growth dynamics of an ovarian cyst or uterine myoma, the time between visits to the gynecologist can be reduced.

Ultrasound: what, why and how

October 23, 16:24

Ultrasound procedure - one of the modern, highly informative and widely available research methods in obstetrics and gynecology. The method is based on the principle of echolocation. A special sensor emits ultrasonic vibrations, which, being reflected from the examined organs, are received by the same sensor. With the help of computer processing on the screen of the apparatus, an image of a certain cross section of the organ being studied is obtained. The ultrasonic sensor emits only 0, 1% of the time, the rest of the time it is in receive mode. Therefore, ultrasound is a harmless method of research not only for a woman, but also for her unborn child and can be performed multiple times.
Ultrasound of the pelvic organs can be performed in three ways: transabominally, transrectally and transvaginally.

    Transabdominal Ultrasound. A small portable device, called a transducer, makes back and forth movements in the lower abdomen. Transabdominal ultrasound is often done to women to determine the size of uterine fibroids and other problems.

Transrectal Ultrasound. The transformer in its shape resembles the rectum. Transrectal ultrasound is performed to examine male reproductive organs, such as the prostate gland and the seminal vesicle. Иногда во время трансректального УЗИ с помощью маленьких инструментов, которые вводятся через прямую кишку, берется небольшой образец ткани (биопсия).

Tрансвагинальное УЗИ. Преобразователь своей формой напоминает влагалище.

Женщинам могут делать и трансабдоминальное, и трансректальное УЗИ для исследования органов малого таза. Transvaginal ultrasound is performed to check for fertility problems. In rare cases, a hysterosonogram is performed to examine the uterine cavity by filling the uterus with fluid during transvaginal ultrasound. Sometimes, tissue samples (biopsies) can be taken with small instruments that are inserted through the vagina during transvaginal ultrasound.

For women, pelvic ultrasound is done to:

    Find the cause of abdominal pain.

Find the cause of vaginal bleeding.

Find inflammatory disease of the pelvic organs.

Find the intrauterine device (IUD).

Look at the size and shape of the uterus and the thickness of the lining of the uterus (endometrium).

Look at the size and shape of the ovaries.

Check the condition and shape of the ovaries during infertility treatment.

Confirm the pregnancy or exclude an ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound of the pelvic organs can be used to establish early pregnancy, test for tubal pregnancy (ectopic pregnancy) or multiple pregnancy.

Check the length of the cervical canal in a pregnant woman at risk of premature birth.

Check for swelling found during a pelvic exam.

Check for uterine fibroids found during a gynecological examination. Ultrasound of the pelvic organs can be performed to check the growth of uterine fibroids.

Accompany the ovarian follicle extraction procedure for in vitro fertilization.

Transabdominal Ultrasound

If transabdominal ultrasound is being performed, the doctor will ask you to drink 4–6 glasses of juice or water an hour before the procedure to fill your bladder. A filled bladder pushes the intestine (which contains air) from the pelvic organs. This allows you to get a clear image. If an ultrasound is performed in an emergency, your bladder will be filled with fluid through a catheter that is inserted into the bladder.

Transrectal Ultrasound

If transrectal ultrasound is performed, you may need to give an enema an hour before the procedure. Tell your doctor if you are allergic to latex. If a man is undergoing a prostate biopsy, he is given antibiotics the day before the test.

Transvaginal Ultrasound

If transvaginal ultrasound is performed, tell your doctor if you are allergic to latex.
If you are undergoing transvaginal ultrasound, do not drink 4 hours before the procedure. You do not need to fill your bladder with transvaginal examination.
If you undergo both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, transabdominal is performed first.

The optimal time for gynecological ultrasound

The optimal time for gynecological ultrasound is the first 3-5 days after the end of menstruation, no later than 7-10 days of the cycle, counting from the first day of menstruation, as the uterus undergoes changes throughout the menstrual cycle.
As a rule, ultrasound of the ovaries and fallopian tubes is performed on the same day as the uterus ultrasound, namely, on the 5-7th day of the menstrual cycle. If a doctor wants to evaluate ovarian function (development of his follicles and formation of the corpus luteum), then an ultrasound of the ovaries is recommended to undergo several times during the menstrual cycle (for example, 1 time for 8–10 days of the menstrual cycle, 2 times for 14–16 days, 3 once for 22-24 days).
If you have a delay, it has already passed more than 14 days after ovulation, your tests are negative, and the basal temperature is high and does not go down, go to the ultrasound to exclude the possibility of cyst formation.

Why is it better to do an ultrasound in the first phase of the cycle?

Normal echographic anatomy of the pelvic organs in women

Endometrium on ultrasound

Endometrial thickness standards
1 - 2 day of the cycle - 0.5 - 0.9 cm
3 - 4 day cycle - 0.3 - 0.5 cm
5 - 7 day of the cycle - 0.6 - 0.9 cm
8 - 10 day of the cycle - 0.8 - 1.0 cm
11-14 days of the cycle - 0.9 - 1.3 cm
15 - 18 day of the cycle - 1.0 - 1.3 cm
19 - 23 day of the cycle - 1.0 - 1.4 cm
24 - 27 day of the cycle - 1.0 - 1.3 cm

Ovaries with ultrasound

Ultrasound follicle screening - diagnosis of follicle maturation

The aim of the study is to determine ovulation in women with impaired menstrual cycles, polycystic ovaries, infertility.
In follicle screening, a transvaginal ultrasound probe is usually used. It is advisable to plan the first visit at the beginning of the menstrual cycle. It is possible to finally identify the dominant follicle from the 8th to the 12th (15th) day of the menstrual cycle, when it reaches 15 mm in diameter. Increasing at a rate of 2 mm per day, by the time of ovulation, its size is 20 mm (18-24 mm).

Diameter of follicle on
10th day of the 10 mm cycle
on the 11th day 13.5 mm,
on the 12th day 16.6 mm,
on the 13th day 19.9 mm,
on the 14th day 21 mm - the peak of Ovulation

Signs indicating upcoming ovulation:

    the presence of a follicle with a diameter greater than 17 mm,

presence in the dominant follicle of the oviparial tubercle,

double contour, fragmentary thickening of the inner contour of the dominant follicle.

Signs indicating ovulation occurred:

    complete disappearance or reduction in size with the deformation of the walls of the dominant follicle

increased echogenicity of the internal contents of the dominant follicle

the appearance of fluid in Douglas space.

What diseases can be detected on the uterus ultrasound?

What diseases can be detected by ultrasound of the ovaries and fallopian tubes?

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