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Mastopathy and delayed menstruation

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Mastopathy is a disease of the mammary glands, manifested by the growth of their tissues with the formation of seals and cysts. Among the causes of its occurrence is an imbalance of hormones and gynecological ailments. It is not surprising that menstruation with mastopathy acquire a special character. After all, women's breasts are one with the reproductive system.

Read in this article.

Something about mastopathy

Until recently, it was believed that this disease is the “privilege” of women from 30 years old, who have childbirth, abortion, unhealthy thyroid and liver. But for some time, mastopathy has been diagnosed in adolescence. There are several types of it, which are determined by what tissue grows. Perhaps the predominance of glandular, connective, sometimes in the mammary glands are formed cysts and nodules, there is a mixed manifestation of the disease. In connection with all this mastopathy symptoms manifests as follows:

  • The chest starts to hurt. Feeling aching, it seems that it has become harder. The increased tissue presses on the nerve endings, therefore painful manifestations are not only frequent in the chest, but also in the arm, neck, scapula,
  • The mammary glands increase in size, sometimes more than 15%, due to stagnation of blood in the veins, swelling of the connective tissue. This is especially noticeable before menstruation. Breast swelling is accompanied by an increase in its sensitivity to touch, discomfort is felt even by the presence of clothing on the body,
  • From the nipples stand out the liquid of a different nature. This can occur spontaneously or with a slight touch. The color of the discharge ranges from whitish to brown,
  • Changing the menstrual cycle and the nature of monthly discharge. This is characteristic of any of the existing forms of the disease. Violation of the menstrual cycle in mastopathy is caused by a hormonal shift, in which the amount of estrogen begins to prevail over progesterone. The first provokes unnatural reproduction of cells in the tissues of the breast,
  • In the chest, palpation clearly visible seals in the nodular form of the disease. With all the others there are clear boundaries of the lobules of the breast, it becomes more solid, tense. The sizes and contours of the formations vary in different periods of the cycle.

What happens with menstruation

Mastopathy before menstruation begins to manifest itself very actively. An abnormal amount of estrogen acts in such a way that, in addition to enhanced cell division, the swelling of the breast increases. The pain becomes palpable not only when you touch it, but without any contact. Discomfort increases near the armpits, where it is easy to grope enlarged lymph nodes. In some forms of the disease, swelling appears on the arms and legs.

Menstruation becomes painful during mastopathy, which is all the same hormonal disorders. Discharges can become noticeably more, they are interspersed with bleeding in the middle of the cycle. At the same time, the duration of menstruation increases to 6-7 days. As a result, iron deficiency anemia may be added to mastopathy, which will aggravate the course of the disease. One of the factors that provoke it is the lack of vitamins and nutrients. Such a deficiency is unfavorable for hormonal background.

The disease can disrupt the performance of the ovaries and adversely affect the endometrium. The excess estrogen and progesterone deficiency inherent in it leads to the expansion of the upper layer of the uterine mucosa at the end of the cycle, whereas normally it should become thinner. This is also a factor in increasing the volume of menstrual flow and increasing the duration of critical days. With the development of mastopathy, endometriosis often occurs, which is also manifested by a large number of monthly mucus and uterine bleeding at other stages of the cycle.

Why menstruation with mastopathy is delayed

Despite the increase in the volume of tissues taken out during menstruation, the often encountered tandem mastopathy is a delayed menstruation. One of the likely causes of the disease becomes excess values ​​of the hormone prolactin. With full female health, it increases during pregnancy. With it, the breast is prepared for feeding: the milk ducts are dilated, a special fluid is produced that precedes milk. Prolactin helps progesterone to inhibit the rejection of the endometrium, preventing the development of the functional layer and maintaining pregnancy. And its development after childbirth inhibits the arrival of menstruation.

An increase in prolactin in the absence of pregnancy in mastitis causes a similar endometrial reaction. It develops more slowly, it reaches longer the state when its upper layer is ready to be torn off and replaced with a new one. Therefore, menstruation is late for a period of several days to 2 weeks. The main cause of overproduction of prolactin is a malfunction of the pituitary gland.

The effect of an increased amount of estrogen on the ovaries inhibits the maturation of the germ cell. This also provokes delayed menstruation and often the lack of ovulation in the cycle.

How does the disease after menstruation

Many signs of the disease, except for the appearance of nodes in the chest, are similar to premenstrual syndrome. And in healthy women there is pain and tension in the mammary glands before critical days, irritability and tearfulness caused by the work of hormones. But with the onset of menstruation, the sensations weaken, and after they end, they pass without a trace.

To suffer pain with mastopathy means to promote the development of the disease, endanger other organs, make it more likely that benign cells are replaced by cancer cells. The desire to get rid of the disease should begin with the elimination of the factors provoking it:

  • Stress
  • Nutrition with a predominance of fats and proteins, salty foods, which increase the amount of estrogen and fluid retention in tissues,
  • Lack of regular sex life,
  • Smoking
  • Too tight, dragging the chest, linen, or excessively free, increasing the load on the connective tissue of the mammary glands.

If the diagnosis of “mastopathy” is detected at an early stage, treatment can be conservative if it is not a nodal form of the disease. It is aimed at normalizing the amount of hormones, that is, the main cause of its occurrence. Therefore, prescribe drugs:

  • Duphaston, Noristerster, Utrozhestan. All this is progesterone, the deficiency of which makes it possible for an abnormal proliferation of breast tissue,
  • Parlodel. The tool interferes with the increased production of prolactin, which will relieve from edema, inhibition of endometrial development and return the cycle to a normal temporary course,
  • Janine, Marvelon. The contraceptive effect they give normalizes ovarian function. Hormonal disorders characteristic of mastopathy, often lead to a lack of ovulation. “Rested” when taking contraceptives the ovaries after the abolition of the pills are working more actively, which allows the germ cell to mature in time. Monthly with any form of mastopathy begin in accordance with the schedule.

To eliminate the influence of factors provoking the disease also prescribed:

  • Iodomarin, Iodine-active, which normalizes the work of the thyroid gland, therefore, the synthesis of hormones by it,
  • Valerian, Motherwort, reducing the effects of stress,
  • Mastodinon, Cyclodinon, Reymens. Homeopathic remedies normalize the level of prolactin.

For severe pains, it is acceptable to take Diclofenac or Ibuprofen. But the choice of all drugs - the prerogative of the specialist. Treatment should be comprehensive and directed to combat the cause of the disease. And there are so many that it is impossible to determine it without examination. And different types of disease is useless to treat the same drugs. The effect will be exactly the opposite of what was expected.

Herbal medicine against mastopathy

In addition to drug treatment and with the permission of a specialist, you can use herbal medicine, which includes internal and external means:

  • Infusion of burdock root. 25 g of crushed raw materials are placed in 400 ml of boiled water and kept wrapped up for 12 hours. Strainned means you need to take 1 tbsp. before eating,
  • Infusion of knotweed, which is prepared from 1 tbsp. herbs and 200 ml of boiling water for 6-8 hours. The resulting composition is also drunk before meals 3 times a day for a third cup. It helps well to reduce bleeding, when annoying menstruation with developed mastopathy annoys
  • Infusion of potato flowers. Take 1 tsp. 200 ml of boiling water, cook for 3-5 hours. Drink before meals 3 times a day for 1 tbsp.,
  • Infusion hop cones. For the preparation of enough 10-15 pieces, purified from the husk, and 400 ml of boiling water. Means is prepared for 3 hours, drink 2 tablespoons. 2 times a day,
  • A mixture of valerian, motherwort, caraway seeds and fennel. 1 tbsp. Herbs are placed in a dish with 200 ml of boiling water and kept until cool. The finished composition must drink a day in several receptions,
  • Cabbage compress. The fresh leaf of the plant is incised so that the juice appears. Compress is pressed to the chest, fixing a cotton bandage for several hours so that there is no discomfort,
  • Pumpkin compress. Raw vegetable pulp is ground in a blender, wrapped in 2 layers of gauze and fixed on the breast all night. The compress should not squeeze the chest,
  • Gourd from infusion wormwood. The tool is prepared from 3-5 st.l. plants and 3 tbsp. boiling water, leaving in a sealed container for 12 hours. Adding 1 tsp in the morning warm water, the composition moistened linen fabric and applied to the chest 3 times a day for half an hour.

Monthly with mastopathy can not be called a clear indicator to identify the disease, since their characteristic characteristics are found in other pathologies. But after the normalization of hormonal background with a correctly chosen treatment, the recovery will be obvious in this area. Intermenstrual bleeding and aching sensations in the chest will disappear, the volume of discharge and the pain of menstruation will decrease. And most importantly, the threat of cancer of the mammary glands, the likelihood of endometrial pathologies, ovaries, and related infertility will disappear.

Before using any drugs, you should consult with a physician. There are contraindications.

Hypomenstrual syndrome

Hypomenstrual syndrome, which includes:

1) Opsomenorrhea is a fairly common manifestation of pathology in patients with mastopathy, while menstrual flow may be delayed by 2-4 months. When they appear, their number is usually insignificant (scanty menstruation). In most cases, the cycle remains biphasic, but its duration changes, which causes disruption of follicle maturation and distortion of ovulation. The lack of proper treatment leads to the progression of pathology and the onset of secondary amenorrhea (against the background of comorbidities during a previously normal menstrual cycle).

2) Oligomenorrhea, which women with mastopathy may suffer, is manifested by scanty (from several hours to several days) and rare menses. Between two periods with this syndrome, the time interval varies from 4 to 6 months. This pathology is very unfavorable for the woman's body, because with mastopathy, oligomenorrhea is often the previous stage before amenorrhea (complete absence of menstruation for 6 months or more). Scanty monthly more often than other violations of the menstrual cycle of the patient lead to anovulation, and then infertility.

3) Amenorrhea is a syndrome that appears on the background of rare menstruations and is characterized by the absence of cyclic bloody discharge from the genital tract for 6 months or more. Pathology is considered to be a consequence of a previously developed pathology (i.e., amenorrhea is a secondary syndrome).

There is amenorrhea due to excessive secretion of estrogen and low levels of progesterone, which, if left untreated, leads to ovarian dysfunction due to inadequate stimulation. In the absence of the ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, infertility is formed.

Complete cessation of menstruation may be caused not only by excessive synthesis of hormones. The root cause in this case becomes the pathology of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries. The result of these processes is the insufficiency of these organs and the impossibility of a normal menstrual cycle in a woman (that is, changing one phase to another). In this case, a differential diagnosis and the establishment of a causal link between mastopathy and menstrual disorders is required.

Separately distinguish pharmacological amenorrhea caused by prolonged use of drugs for the treatment of comorbidities in women with mastopathy. Such a reaction to therapy is often given by agents from the group of neuroleptics, sedatives and hypnotics, as well as hormonally active drugs of central action (they stop menstruation - the state of artificial menopause develops). These agents include antigonadotrins and GnRH analogues. Patients do not rarely ignore the symptoms of the disease and seek help much later after the onset of the first symptoms.

The causes of amenorrhea during the treatment of another pathology is an increase in prolactin and impaired production of substances necessary for the nervous system (neuromodulators of the central nervous system) while increasing estrogen and progesterone deficiency. In most cases, their cancellation is reversible in relation to menstrual function.

Hypermenstrual syndrome

Varieties of hypermenstrual syndrome with mastopathy are:

3. Intermenstrual bleeding.

Menorrhagia is the transition of the beginning of menstruation into bleeding. The duration of bleeding can be 7 or more days, which in the end is often complicated by iron deficiency anemia. It contributes to the development of mastopathy. This is associated with a deficiency of vitamins and nutrients that normally have a positive effect on hormones.

Metrorrhagia is uterine bleeding that has no connection with menstrual flow. This type of disorder is characteristic of women suffering from concomitant pathology of the genital organs (ovaries and endometrium of the uterus). Often, mastopathy and its accompanying hormonal imbalance can cause diseases in the reproductive sphere (endometriosis, uterine myoma) in the absence or inadequate treatment. For this reason, you should pay attention to any change in the menstrual cycle, in the event of which you should consult a gynecologist-endocrinologist.

Accordingly, an excessive concentration of estrogen with a simultaneous shortage of progesterone leads to hyperplasia of the upper layer of the uterine mucosa at the end of menstruation. Normally it should become thinner. Restructuring in the uterine layer becomes an additional factor in increasing the duration of "critical" discharge and increasing their volume.

Mastopathy, accompanied by excessive secretion of estrogen and a drop in progesterone level in the absence of hormonal treatment, predisposes to endometriosis. Such menstruation in patients with mastopathy is usually long (6-7 days), abundant and with a large number of clots. They note the appearance of painful sensations during menstruation, which reach significant severity.

Intermenstrual uterine bleeding is most often associated with an exacerbation of chronic diseases or the addition of new ones against the background of existing mastopathy. Any damaging factor can affect the female body for a long time and cause quantitative changes in hormones, in which the concentration of estrogens in the blood becomes dominant (hyperestrogenemia develops). The duration of the menstrual cycle while still normal, especially in patients no older than 30 years. But if time does not take action, the violations will only progress.

However, intermenstrual bleeding does not rarely occur without visible pathology, i.e. not only in patients with mastopathy. They occur at the time of release of the egg (ovulation) from the follicle, when most hormones reach their peak concentration. This leads to the release of mucus mixed with blood. This situation lasts from several hours to 3 days. Typically, these symptoms of the physiological process are observed between the 10th and 16th days of the menstrual cycle.

In addition to the above, bleeding between periods is regarded as a sign of adhering pathology (from the uterus). Under such conditions, the endometrium becomes more vulnerable to the various fluctuations of hormones observed during mastopathy. At the same time intermenstrual discharge rarely abundant, usually they are scarce.

Risks of menstrual disorders in mastopathy

At best, with constant menstrual delays, ovulation in patients with mastopathy occurs, but a little later than 14 days in comparison with healthy women. Нередко приходится сталкиваться с ситуацией, когда за счет высокого уровня эстрогенов и дефицита прогестерона не происходит выхода яйцеклетки. Это приводит к ановуляторной форме бесплодия. Помимо этого выделяют определенные разновидности патологии у женщин с мастопатией, когда основное заболевание приводит к формированию сопутствующих отклонений.

1) Endometrial hyperplasia due to hormonal disruption, namely the imbalance of progesterone and estrogen. The inner lining of the uterus undergoes permanent changes that are associated with the menstrual cycle. Thus, in the first half of the cycle, the endometrium actively proliferates (its thickness increases), the vascular network begins to develop and conditions are created for fixing and feeding the fertilized egg. In healthy women, when pregnancy does not occur, the functional layer is rejected, which leads to menstrual bleeding.

In patients with mastopathy, this process does not occur and the connective tissue, together with the epithelial elements in the endometrium, grows excessively. The glands located in the inner layer also undergo changes. As a result, they acquire a curved shape. As a result, there is an excessive thickening of the uterine lining, which cannot be rejected at one time, which is clinically manifested by menstrual bleeding.

Other varieties of endometrial hyperplasia are also distinguished when mainly the endometrial glands are involved in the pathological process. Due to the hormonal imbalance, they become blocked, and cystic proliferation of the uterine membrane is formed (glandular cystic hyperplasia, to speak in medical terms). The most dangerous risk of hormonal disorders in women with mastopathy is the atypical form of hyperplasia, when the growth of the inner membrane is observed due to atypical cell multiplication and changes in their nucleus. In this case, the risk of malignancy (malignant transformation is especially great).

2) Iron deficiency anemia, which is not rarely complicated by prolonged (usually more than 7 days) and heavy menstrual flow. They can sometimes be interspersed with bleeding in the middle of the menstrual cycle. With mastopathy, menstruation is often also painful, which is associated with hormonal disruption and the release of substances that determine pain syndrome (prostaglandins). Separated blood in the rejection of the endometrium does not have time to leave the uterus, lingering there, which causes discomfort.

Anemia aggravates the course of mastopathy, because lack of oxygen and other nutrients leads to organ ischemia. Under such conditions, pathological reactions progress.

3) Diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome develops on the background of chronic anovulation. Pathology is caused by hormonal and metabolic disorders, when the cells of the tissue eventually become insensitive to insulin. As a result, all types of metabolism are disturbed, the weight increases and the female reproductive function suffers. The process of maturation of the follicle and its output is disrupted due to an imbalance of hormonal levels that perform a regulatory function.

In such patients, the menstrual cycle becomes irregular. This predisposes to anovulatory infertility. His treatment becomes possible only after weight loss and the simultaneous appointment of Metformin.

4) Asteno-vegetative syndrome and depression, which are closely associated with manifestations of mastitis. Hormonal disruptions lead to changes in the mental state of women. In addition, the disease itself and its long course seriously affects the psyche.

Initially, asthenic disorder manifests itself in the form of fatigue, which gradually acquires a chronic form. Patients are increasingly suffering from insomnia, it becomes difficult for them to contact other people. With inadequate treatment of mastopathy and the absence of treatment of the nervous system, the developed state often ends with a transition to a deep depression. This in turn aggravates hormonal disorders at the central level and contributes to the progression of the underlying disease.

DELAY OF MENSTRUATION

And I know that such a violation of the cycle, I remember was all the time treason, I thought well, everything got pregnant, and then the gynecologist assigned me a time factor, so I recovered from the cycle and now I'm not nervous, because all the time like a clock)))

Interesting information is extremely important. I really like the free women's program

Woman Calendar from ZAYA (http: // zaya-soft.com/wcalendar).

It helps to monitor the cycle and control failures.

The second week of the treatment of hormonal failure and fibrocystic mastopathy

I, too, was told to give birth ... but it’s impossible to do a damn (((

what is the treatment? I went to the ultrasound; the mastopathy was told; (((plus discharge from the nipples can be seen for a long time, apparently prolactin is elevated

Ways to stimulate ovulation

Ovulation stimulation annually helps thousands of women become mothers. Let's take a closer look at who needs and can stimulate the maturation of the eggs, and who is contraindicated, and which drugs are most often used in this procedure.

So, ovulation stimulation for women who for some reason (but not included in the list of contraindications) do not or very rarely ovulate. Drug "evoking" the maturation of the egg is recommended for couples who for more than a year do not get a "natural" way to conceive a child, without the use of contraception, of course. Either couples in which partners are older than 35-40 years, in this case, you can wait less than a year - on average, 6 months.

Even if absent ovulation, stimulation it is undesirable, or rather useless, if it is not possible to conduct timely ultrasound monitoring of the development of the follicle or in the male factor of infertility. It is dangerous to stimulate the onset of ovulation in women with obstruction of the fallopian tubes, due to the high probability of an ectopic pregnancy.

Drug Stimulation

If there are indications for her, the doctor prescribes both spouses to be examined and pass a series of tests, including: a blood test for HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, gynecological smears taken from women, etc. If necessary, the tubal patency is evaluated.

Usually held ovulation stimulation with clostilbegit and other drugs gonadotropic hormones. Very important is the preparation of the most successful protocol of the procedure. The doctor draws up this peculiar schedule of taking medications, examinations and testing taking into account the age of the woman, the duration of the non-occurrence time of pregnancy and other individual characteristics of each infertile couple. And also depending on whether ovulation is stimulated for the subsequent taking of eggs for IVF or ICSI or to increase the likelihood of pregnancy occurring in a natural way.

The classical scheme includes taking clostilbegit from 5 to 9 days of the menstrual cycle. Slightly modified scheme - when Stimulation of ovulation with purgon carried out in addition to the first drug. In this case, clostilbegit is taken from the 3rd to the 7th day of the cycle. During this time, ultrasound is monitored several times for the maturation of the follicle, and when it reaches the size of 17-18 mm, the woman takes the drug Pregnil, which directly causes ovulation. This happens 24-36 hours after taking the medicine. The doctor must report the most favorable time for sexual intercourse.

Quite a frequent question to those women who know first-hand how they are being held. stimulation of ovulation - with what attempt did the pregnancy come about. According to statistics, from the first time it turns out that only 10-15 percent of couples conceive a child, and as many as 65-70 percent of all protocols end in success.

Stimulation of folk methods

Despite the fact that the promotion of ovulation with drugs is not too expensive, many women prefer a more “natural” option - taking various herbs considered popular by the people. Stimulation of ovulation by folk methods most often involves taking infusions of three herbs: sage, boron uterus and red brush. They can easily be found on sale in almost any pharmacy. So, in the first part of the cycle, it is recommended to drink the infusion of sage (1 tablespoon per cup of boiling water) 3-4 times a day. It is said that it contributes to the maturation of the egg, the growth of the endometrium and other conditions necessary for the onset of pregnancy.

In the second half of the cycle, you can begin to drink the pine womb. It is said that it contains progesterone - one of the main hormones for early pregnancy. With a lack of progesterone, the fertilized egg dies after useless attempts to penetrate the uterine wall. A decoction of boron uterus is prepared as well as from sage. Many of those who have experienced what is stimulation of ovulation folk remedies, it is said that it is very good to combine a boron uterus with a red brush grass, which is also an excellent means for treating many gynecological diseases.

There are other popular ways to cause ovulation, for example, such a pleasant and even somewhere romantic - drink a decoction of rose petals. The benefits of this infusion is to contain a fairly high concentration of vitamin E. It has long been known to have a positive effect on the treatment of infertility, mummy, aloe and quince juice. So - there is plenty to choose from. However, with herbs, you must also be careful, traditional medicine is also medicine, and each of its products may have contraindications. If under the supervision of a physician is carried out stimulation of ovulation - drugsappointed by a specialist, have no contraindications for you, you can be sure of this. But no one has studied the properties of weeds negatively, therefore, it is not at all clear what is better - stimulated with the help of official medicine or folk medicine ... One can definitely say that the first option is more effective.

To increase the effectiveness of folk stimulation of ovulation, it is also necessary to be able to calculate this ovulation itself, in order to increase the probability of conception. For this there are many methods: ranging from measuring basal temperature and scheduling and ending with ultrasound monitoring.

Vitamin therapy when stimulating ovulation

A woman preparing to become a mother needs special attention to her diet, because it is from him that a person receives the most essential vitamins. Expectant mothers need more vitamins and microelements than other women. What substances are necessarily necessary for ladies who are planning a child?

First of all, such women need folic acid. The lack of this substance in the body is very dangerous for the fetus, as it can lead to fetal developmental pathologies. Another essential element is potassium iodide. At the initial stage it is enough to sprinkle your food with iodized salt, instead of ordinary.

On the network you can find information that is unthinkable. ovulation stimulation, vitamins if not to use. It is interesting that even the schemes are given, on which day of the cycle to drink vitamin C, in which - E, A, etc. Evidence-based medicine does not support these experiments. Also, taking complex vitamins does not provoke the maturation of the egg.

Here are the main things you need to know about stimulating ovulation. Modern medicine has all the capabilities of almost every woman to give the joy of motherhood. Do not miss your chance!

Add a little, so as not to lose. Another addition.

How to quickly increase progesterone in women. For a natural increase in progesterone levels, you should take vitamins (for example, vitamin B contributes to the body's perception of the hormone, vitamin E also has a beneficial effect). Supermams.ru recommends taking tocopherol acetate after the 14th and on the 26th day of the cycle. No less important is zinc, its highest content in nuts, beef liver, rabbit meat, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, beans, wheat bran. How to increase progesterone in women, can tell you any nutritionist: you must keep track of your nutrition. It should be rich in protein, for which you need to eat more meat and fish products, cereals, as a shortage of progesterone can also cause malnutrition.

Some herbs have progestogenic effects. To increase the content of progesterone in the blood, grass cuffs and psyllium seeds are used. For this recommendspoon a tablespoon cuffs and a teaspoon plantain seed for a glass of water, and after settling take three times a day for a tablespoon. Helps to raise hormone levels and Prutnyak fruits. They need to grind, brew, let it brew and drink throughout the day. Brew the fruit should be in the following proportions: a glass of boiling water take two tablespoons of prutnyak. A good folk remedy that increases progesterone are raspberry leaves and wild yam. Infusion of these plants are advised to use several times a day. To make this infusion you need yams with raspberry leaves in a 1: 1 ratio to brew 200 ml of boiling water. Often, hormone production is impaired due to thyroid problems. In this situation, for the application of suitable herbs such as red brush and silverweed goose. It should be noted that the adoption of these herbal infusions effectively from the second period of the menstrual cycle. Be sure to pay attention to herbs, which does not stimulate action, but inhibits the production of progesterone: marsh mint, licorice, mandrake, red clover. The use of these herbs should be avoided. In addition to herbs, traditional medicine adherents know how to increase progesterone in women without pills by another method. They recommend to use some products more often in order to achieve the required level of progesterone. These include: all types of legumes, walnuts, milk, fatty cheeses, eggs and soy rich in phytoestrogens.

Know, pay attention to the infusion of BM. I never really believed in herbal medicine until 5 years ago, Mom just didn’t force me to drink this infusion.

I was given complete sterility after the birth of my first child (inflammation of the uterus with complications, immediately after birth), I had 3 large cysts 2 on the right, 1 on the left ovary. Adhesions in the tubes with obstruction ... Once every 3-6 months I was lying on the gynecology with terrible bleeding ... what can we say about stable menstruation.

The only thing that I had from unpleasant while drinking this miracle of medicine is its disgusting taste and sometimes sharp pains in the stomach.

So, after 1.5 years, I just went to my gynecologist for the sake of interest ... she, as always, she immediately took me to the ultrasound ... all the doctors gathered in disbelief ... I had everything perfect ... so perfect that they even began to think that the diagnosis was made earlier not true))))

Now I have a Gorgeous Daughter Varenka growing up ... Pregnancy with her was without a single complication ... And I'm new Pregnant.

So if you have problems, try ... It really helps.

Causes of delayed periods of 3, 5 and 10 days for pain in the chest and abdomen

Pain in the chest, appearing with a delay, often pass from the first day of menstruation. If the delay is due to pregnancy, the sensitivity of the breasts will decrease after a few weeks, when the swollen breasts get used to the hormonal changes that have occurred in the body.

If menstruation is absent for more than 5-10 days from the calculated date, we can say that there was a delay. The most common cause is hormonal failure. Imbalance of hormones provokes lengthening of the menstrual cycle, and causes the absence of menstruation 3-4 days, chest pain also appears. and increases the sensitivity of the mammary glands.

Causes of pain

The delay of the month for 3-4 days is also in healthy women with a regular cycle. It is considered normal if it does not occur more than twice a year. Rare monthly delays indicate restructuring of the body, they usually occur when the climate changes (for example, when traveling to the sea) or when the weather changes sharply and do not adversely affect the health of the woman.

Delayed menstruation and chest pain occur with the following factors:

  • hormonal failure (3-4 days),
  • pregnancy (more than 10 days),
  • inflammations in the mammary glands,
  • stretching the pectoral muscles
  • changes in the structure of the chest,

  • mastopathy and cancer,
  • ectopic pregnancy
  • menopause,
  • genital tract infections,
  • diseases of the pelvic organs,
  • abrupt climate change,
  • frequent experiences and stresses
  • taking certain medicines
  • use of emergency contraceptive pills,
  • discontinuation of hormonal contraceptives,
  • intense physical exertion, especially on the lower abdomen (3-4 days),
  • increased mental stress.

    The test allows you to determine the presence of pregnancy in the early period. If the test is positive, it is necessary to conduct an ultrasound study to exclude an ectopic pregnancy and to hear if the heart beats in the embryo.

    If the delay arises constantly, it is necessary to seek help from a doctor, determine the factors causing a change in the duration of the female cycle, and carry out effective treatment. Если не обращать внимания на частые задержки месячных, то гормональный дисбаланс будет вызывать гинекологические заболевания и патологии молочных желез. В норме задержка длится 3-4 дня.After 10 days of delay, you must make a pregnancy test and visit the gynecologist.

    If your chest hurts, the doctor first excludes the presence of mastopathy. Hormonal imbalance provokes blockage of the ducts and the formation of cysts in the mammary glands. For any discomfort in the chest, you need to visit the breast specialist and do an ultrasound to exclude benign and malignant tumors.

    Why does pain occur during pregnancy?

    If the delay is more than 10 days, and the pregnancy test showed a positive result, this indicates fertilization of the egg. After implantation of the ovum into the wall of the uterus, the pregnancy hormone hCG signals the body that it is not necessary to ensure the maturation of new eggs, therefore, the menstruation stops.

    When pregnancy occurs, all the forces of the body are aimed at preserving pregnancy and carrying a fetus. As a result of hormonal adjustment, the chest often hurts, tingling and itching also occur. Breast under the influence of hormones increases in size, new glandular cells appear, which will produce milk for feeding the baby.

    Important! If a lower abdomen hurts during pregnancy, an urgent need to go to the doctor. Exhaustion and heavy exercise during the day will cause miscarriage.

    Immediately before the birth, the glandular tissue begins to grow actively, discharge from the nipples appears (in the last month or 10 days before the birth), the breast swells and enlarges.

    There is a strong itch, because the skin does not have time to stretch. At this time there are stretch marks, so the chest requires careful care, which requires not only hygienic procedures, but also massage and good moisturizing. Regularity is very important, you need to care for your breasts not 3, 5 or 10 days a year, but every day during the whole pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    Comprehensive breast care will keep its attractive appearance, prevent blockage of the milky ducts in the first weeks after childbirth and facilitate the process of lactation.

    It is necessary to monitor your health constantly, a nursing woman should regularly conduct breast self-examination in order to detect the appearance of seals in time and seek help from a doctor.

    Delayed symptoms

    A regular menstrual cycle is established in a girl 2 years after the first menstruation. However, this may not happen. There are many women who have an irregular cycle, but there are no gynecological diseases and problems with hormones. In any case, it is worth going through a full examination before drawing conclusions about your health.

    The delay in menstruation is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • pink or bloody spotting,
  • aching pains in the lumbar region and the sacrum,
  • pulls the lower abdomen,
  • breast swelling, sensitization, pain and a feeling of fullness.

    In the absence of menstruation, you must first make a pregnancy test, especially if the delay is more than 10 days. If the test is negative, and the chest and lower abdomen hurts, it is necessary to visit the gynecologist and get tested in the next 3-4 days.

    A long delay with a negative pregnancy test indicates a serious hormonal disorder or the development of pathological processes in the chest and pelvic organs. In this case, the lower abdomen pulls, and discomfort appears in the mammary glands.

    Splash of hormones causes encapsulation of secretions in the milky ducts. Without treatment, cysts and capsules increase in size, so the chest hurts and pulls the lower abdomen. Hyperthermia and discharge from the nipples may also occur.

    How to diagnose delay?

    If there are no monthly periods for more than 10 days, it is necessary to do a pregnancy test. If a positive result, a woman should consult a doctor. Regardless of the decision to save or terminate a pregnancy, you must first conduct an inspection and examination. When performing ultrasound, the site of implantation of the ovum is determined, ectopic pregnancy and the presence of tumors are excluded.

    If the test is negative, and there are no menstrual periods for more than 10 days, only an examination will help determine why the delay has occurred. If the lower abdomen pulls up, the chest hurts, and seals are felt, this indicates mastopathy.

    Mastopathy is a benign tumor, if not diagnosed in a timely manner, it can degenerate into an oncologic tumor. In this case, surgery is required.

    It is possible to diagnose mastopathy with the help of an examination and a mammologist and an ultrasound examination.

    With the help of the ultrasound machine you can determine what caused the pain:

  • cyst,
  • duct blockage
  • tumor.

    For a more accurate diagnosis (for suspected oncology), the doctor prescribes a biopsy. Using this microscopic analysis, breast tissue cells are examined. If pathological changes are detected in them, the patient is prescribed an effective treatment or surgical intervention.

    It is necessary to listen to your feelings, and in the presence of even minor painful sensations, be examined in order to diagnose and cure dangerous pathologies of the mammary glands in time. Why does the chest ache and pull the lower abdomen if the test is negative? Female breast sensitively reacts to any imbalances in the body.

    Sensitivity and tenderness of the mammary glands occurs when:

  • any gynecological diseases,
  • the appearance of tumors in the pelvic organs and chest,
  • hormonal imbalance,
  • infectious and inflammatory processes in gynecology.

    You should not wait until 10 days delay, if the chest is sore, pulling the lower abdomen, you should immediately seek medical help.

    Nutrition also has a strong effect on the body. Insufficient intake of microelements and vitamins that regulate hormonal balance leads to discomfort in the chest area, and the lower abdomen starts to hurt.

    You need to adhere to proper nutrition, eat a lot of fresh vegetables and fruits that nourish the body with useful substances. You can use special nutritional supplements or vitamin complexes designed specifically for women. You need to drink a whole course, not just 5-10 days. The duration of taking vitamins is determined by the doctor.

    Intensive exercise, combined with the intake of drugs to build muscle, break the hormones of a woman. Such drugs contain male hormones, so women not only look like the stronger sex, but also artificially cause changes in the hormonal balance, in which instead of female hormones - estrogen and progesterone, testosterone begins to predominate.

    Any exercise should be moderate. It is better for women to choose not strength training, but swimming, yoga or aerobic training 3-4 days a week. Compliance with the rules of a healthy lifestyle will ensure good health and protect the woman's body from the negative effects of the environment, sports and walks in the fresh air strengthen the immune system and normalize the activity of the nervous system.

    A pregnancy test will help

    Now pharmacies have a huge amount: from the most ordinary to hypersensitive. The test is able to give a result on the first day of the delay. All tests are guided by the presence in the urine of a special hormone of pregnant women - human chorionic gonadotropin (shortly hCG). As soon as the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus, this hormone begins to be vigorously produced, increasing its concentration every day. The test must be done correctly, strictly adhering to the attached instructions.

    Today they sell sets that contain two test strips at once. The second is necessary to confirm the result after some time. If the result is positive, then breast tenderness and menstrual delay are symptoms of pregnancy. If the test is negative, it can mean two things: either there is a pregnancy, but it is not yet determined by the test, or there is no pregnancy, and the above symptoms indicate that menstruation is approaching.

    If this is not a pregnancy

    Delayed period and chest pain may indicate serious gynecological problems. Thus, many inflammations and tumors (both malignant and benign) occur with such symptoms. Polycystic ovary also manifests itself with similar signs. The ovaries produce hormones, and the appearance of small vesicles in them - cysts - disrupts their normal functioning. There are irregularities in the menstrual cycle.

    Often, girls during puberty and women in menopausal age complain about the absence of critical days and heaviness in the mammary glands. In the first case, the hormonal system of the girl is just going through its formation, so the inconstancy of menstruation or their delay is rather the norm at that age. Gradually, the cycle will be adjusted. The opposite situation occurs in the body in women 45-55 years. They have a decline in sexual function, hormonal changes also begin, manifested by amenorrhea and pain in the mammary glands.

    Finally, such symptoms are possible if the woman has diseases of the endocrine system: diabetes mellitus, adrenal dysfunction and others. In this case, the normal hormonal balance in the body is disturbed.

    What is mastopathy?

    The chest and the delay of menstruation is also painful in case of mastopathy. This disease is characterized by the proliferation of breast tissue. The disease begins to develop when there is a shortage of the hormone progesterone in the woman’s body, but the level of estrogen, on the contrary, increases dramatically. The disease is characterized by pain in the mammary gland, extending to the shoulder, the axilla, the presence of seals in it, irregular menses. These are benign neoplasms, which in some cases can become malignant. Today, mastopathy is treated in a conservative and operative way. Conservative treatment can be hormonal and non-hormonal. This ailment is successfully treated if it is detected at an early stage of development. An important role here is played by the self-examination of a woman, which she should conduct while standing and lying down every month. Detection of any nodules or seals in the chest is a reason to consult a doctor. Timely and proper treatment, healthy diet, reasonable exercise, the elimination of bad habits - all of these are components of the healing process.

    What to do if there is no menstruation, and the chest hurts

    First of all, a woman should do a pregnancy test. If it turns out to be negative, it is necessary to analyze whether there have been any cardinal changes in the way of life in recent months. Perhaps it was they who influenced the delay of menstruation. In any case, it is better to immediately visit the gynecologist. When making a diagnosis, he will be guided not only by the symptoms, but also by the results of tests, ultrasound and other examinations.

    Any woman should be very attentive to their health. It is better to keep a calendar of critical days. A delay of 2-3 days by doctors is considered normal. But if the menstruation does not occur longer, and the woman begins to be disturbed by pain in the mammary glands and in the abdomen, it is better for her to consult a gynecologist.

    Chest pain and delayed menstruation

    Failure in menstruation, which is accompanied by chest pain, is an alarming symptom for any woman. It can signal the beginning of a pregnancy or the appearance of health problems. Chest hurts, delay? We tell that this may be for what reasons.

    In most cases, delayed menstruation causes a failure of the hormonal system.

    We do a pregnancy test

    It can be performed as early as 5–7 days after the menstruation should begin. The test responds to the presence of chorionic gonadotropin in the urine. This hormone begins to be produced in the woman's body at the time of fertilization of the egg. Its concentration in the body of the future mother increases every day, so it is recommended to do the test several times with a break of a week to get an accurate result.

    Set pregnancy can be another way: measure the basal temperature in the rectum.

    Will it exceed 37? C if a woman is expecting a baby. Among the remaining symptoms of pregnancy can be distinguished constant aching pain in the chest and lower abdomen.

    Tests do not always show accurate results. The error may be related to a violation of the instructions for using the product, the expiration of its shelf life or the appearance of health problems for a woman, including:

    • ectopic pregnancy,
    • miscarriage,
    • abortion in the past,
    • diseases of the genitourinary system
    • taking contraception containing chorionic gonadotropin.

    To accurately determine whether a pregnancy has occurred, an analysis should be done on the content of this hormone in the blood. In rare cases, several pharmacy tests may show that a woman is expecting a child, but laboratory tests do not confirm this.

    The delay in the negative test. What is the reason?

    Monthly delay of 3–10 days may occur if:

  • A woman is constantly in a state of nervous tension or has recently experienced severe stress.
  • Unusually heavy physical exertion can have a negative effect on the menstrual cycle.
  • For the benefit of the female body is not going and a sharp change of climate. As long as the body adapts to new conditions, periods may not occur. Depending on the individual characteristics, the acclimatization period can last from a couple of hours to several weeks.
  • A sharp weight gain, as well as weight loss, directly affects the state of the hormonal background of a woman, and therefore can cause a delay in menstruation. To maintain weight in the normal range, you need to eat regularly and give the body light physical exertion. A positive result will help achieve the rejection of junk food and convenience foods.

    For some women, periodic menstrual shift is a normal occurrence. Most often it is observed in young, not fully formed girls. However, if the beginning of the monthly shifts more than two or three times a year, it is worth sounding the alarm.

    Food or drug poisoning can also cause a delay that lasts until the body is cleansed.

    If menstruation does not begin longer than 12–16 days, but there are no apparent reasons for this, you must visit a gynecologist.

    What diseases lead to delayed menstruation?

    Delayed menstruation, which is accompanied by chest pain, may appear due to diseases that disrupt the functioning of the organs of the reproductive system:

    All diseases affecting the urogenital system, adversely affect the state of hormonal levels, therefore, require timely treatment.

    To provoke a delay in menstruation can and disruption of the endocrine system.

    After 40 years, most women end the reproductive period. Reorganization of the body begins, which affects the work of the reproductive system.

    At this stage, the hormonal background of a woman changes, so her period becomes irregular, and long delays occur.

    The absence of menstruation - the body's response to the medication

    Menstruation may come at an unusual time after stopping or starting hormone medication. Antibiotics, oral contraceptives, sedatives and anti-inflammatory drugs can have a negative impact on the cycle.

    It can break the pills that urgently prevent unwanted pregnancy. Their reception leads to hormonal failure due to the high concentration of substances harmful to the body. The use of such tablets is not recommended more than twice. Before use, it is advisable to consult a doctor.

    Why does a lower abdomen hurt during a delay?

    If the delay in menstruation appears on the background of an infectious-inflammatory process occurring in the organs of the reproductive system, it may be accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen. This symptom cannot be ignored.

    An inflammatory process that is not cured in time can lead to the development of chronic disease of the genital organs or infertility.

    Pain in the lower abdomen can be part of premenstrual syndrome. In this case, menstruation will begin within a week after the onset of pain.

    Why does chest hurt during a delay if the test is negative?

    Chest pain can be part of premenstrual syndrome. During this period, the mammary glands swell, their structure becomes more dense. Sensitivity increases. Discomfort in the chest lasts from 2 to 10 days and stops with the onset of menstruation.

    Pain in the mammary glands during the delay may appear due to the development of mastopathy - a pathological proliferation of adipose and connective tissues. The disease is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • swelling of the mammary glands, an increase in their size,
  • discharge from the nipples,
  • loss of chest tone,
  • the appearance of nodular seals in the mammary glands,
  • enlarged lymph nodes in the armpits.

    The disease often occurs on the background of inflammation of the organs of the reproductive system, so it may be accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen.

    Боль в груди может быть результатом неправильного питания. В этом случае достаточно пересмотреть привычный рацион.

    Молочные железы также могут болеть вследствие физических нагрузок, которые затрагивают грудные мышцы, или интенсивных прыжков. To avoid the negative effects of training, it is important to choose the right clothes for training. You should choose a bra from natural materials. It should be comfortable and well fixing the chest.

    Delay of menstruation, which accompanies pain in the chest or lower abdomen, always causes anxiety in women. If menstruation does not come for a long time, and there are no obvious reasons for that, you should definitely consult a doctor. Timely help from a specialist will help avoid the development of chronic diseases and infertility.

    Mastopathy - is a benign dyshormonal disease of the mammary glands, characterized by abnormal proliferative processes (growths) in the tissues of the gland.

    Causes of mastopathy

    Mastopathy affects women of reproductive age from 18 to 45 years, the peak of the incidence of mastopathy is between 30-45 years of age. From the point of view of female physiology, the occurrence of mastopathy is easily explained. Every month in the body of a healthy woman of reproductive age cyclic changes occur under the influence of hormones - estrogen and progesterone. These two hormones not only regulate the two-phase menstrual cycle, but also have a direct effect on breast tissue.

    Normally, under the influence of estrogens, which are formed in the first phase of the menstrual cycle, proliferative processes occur in the mammary glands, that is, cell proliferation. Progesterone, which is formed in the second phase of the menstrual cycle, limits the effects of estrogen, inhibiting the process of proliferation.

    Under the influence of unfavorable factors, an imbalance of hormones is formed - a shortage of progesterone and an excess of estrogens, which leads to excessive proliferation of breast tissue, mastopathy occurs.

    Sometimes mastopathy develops due to excessive pituitary production of the hormone prolactin. Normally, prolactin is produced in large quantities during pregnancy and lactation to form mother's milk. But it so happens that prolactin is excessively secreted outside of pregnancy, which is a pathology and contributes to the appearance of mastopathy.

    In addition to hormonal disorders, possible causes that provoke the development of mastopathy include:

    - tumors and inflammations of the ovaries,

    - diseases of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands,

    - psychological problems-stress, depression, neurosis,

    - irregular sex life, absence of pregnancies and childbirth up to 30 years,

    - injuries of the mammary glands, including the wearing of a close bra on metal bones, which leads to microtrauma of the breast,

    - bad habits-smoking and alcohol,

    - iodine deficiency in the body.

    There are two types of mastopathy:

    1. Nodular (or nodular) mastopathy with a single seal - a node in the gland. Nodular (or nodular) mastopathy can be of 2 types - in the form of fibroadenoma (benign tumor) or cysts (fluid formation). In this form of mastopathy, surgical treatment.

    2. Diffuse mastopathy with multiple nodes in the breast. Depending on the structure of the nodes, diffuse mastopathy can be:

    - mastopathy with a predominance of the fibrous component,

    - mastopathy with a predominance of the glandular component,

    - mastopathy with a predominance of the cystic component (when many cysts are found in the gland),

    - mastopathy mixed form.

    Symptoms of mastopathy:

    The severity of symptoms of mastopathy depends on the type of mastopathy, on the psychological characteristics of the woman and on the diseases associated with mastopathy. Most often, mastopathy is expressed as dull aching pain in the mammary gland on the eve of menstruation (“mastalgia” or “mastodynia”). Characteristic engorgement and an increase in breast volume, which is associated with the swelling of the connective tissue of the breast. These symptoms most often bother patients with mastopathy (about 90%), especially in the diffuse form of mastopathy, when chest pains can be intolerable.

    Less commonly with mastopathy, there may be discharge from the nipples. The discharge can be white, transparent or greenish. In exceptional cases, the appearance of blood discharge is possible, which is an alarming signal.

    With self-examination at home, with a diffuse form of mastopathy, small nodules in the chest can be detected, with a nodular form, a single formation in the chest is determined. In 10% of cases with mastopathy, the lymph nodes in the armpit are enlarged, which can also be felt during self-examination.

    Breast self-examination

    Many women confuse mastopathy with signs of PMS (premenstrual syndrome), and often similar symptoms are perceived as a given from nature. However, this is not the case. If you have the above symptoms of mastopathy or if you find any education in the mammary gland, a full-time consultation of a breast doctor is necessary!

    Diagnosis of mastopathy

    Diagnosis of mastopathy includes:

    detailed survey and examination by a breast specialist. The doctor performs superficial and deep palpation (palpation) of the mammary glands in both standing and lying positions, since some masses in the chest may shift when the position changes. Examines the nipples, checks if there are any abnormal nipples. In addition to examining the breast, the mammologist palpates the lymph nodes in the armpit, in the sub- and supraclavicular areas. Also carried out palpation of the thyroid gland to exclude its pathology,

    mammography - X-ray of the mammary glands - carried out on the 7-10th day of the menstrual cycle. The picture is made in 2-projections - straight and oblique. Mammography allows you to determine the type of mastopathy and the severity of changes in the gland,

    Breast ultrasound - A safer and simpler diagnostic method than mammography. Breast ultrasound allows you to clearly define the structure of education in the breast (cyst, fibroadenoma, etc.). Ultrasound examination for mastopathy is performed on the 5-10 day of the menstrual cycle for more informative,

    - on suspicion of oncology shown biopsy (using a thin needle, take a piece of tissue from a suspicious site for histological examination),

    hormonal studies - check the level of estrogen and progesterone, if necessary, examine the hormones of the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands,

    Ultrasound of the pelvic organs. When ovarian pathology is revealed gynecologist consultation ,

    - when detecting fibroadenoma - shown Consultation with a mammologist .

    - desirable liver examination and the exclusion of its pathology.

    Non-hormonal mastopathy treatment

    Treatment of mastopathy with non-hormonal drugs is prescribed in combination with hormone therapy or separately. The drugs help to quickly stop the symptoms of mastopathy with mild manifestations of the disease, and if you observe a healthy lifestyle, you can achieve a complete cure.

    For non-hormonal treatment of mastitis use:

  • Vitamin therapy, it is prescribed for a long time. Vitamins A, B, C and E are shown to all patients with mastopathy.
  • Iodine preparations (Iodomarin, Iodine-active, Clamin) help to reduce the proliferative activity of tissues and regulate the function of the thyroid gland. But before their appointment, an endocrinologist consultation is necessary to identify contraindications, such as hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis.
  • With mastopathy caused by psychological problems, sedatives are prescribed (motherwort tinctures, valerian, etc.), psychotherapy.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as Diclofenac) for the rapid relief of a painful symptom if present.
  • Homeopathic medicines (Remens, Mastodinon, Cyclodinone). Their therapeutic effect is based on a decrease in the level of prolactin in the blood, which leads to the elimination of pathological processes in the mammary gland with hyperprolactinemia. These drugs are prescribed for the long term.
  • Herbal medicine (used only as a supplement to the main treatment)
  • Enzyme preparations with anti-edema, anti-inflammatory, secondary analgesic and immunomodulatory effects.

    A positive effect on mastopathy of drugs with the content of indole carbinol has been observed.

    Hormonal treatment of mastopathy

    Hormonal treatment is prescribed to regulate cyclical changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovaries system. Thus, the hormonal balance is normalized, effectively acting on the tissue elements of the breast. For this purpose, drugs can be used:

  • progestin (Duphaston, Utrozhestan, Norethisterone. prescribed in the second phase of the menstrual cycle, Prozhestzhel externally for grinding the breast),
  • prolactin secretion inhibitors (Parlodel) are taken when hyperprolactinemia is detected from day 10-25 of the menstrual cycle,
  • estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (Janine, Marvelon) are prescribed to women up to 35 years old using a contraceptive scheme in the absence of ovulation and a violation of the luteal phase,

    Much less often with mastopathy there is a need to use drugs:

  • antiestrogens (Tamoxifen, Fareston) are taken continuously for 3 months,
  • androgens (methyltestosterone). This group of hormones mammologists prescribe extremely rare and only women over 45 years of age because of unpleasant side effects.
  • At any age, the hormonal treatment of any disease should be carried out only after a preliminary study of the hormonal status. After 40 years, due to the presence of concomitant diseases, many women have contraindications to hormone therapy.

    Surgical treatment of mastitis

    Surgical treatment is used for nodular forms of mastopathy, mainly for fibroadenomas, extremely rarely in the presence of a cyst. For small sizes of fibroadenoma (up to 2 cm), surgical treatment can also be refrained - a dynamic observation by a mammologist is shown.

    There are 2 types of surgery for mastopathy - sectoral resection (together with the breast sector remove the tumor) and enucleation (husking) of the tumor or cyst (only the tumor / cyst is removed).

    Surgical treatment of mastopathy is used according to strict indications:

    - if breast cancer is suspected by biopsy (only in this case, perform sectoral resection),

    - With the rapid growth of fibroadenoma (tumor enlarged by 2 times within 3 months),

    - if the cyst is single - removal of the fluid by puncture (puncture of the formation) is shown, but when the nodular cyst recurs, its exfoliation is shown.

    The operation for nodular mastopathy is performed under general or local anesthesia and lasts an average of 30-40 minutes. The patient is discharged home the next day or day of surgery. Postoperative sutures are removed 7-10 days after surgery.

    Treatment of mastopathy folk remedies

    Treatment of mastopathy is conducted by means of regulating the menstrual cycle and, if necessary, the activity of the thyroid gland - hormones, vitamins and homeopathic preparations.

    For quick recovery, lifestyle during treatment is crucial.

  • It is advisable to limit the consumption of coffee, tea, cocoa and chocolate. The fact is that these products contain methyl xaptins, which can provoke the progression of diffuse mastopathy and increase pain.
  • You should give up bad habits (smoking, alcohol) and lead a healthy lifestyle - move more, avoid stress, sleep at least eight hours a day, include fish, boiled meat and vegetable products in the diet.
  • The bra should be worn in the correct size and appropriate shape - otherwise it may lead to chronic deformity of the breast or, conversely, to overload of the ligamentous apparatus.
  • In any form of mastopathy, thermal procedures are absolutely contraindicated - saunas, baths, prolonged exposure to the sun, tanning beds.

    Patients are recommended increased consumption of plant food. The enrichment of the diet with vegetables, fruits, seafood in case of refusal from large amounts of tea, coffee, cocoa and chocolate can be a matter of mastopathy and prevention of relapse.

    When diffuse mastopathy is widely used funds from traditional medicine in the form of various compresses for the relief of a painful symptom. For this purpose, grated red beets, fresh pumpkin or warm rye bread are applied to the breast in the form of compresses.

    However, it must be remembered that these remedies do not cure mastopathy, the effect of anesthesia is only temporary and is often based on self-suggestion.

    Prevention of mastopathy:

    - Breast self-examination is the main method of prevention of mastopathy and breast cancer, aimed at early detection of changes in the breast, which means you can consult a doctor in time and not start the disease. After menstruation for about 5-7 days of the cycle, a woman is recommended to palpate both mammary glands while lying and standing. Palpation starts from the axillary region towards the nipple. Next, the chest is examined vertically, from top to bottom, in soft movements. When detecting suspicious formations - urgently to the doctor. The sooner treatment is started, the easier it will be to prevent the development of mastopathy and oncology,

    - pregnancy and lactation, non-abortion,

    - regular sex life,

    - taking iodine preparations in the fall and spring, consumption of iodized salt (in the absence of contraindications from the thyroid gland),

    - healthy lifestyle.

    Questions and answers of the obstetrician-gynecologist on the topic of mastopathy:

    1.I have chest pains. What is better to do an ultrasound or mammography?

    Up to 35-40 years, it is preferable to breast ultrasound, if you already have 40, it is better to do a mammogram.

    2. I take birth control pills. I constantly feel pain in the right breast. Could this be because of the pills?

    Yes, perhaps contraceptives do not suit you, but it is impossible to exclude formations in the mammary gland. Consult a specialist.

    3. I was diagnosed with fibroadenoma during pregnancy. What to do, be treated now or wait until the birth?

    4. I have big breasts, I do not wear a bra at home — I only put it on when I exit. Can this provoke mastopathy?

    Yes maybe. It creates a heavy load on the ligamentous apparatus.

    5. Does the chest hurt when growing up?

    No, most likely it is mastopathy.

    6. Is it necessary to treat fibroadenoma if nothing bothers?

    7. I am pregnant and I have mastopathy. Can I breastfeed my baby?

    8. Can fibroadenoma occur again after removal?

    The reasons that the chest hurts and there is a delay in menstruation

    Women's health is a very fragile thing. Therefore, you need to treat it carefully. If once a woman notices that her chest hurts, the delay in her period has already reached several days, she starts to panic. The reason really is. The delay indicates certain problems in the body. Is it a pregnancy or some serious illness?

    Do you need to go to the doctor right away or should you wait for a while? There may be a lot of questions. The fact is that any, even the most experienced doctor, will confirm that breast tenderness and menstruation are symptoms of both pregnancy and the condition on the eve of menstruation, the onset of which is delayed for some reason. Therefore, the first thing to do in this situation is to get a pregnancy test.

    Even if the pregnancy has not occurred, the delay in menstruation in a woman is possible for many other reasons. For example, due to frequent stresses and heavy physical exertion, women note a menstruation delay for 3 days, or even for all 10 days. These situations are perceived by the body as critical when conceiving and giving birth to a child is undesirable. It also affects women's health and climate change. Such troubles are possible in the case of departure to rest on the south or in another country.

    Another possible reason for the absence of menstruation is weight problems: excessive reduction or increase. The fact is that the onset of critical days in women is regulated by hormones. Strong fluctuations in weight can affect the hormonal system of a woman, which, in turn, responds to amenorrhea (as in medical language is called the absence of menstruation).

    If a woman has recently had a miscarriage or abortion, the absence of menstruation for some time is the norm. During this period, the body is rebuilt due to abortion. In addition to a cycle failure, chest pain is also possible. With the onset of pregnancy, the tissue in it begins to grow, preparing for breastfeeding. After an abortion, this process is reversed.

    Thus, the reasons why critical days do not occur and unpleasant sensations in the chest torment can be a lot. This is not necessarily a new pregnancy. A visit to the doctor in this case is inevitable.

    With the onset of pregnancy, menstruation is also absent, but there is discomfort in the area of ​​the mammary glands. Why is that?

    Monthly bleeding in women is a kind of rejection by the body of an unwanted egg, the fertilization of which did not take place. Accordingly, if in one of the months of bleeding does not occur, then the organism does not reject the egg. This can be, if it is already fertilized and the body is preparing to bear the embryo. Организм получает гормональные сигналы о том, что оплодотворение произошло и в созревании новых яйцеклеток пока больше нет необходимости. С этого времени менструации прекращаются, а все силы организма направлены на вынашивание малыша. Большие изменения происходят и в груди женщины.The expectant mother may experience discomfort and pain in the mammary glands during the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The chest increases in size, there is pain, tingling, itching. All this happens in 90% of pregnant women under the action of the already mentioned hormone hCG. In addition to these symptoms, the expectant mother may notice a darkening of the nipples.

    Among women there is an opinion: if there are no periods, they can be provoked. To do this, it is enough to drink pills, for example, the hormonal drugs Pulsatilla and Duphaston. It's a delusion. Hormonal tablets in the treatment of amenorrhea may not be necessary. It is only the doctor who decides.

    general information

    If a woman has a delay, it is necessary to exclude pregnancy, since it is her occurrence that is most often the answer to the question why there are no periods.

    Delayed period says about certain problems in the body

    In order to make sure that the pregnancy has come or, on the contrary, is absent, it is necessary to buy a test in the nearest pharmacy. If a woman has had unprotected sex for the next sixty days, then a pregnancy test in the absence of menstruation is a mandatory procedure.

    If the first test is negative, then after a few days you need to hold it again. If in this case the result is negative, but there is a delay, then this is a reason for going to the doctor.

    There are several reasons why there is a delay in menstruation, and chest pains occur.

      Pregnancy. With this state of the body there is no menstruation, but there is discomfort in the area of ​​the mammary glands. Why? It's all about physiology. Menstruation - this is nothing like the rejection of the egg, which has become unnecessary due to the fact that fertilization has not happened this month.

    If there is no menstruation in one of the months, it means that the egg rejection did not happen due to the fact that its fertilization occurred, and a pregnancy occurred. The body receives a signal that the egg is fertilized, the result has been achieved and there is no need to develop new gametes yet.

    As a result, menstruation is stopped, and restructuring of the woman’s body begins, aimed at carrying the child and subsequent breastfeeding.

    In this regard, large changes occur in the breast of a woman, which can cause discomfort and pain in the nipples (especially in the first third of pregnancy). This is due to the fact that the breast is preparing for milk production. It increases in size, there is an increased production of prolactin, and hCG is produced, which is called the pregnancy hormone. All this can cause itching, tingling and pain in the chest, as well as darkening of the nipples.

    Thus, symptoms such as pain in the nipples and delayed menstruation can be a sign of pregnancy. In this case, no treatment is required, after a while the chest adapts to the changes and the pain will pass.

  • Other reasons. As mentioned earlier, with a delay, you must do a pregnancy test. If it is negative, then after seven days, another test is done to confirm that there is no pregnancy.
  • The test in the first weeks of pregnancy can give a negative result, although the conception has already occurred. To obtain reliable results, it is better to do a test at 4-5 weeks.

    In the case of a repeated negative result, we can say that the delay and chest pain caused by other reasons. In this case, you must consult a doctor.

    Most often, such a cycle failure occurs due to hormonal metabolic disturbances. If pathological changes occur in the pituitary, thyroid, or adrenal glands, this often leads to the development of ovarian dysfunction, which in turn causes a delay in menstruation.

    Violations of the cycle may occur as a result of inflammation or polycystic ovary. In this case, the pregnancy test is negative, but there is no menstruation. Women suffering from these diseases usually have an irregular cycle.

    Any pain in the chest requires careful attention to yourself. If the chest hurts and there is no menstruation (in the absence of pregnancy), then this can be a sign of the development of a number of serious pathologies (hormonal metabolic disturbances, infectious diseases, ovarian dysfunction, diseases of the reproductive organs, breast cancer).

    Especially attentive should be women who are at risk for diseases of the breast. This group may include patients with a history of one or more of the following reasons:

  • long and uncontrolled intake of oral contraceptives and hormonal drugs,
  • amenorrhea and the end of the reproductive period,
  • frequent miscarriages, abortions,
  • irregular cycle
  • refusal of breastfeeding,
  • chest injuries
  • the presence of breast cancer among the closest relatives,
  • bad habits (smoking, alcohol),
  • malnutrition (soda, coffee, excessive consumption of sweets).

    If a woman has chest pain, there are no menstrual periods and at the same time she is not pregnant, then this is a reason for seeking immediate medical attention.

    If only one breast hurts or only the nipple, you should also take the advice of a specialist. The following are the main symptoms, the appearance of which is necessary to visit the breast specialist or gynecologist:

  • spasmodic chest pain,
  • discharge from the nipples,
  • both breasts hurt a lot,
  • wavy pain in one nipple.

    The doctor interviews the patient, an external examination and breast palpation, and then sends the patient to a number of additional studies to make a final diagnosis and develop an appropriate course of treatment.

    Delayed period and chest pain

    The life of a modern woman is now fundamentally different from the life of our predecessors, whose affairs were limited to the household. Now we have to create an image of a business woman. Because of the hard schedule, we are forced to make our life a little easier, adjusting to the rhythms of the body - the menstrual cycles. Especially the situation is complicated with concomitant symptoms - nausea. pains, mood swings. Can pregnancy alone be the cause? This is the task that should be considered in the article you are proposing.

    Violation of the menstrual cycle

    Violation of the menstrual cycle (NMC) is one of the most frequent reasons for a woman to see an obstetrician-gynecologist. According to different authors, in one way or another it is manifested in 35% of gynecological patients. In addition, more than 70% of women in life have certain manifestations (irregularity of the cycle after menstruation, more abundant menstruation than normal under stress, etc.).

    Irregular menstruation is one of the most frequent symptoms of most gynecological diseases, as is the case with extragenital diseases in women. Another major manifestation of menstrual disorders is bleeding, the nature and amount of which can vary greatly. For frequent bleeding in and out of menstruation, they do not have any organic substantiation - in this case they speak of dyscirculatory uterine bleeding. For violations of the menstrual cycle, the following clinical manifestations are characteristic: cycle irregularity. soreness and heavy bleeding.

    Normally, the menstrual cycle is controlled by the release of pituitary and ovarian hormones. The first phase is dominated by FSH, a follicle-stimulating hormone that promotes the maturation of the follicle, which contributes to an increase in the secretion of estrogen (primarily estradiol), which, in turn, contributes to the growth of the endometrium. When the estradiol level rises, the FSH level begins to fall (this mechanism is called negative feedback), and decreases as much as possible to the middle of the cycle. However, under the action of estrogen, the level of LH, a luteinizing hormone, begins to increase. When the level of LH reaches its peak, ovulation occurs. Along with the increase in the level of LH (a little later) there is an increase in the level of progesterone. The level of estrogen after the peak decreases and increases again only when the maximum level of progesterone is reached. In the event that fertilization has not occurred, the levels of progesterone and estrogen decrease and reach minimum values, endometrial rejection occurs. After that, FSH begins to grow again and the process begins anew. It looks simpler like this:

    The duration of the monthly cycle in women is on average from 21 to 31 days. As a rule, periods are set at the age of 12 to 14 years and most often almost immediately become regular. Less often, they become regular after the first pregnancy. Periodic deviations from the norm are possible, within a few days / week. So if the monthly in a particular cycle occurs a few days earlier or later, then talk about the violation is not competent. If the break between menstruation is 40-60 days, or vice versa, it is less than 21-25 days, and the menstruation of a given woman for a long time is flowing in this way - it is possible to speak about the irregularity of the cycle.

    Why is the female monthly cycle at all accompanied by bleeding? The uterus, as is known, consists of three layers, of which the inner layer - the endometrium, in turn, is also divided into two parts: functional and basal. The first serves as a place where the fertilized egg is implanted and where the pregnancy begins to develop. During each monthly cycle, due to the basal layer, it increases and thickens, preparing the basis for possible implantation. In the case when the egg cell is not fertilized, the “lush” functional layer exfoliates “as unnecessary” under the influence of the cyclically varying concentration of pituitary-ovarian hormones in the blood, causing bleeding. The bleeding is quite abundant, which is primarily due to the rich endometrial blood supply system. The so-called spiral arteries penetrate the endometrium, which are damaged by the detachment of the tissue, which they actually nourished. Their damage leads to dilatation (expansion) of the spiral arterioles, after which the actual menstrual bleeding begins. Initially, the adhesion (adhesion) of platelets in the vessels of the endometrium is suppressed, but then the damaged ends of the vessels are sealed with intravascular thrombus consisting of platelets and fibrin. 20 hours after the onset of menstruation, when most of the endometrium has already been torn away, a pronounced spasm of the spiral arterioles develops, due to which hemostasis is achieved. Regeneration of the endometrium begins 36 hours after the onset of menstruation, despite the fact that the rejection of the endometrium is not yet fully completed.

    Causes of violation of the mental cycle

    What are the causes of menstrual disorders? In principle, the following can be distinguished:

  • External (physiological) - in this case there is no direct physiological impact on the process, but there are indirect factors, such as: stress, changes in the nature of nutrition, climate change, etc. Therefore, the elimination of the external cause leads to the normalization of the process.
  • Pathological - this includes a huge group of diseases and conditions for which a violation of the regularity of the cycle will be characteristic.
  • Drug - in the appointment or cancellation of certain drugs

    Pathological conditions in which there is a violation of the menstrual cycle:

    In addition, it is necessary to allocate irregular periods associated with taking medication. These include: hormone replacement drugs, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, tranquilizers, antidepressants, digitalis, dilantin, and intrauterine devices. Therefore, the appointment of any of these drugs should be carried out only by a doctor, as well as their cancellation. If necessary - consultation with the specialist who prescribed the drug.

    Diagnosis of menstrual disorders

    Due to the sheer number of reasons, the diagnostic search must start from simple to complex:

  • Anamnesis is collected - the doctor must find out about the drugs taken by the patient, whether she has a history of recent pregnancy (after pregnancy the periods can not only normalize, as mentioned above, but also be violated), all external factors that may contribute to the violation of the cycle. Pay attention to the state of mind of the patient.
  • Examination of a woman - the patient's exhaustion, changes in the color of the skin, mucous membrane and sclera of the patient, the presence of extragenital pathology (increase in the size of the liver, thyroid gland, the appearance of nipple discharge not related to pregnancy, etc.) draws attention to itself.
  • Gynecological examination - pay attention to the appearance of pain during examination, especially with palpation of the cervix of the uterus, the nature of the discharge and their number, the presence of bulky mass in the pelvis and infiltrates.
  • Taking all swabs - allows you to eliminate the infection, the long persistence of which can also cause irregularities of the cycle.
  • Ultrasound of the small pelvis or abdominal cavity - pay attention primarily to the state of the uterus and ovaries, with no pathology in them - ultrasound of all organs and systems, targeted ultrasound of the thyroid gland (for a possible pituitary cause) and the liver. When viewed from the ovaries, attention is paid to their size, presence of follicles and their size, blood supply to the tissue, etc.
  • Clinical and biochemical blood tests, coagulogram - necessary for differentiation with the pathological conditions of the hematopoietic tissue and the pathology of blood coagulation.
  • Determining the level of hormones in the blood is an important factor. Rates:

    Estradiol - 0.17 ± 0.1nmol / l - follicular phase, 1.2 ± 0.13nmol / l-ovulation, 0.57 ± 0.01 nmol / l - lutein phase.

    Progesterone - 1.59 ± 0.3 nmol / L - follicular phase, 4.77 ± 0.8 nmol / L - ovulation, 29.6 ± 5.8 nmol / L - lutein phase

    LH - follicular phase - 1.1 - 11.6 mIU / l, ovulation 17 - 77 mIU / l, luteal phase 0-14.7 mIU / l

    FSH - follicular phase - 2.8-11.3 mIU / l, ovulation - 5.8 - 21 mIU / l, lutein phase - 1.2 - 9.0 mIU / l

  • MRI is a method by which you can examine a patient in detail for tumors and pathological changes in tissues. Dear, rarely used.
  • Hysteroscopy - allows you to study in detail the condition of the endometrium, the presence or absence of a polyp. Allows you after inspection to make scraping to send the material for histological examination. Of the minuses - the cost and the need to give anesthesia.

    The combination of history, clinical manifestations and methods of laboratory-instrumental examinations allows you to determine the cause of the irregularity of the menstrual cycle, pain and pathological bleeding and eliminate them.

    Treatment of menstrual disorders

    First of all, it is necessary to include the elimination of all external factors. Since the craze for many women to lose weight can be the main cause of menstrual disorders, it is necessary to choose the right diet for patients and recommend that they give up excessive exercise.

    In case of heavy bleeding, after exclusion of the pathology of the blood coagulation system, it is necessary to start symptomatic treatment. These include:

    1. Hemostatic drugs - vikasol, etamzilat, tronexam. In the hospital, they are usually administered intramuscularly (vikasol, etamzilat) or drip (tranexam) + in tablet form to enhance the effect (usually 2 tablets. 3 times a day - tronexam, 2 tablets 2 times a day vikasol and etamzilat).
    2. ? -Aminocaproic acid - reduces bleeding in 60% of women
    3. In case of heavy bleeding - compensation for blood loss due to plasma infusion, sometimes (in rare cases) blood.
    4. Surgical treatment is an extreme method of treatment, for example, with heavy bleeding, over the age of 40 years, with a persistent anemization of the patient, when the cause of the bleeding cannot be established reliably. Maybe:

    - Scraping the uterus.

    - Ablation of the endometrium - burning of the endometrium with a laser.

    - Balloon ablation of the endometrium (a balloon is injected into the uterus cavity with a liquid, which is then heated to 87.5 degrees).

    - Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).

  • Be sure to combine with hormonal drugs, primarily oral contraceptives. This not only allows you to enhance the hemostatic effect, but can also be the first, and sometimes the main therapy of irregular menstruation. As a rule, use the combined drug, which contain high doses of estrogen and progesterone.
  • Duphaston and Utrogestan remain one of the most popular progesterone drugs in the Russian Federation used to treat menstrual disorders. As a rule, their purpose depends on the hospital, there is no real evidence of the advantage of one over the other. Doses of appointment depend on the situation, on average: Duphaston - 1 tab 1-2 times a day from 11 to 25 days of the cycle, Utrogestan 1 capsule 2-3 times a day.

    In addition, the following drugs can be attributed to hormonal treatment:

    • Norethisterone - oral progesterone, 5 mg 3 times daily from the 5th to the 26th day of the cycle.

    • Medroxyprogesterone acetate - 10 mg per day from day 5 to day 26.

    У женщин, старше 40 лет допустимо применение препаратов полностью или частично «выключающих» менструации. These include:

  • Даназол – 200-400 мг/сут. Reduces the volume of blood lost with each menstruation by 87%.
  • Gestrinon - one capsule 2.5 mg 2 times a week. Leads to endometrial atrophy.
  • Aganosta gonadoliberin - cause a complete cessation of menstruation, amenorrhea. Treatment should be limited to 6 months to prevent osteoporosis. Used rarely and quite expensive.

    However, the main treatment of menstrual disorders is the cure of the underlying disease.

    Without elimination of the main focus, it is impossible to achieve complete cure. So, for example, if an endometrial polyp is detected, it is necessary to perform a diagnostic curettage of the uterus, in a chronic inflammatory process - the prescription of antibiotics, etc. Repeat again - in most cases, menstrual irregularity is only a symptom of any underlying pathological process, and its treatment should be prevalent. Only after the elimination of the main focus and the most acute clinical manifestations, it is possible to engage in the restoration of the impaired cycle.

    Complications of menstrual disorders

    Do not consider menstrual irregularities slightly problem. Here are at least a few reasons why you should consult a doctor:

    An irregular cycle may be accompanied by persistent anovulation, hence leading to infertility.

    Frequent intermenstrual bleeding can cause serious complications - from fatigue to complete disability.

    Late diagnosis of many pathologies, the first symptom of which is a violation of the menstrual cycle can lead to death from pathology, which could be cured with timely visit to a doctor.

    Self-medication is acceptable, but only under the control of an experienced specialist. Be sure to follow up with a gynecologist. The cause of irregular menstruation may be severe endocrine pathology, you may need to consult an endocrinologist. When extragenital pathology requires expert advice.

    In women with menstrual disorders, it is very important to choose the right diet. It is necessary to include as much as possible in the diet foods rich in iron and protein, especially meat. Exhausting diets and workouts are extremely contraindicated. Be sure to consult with a nutritionist.

    Doctor gynecologist - endocrinologist Kupatadze DD

    Breast mastopathy - how to treat? Signs and symptoms

    Mastopathy is a pathological change in the tissues of the mammary glands, having a fibrocystic character. The formation of fine-grained consolidations occurs in the chest, which are often painful. The formations are of benign origin, however, they are regarded by doctors as a risk factor for the development of cancer, since the possibility of malignancy is not excluded.

    Mastopathy is a collective term; it unites a whole group of pathologies. All these disorders are associated with changes in the mammary glands, in which there is an imbalance in the ratio between connective and epithelial tissue. In 1984, WHO classified mastopathy as fibrocystic disease.

    Statistics say that the risk of developing this disease increases significantly after a woman crosses a 40-year-old age. In young patients, mastopathy due to various causes is diagnosed in 30-45% of the total number of chest diseases. In addition, women with a history of many gynecological diseases in 70-95% of cases suffer from mastopathy too.

    The development of the disease depends on the neurohumoral regulation. It is known that numerous hormones are responsible for the development and growth of the mammary glands. In this regard, estrogens, prolactin, progesterone and somatotropic hormone are of the greatest importance. The condition of the female breast directly depends on their ratio in the body. When a hormonal imbalance occurs, then the risk of developing mastopathy increases.

    Signs and symptoms of breast mastopathy

    The severity of symptoms of mastopathy depends on what form of the disease in a woman. Her emotional state, the presence of concomitant pathologies and even character traits are also important.

    Chest pain can be of varying severity, their nature and intensity vary. The initial stages of mastopathy are manifested by pains that occur in the mammary glands just before the next menstruation. Most women do not pay attention to them, considering this phenomenon as part of the premenstrual syndrome. Pain can be dull, aching, pulling, sharp. Sometimes it is even impossible to touch the chest. The painful sensations result from the stagnation of blood in the veins, the swelling of the surrounding tissues, and this leads to an increase in breast volume. In addition, fibrous growths exert pressure on the nerve endings that permeate the mammary glands. When menstruation ends, the pain disappears. As mastopathy progresses, pain begins to haunt a woman constantly with a tendency to increase before the next menstrual periods. This negatively affects the state of health: sleep is disturbed, excessive irritability appears, and unmotivated aggression against the background of mental lability. The pain may radiate to the arm or scapula. Nevertheless, up to 15% of women note that at the initial stage of mastitis they were not disturbed by the pain. Moreover, they are diagnosed with pathological formations of a significant degree. Scientists attribute this to the different pain sensitivity threshold and the individual features of the branching of the nervous system of the mammary glands in women.

    Breast engorgement in the second phase of the menstrual cycle. This symptom is due to venous congestion in the vascular system of the mammary glands. The connective tissue may swell so much that the woman marks an increase in the glands by 15%. The chest becomes hypersensitive, the patients react sharply to an attempt at palpation.

    Discharge from the nipples of varying intensity. Perhaps their appearance only after pressing on the nipple. But sometimes the selections are quite pronounced, and in order to detect them, no effort is required. As for the consistency, it varies. The color may be white, greenish, brown, bloody or absent altogether - in this case, the selection is transparent. Particular danger is precisely the discharge containing blood impurities. They may indicate malignant processes occurring in the gland. However, do not even ignore the transparent discharge - when they are detected, you must consult a doctor. A woman needs to remember: in normal discharge from the nipples are missing (if there is no pregnancy and lactation). Any discharge from the breast in another period indicates that the milk ducts are involved in the pathological process.

    The appearance of nodes - one or more. If a palpation of the breast reveals a seal, this is the reason for an immediate appeal to the mammologist.

    Signs of mastopathy can vary depending on its form:

    Diffuse fibroadenomatosis. Most often, this type of mastopathy is diagnosed in women at a young age. During the examination, enlarged mammary glands are found with elongation. In addition, a fine grain is sensed. Chest more painful, its lobulation is strongly expressed. To relieve pain a woman may need analgesic drugs.

    Mastopathy nodular. If diffuse mastopathy was not subjected to timely treatment, then it goes into a nodular form. During palpation, certain seals or cystic formations are palpated. Seals do not have clear boundaries, lobulation is not detectable.

    Sometimes quite large nodes are found, up to 70 mm. The cyst is indicated by the presence of an explicit border with clear contours, moreover, there is no connection between the formation and the surrounding tissues. The form of cysts often oval or rounded.

    What is dangerous breast mastopathy?

    Breast mastopathy is a disease that does not go away on its own. It must be treated. The main danger of mastopathy is the rebirth of breast cancer. Therefore, doctors regard any form of mastopathy as a precancerous condition, although initially it has a benign nature.

    The risk of cancer increases when cystic changes are observed. In addition, the degree of proliferation of the epithelium of the mammary glands - ductal and intralobular, as well as the presence of signs of calcification is of great importance.

    If proliferation of the epithelium is pronounced, the risk of malignancy increases to 31%. In the moderate form of proliferation, this risk is 2.34%, and in the case of non-proliferative form of mastitis, it is 0.86%. That is why the diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy in modern medicine are regarded as a secondary prevention of breast cancer. (read also: prevention of breast cancer)

    In addition to the risk of malignancy process, it is worth noting the likelihood of the development of a background inflammatory process and the subsequent infection of cystic formation with its further suppuration. There is also a risk of compromising the integrity of the cyst.

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    How to treat mastopathy?

    Disease therapy is a must for mastopathy.

    Medical tactics depend on several factors, including:

    Available comorbidities - endocrine, extragenital, gynecological,

    The desire to preserve reproductive function, or vice versa, the priority of contraception,

    The nature of the menstrual cycle.

    Conservative treatment of mastopathy is possible when a diffuse form of the disease is detected. Prescription drugs occurs after consultation with the mammologist and a thorough examination of the patient.

    As for fibrocystic formations, conservative therapy is possible, however, surgical intervention may be required. If there is a suspected malignant tumor, its removal is necessary.

    As an optimal surgical technique, sectoral resection of the mammary gland is used. In this case, the woman's chest is preserved, and the fibroadenoma itself and a part of the glandular tissue are subjected to excision. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Marking performed cuts put in advance. Everything is done under the control of ultrasound, which allows to minimize the cosmetic defect.

    Hormonal drugs

    Anti-estrogen drugs. Their main task is to reduce the level of estrogen in a woman’s body.

    Most often, doctors prescribe the following medications:

    Fareston. This drug has a minimum list of contraindications. The result of its use will be noticeable after the first 30 days from the start of therapy. The course of treatment in case of the fibrocystic form of mastitis can last up to six months. The minimum period is three months. Most often, women complain about the side effects associated with the anti-estrogenic effect of phaestron: hot flashes, increased sweat glands, vaginal discharge, nausea, skin rashes, depressive mood. Serious adverse effects from taking the drug rarely occur.

    Tamoxifen. This drug helps to eliminate the painful sensations caused by mastopathy, normalizes the menstrual cycle, reduces the risk of cancer. The effect usually occurs after 8-12 weeks from the start of the reception. As for side effects, they are also most often associated with the suppression of estrogen production. In addition to hot flashes, feelings of heat and increased sweating, women note an increase in body weight, alopecia, itching in the genital area. In addition, an increase in the volume of soft-tissue formations of the chest, accompanied by the appearance of skin erythema, may occur in the initial stages of therapy. However, after two weeks, these symptoms self-destruct, so treatment should not be interrupted.

    Drugs belonging to the group of oral contraceptives. These pills are most often prescribed to women whose age does not exceed 35 years. Hormonal birth control pills effectively protect against unwanted pregnancy and at the same time normalize the menstrual cycle. Against the background of their admission, signs of fibrocystic mastopathy are significantly reduced.

    Among the most popular drugs in this group:

    Femoden, available in pill form. It consists of gestodene and ethinyl estradiol. During the reception, the menstrual cycle normalizes, menstrual tenderness decreases, the risk of anemia decreases.

    Silest. The drug is also available in tablets. Its active ingredients are ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate. While taking this oral contraceptive, the production of gonadotropins is suppressed, the viscosity of the mucus of the cervical canal increases, and the menstrual cycle is normalized.

    Marvelon and his analogue Mersilon. The composition also includes ethinyl estradiol, and the second active ingredient is desogestrel. While taking these drugs, ovulatory capacity is suppressed and the menstrual cycle is normalized. The pains preceding the onset of menstruation are reduced, the bleeding becomes less heavy. (See also: scanty and abundant menstruation, delay or absence of menstruation) In addition, there are data on reducing the risk of developing ovarian and endometrial cancer in women who regularly take Marvelon or Mersilon.

    Androgen drugs. To get rid of breast mastopathy, the use of drugs with androgens can be recommended. Their therapeutic effect is due to the fact that they are estrogen antagonists, that is, they are able to suppress the excessive activity of the latter.

    Most often, women are recommended to take Danazol. This drug helps to reduce the production of gonadotropic hormone, although to date, experiments in this regard have been carried out only with the participation of animals. If we evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in relation to the treatment of mastopathy, then the effect will be obtained in approximately 2 out of three women. As a result of therapy, the mammary gland is aligned, the risk of the formation of large-sized cysts decreases.

    When prescribing Danazol, the doctor should warn the woman about the risk of side effects: amenorrhea, sweating, vaginitis, nervousness, swelling, weight gain and other endocrine disorders. In addition, the contraceptive effect when taking Danazol is low, so additional methods of protection from unwanted pregnancy will be required.

    Progestin Drugs in this group can have an effect on suppressing the production of estrogen and slowing down the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland. These drugs are recognized as agents for the treatment of mastopathy with high efficiency. Their reception increases the chances of successful disposal of the disease up to 80%. Therapy should be a course with interruptions. The rest time from taking gestagens is determined by the attending physician.

    The following drugs are the most popular in this group:

    Pregnil. The preparation contains human chorionic gonadotropin. This hormone helps to normalize the process of growth and maturation of female gametes that are involved in the formation of sex hormones. As a result, the hormonal background of the woman is stabilized, and mastopathy recedes.

    Norcolut. The drug contains in its composition norethisterone. To get rid of the symptoms of mastitis, you will need to take pills starting from the 16th day of the cycle and up to the 25th. Norkolut is forbidden to use with existing cancer, so before starting treatment, such a diagnosis should be completely excluded.

    Pringin. This drug is a synthetic analogue of the gestagen.

    Orgametril. The main active ingredient is lanestrenol. It is used to eliminate nodules in the mammary glands. Reception should be long. The minimum duration of treatment is 3 months. The drug is prohibited for use during pregnancy. At its occurrence, the therapeutic course is interrupted.

    Prozhestozhel. This is a gel for external use. It is based on micronized progesterone. The main advantage of using this drug is that the woman will not experience the side effects usually caused by oral hormonal therapy.

    Prolactin secretion inhibitors. These drugs are prescribed for abnormal lactation associated with an increased level of the hormone prolactin. The most popular tools in this group are:

    Parlodel. The drug affects the cyst of the mammary glands, contributing to their reduction. The number of formations also decreases, the balance between the production of progesterone and estrogen is normalized. Reproduction function is improved and prolactin production is reduced.

    Bromocriptine. The tool has a direct effect on dopamine receptors. В итоге нормализуется менструальный цикл, узловые образования в молочных железах уменьшаются в размерах, интенсивность болей снижается. Однако этот препарат запрещено использовать при подозрении на онкологическое заболевание.

    Аналоги освобождающего гормона гонадотропина или LHRH. Drugs from this group are prescribed to women who have been diagnosed with fibrocystic form of mastitis, and only when other drugs prove ineffective.

    Non-hormonal drugs

    Preparations of non-hormonal origin in the treatment of mastopathy are used in order to reduce the symptoms of the disease and to combat the comorbidities, if any.

    You can use the following tools:

    Vitamin complexes. With their simultaneous use with mastopathy drugs, the effect of the latter is enhanced. In addition, properly selected vitamins can increase the overall resistance of the body, reduce the likelihood of side effects from hormone therapy. Most often with mastopathy, doctors recommend taking vitamins E, A and B.

    Adaptogens. Often, when breast mastopathy, women are prescribed Clamin. This tool is made from herbal ingredients. It can positively influence the functioning of the liver, the functioning of the immune system and the intestines (it has a slight laxative effect). In addition, the drug helps rid organisms of toxins, acting as an adsorbent and antioxidant. Iodine deficiency can also be compensated at the expense of Clamin. The content of iodine in it covers the daily need of the body of a woman in this substance. Also, as an adaptogen, a woman may be recommended to take Eleutherococcus tincture or a liquid extract of Rhodiola. Reception of each of these funds should be long - the minimum duration of therapy is four months, after which an 8-week break is taken and the course is repeated. The minimum number of courses - 4.

    Sedatives. They are recommended to receive if there are psychological disorders that have been provoked by mastopathy. To begin with, doctors try to do with light drugs, for example, motherwort tincture, or valerian.

    Preparations of iodine and potassium. Such means include iodomarin, iodine-active and the aforementioned Clamin.

    Enzymes They contribute to the normalization of the bowels and the growth of beneficial microflora, eliminate constipation. Doctors associate mastopathy with a dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and the reabsorption of estrogen from the intestine, which got there with bile. Among the most popular enzyme preparations: Wobenzym, Duphalac.

    Homeopathic medicines. Mastodinone is the most effective means of this group. It is an alcohol solution enriched with extracts from various herbs (tiger lily, cyclamen, chilibuhi, iris), which helps to eliminate the symptoms of mastitis. Thanks to the intake of this agent, the level of prolactin in the woman’s body is reduced, the processes of pathological division of the endometrium are reduced, and the ducts of the mammary glands are narrowed. In addition, the pain becomes less intense, decreases swelling of the breast. Also, women may be recommended to receive Cyclodinone and Remens.

    Drugs to normalize the functioning of the liver. As is known, interruptions in the work of this organ aggravate the course of mastopathy in the same way as hormonal dysfunction affects the liver itself. A woman may be recommended the following drugs-hepatoprotectors: Legalon, Kars, Essentiale.

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are necessary for the elimination of pain - Diclofenac, Nise, Nimika, etc.

    Diuretic drugs that allow you to get rid of edema with mastopathy. However, most often doctors recommend to receive light diuretics, for example, dogrose tincture, herbal teas, etc.

    Biologically active additives.

    In addition to the above funds, for the treatment of mastopathy a woman may be recommended to take the following drugs:

    Tips for treating mastopathy and PMS

    How to relieve PMS symptoms

    For each form of PMS, there are basic recommendations for treating and reducing symptoms:

    • neuropsychic form: phytotherapy - Mastodinon® of the company Bionorica SE (Germany) and other homeopathic remedies, aromatherapy, soothing herbal remedies, vitamins, antidepressants,
    • edematous form: with this form of PMS, Mastodinon® is one of the best means of treating and reducing symptoms
    • cephalgic form: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, herbal medicine - Mastodinon® and other homeopathic medicines, hormonal preparations,
    • crisis form: the ICP crisis version requires a mandatory and urgent examination by a doctor.

    General recommendations: in the second phase of the cycle, it is recommended to follow a diet that excludes coffee, chocolate, spicy and salty foods, as well as limiting fluid intake. Food should be rich in vitamins, animal fats, and it is recommended to limit carbohydrates. Sports: jogging, walking, cycling, yoga, swimming.

    Mastopathy prevention tips

    • Every year, visit the mammologist and obstetrician-gynecologist as a preventive measure and follow their recommendations.
    • Try to eliminate the impact of negative psychological factors, avoid stress, look for positive emotions in life. The question of the prevention and diagnosis of mastopathy is very important. Early diagnosis of the disease allows you to maintain health.
    • Wear underwear that fits your size and is made from natural materials. Tight underwear leads to impaired blood circulation, which can lead to swelling of the mammary glands and cause pain.
    • Avoid abortion. Remember that a normal pregnancy that occurred when it was supposed to end in childbirth and subsequent breastfeeding is a guarantee of a healthy breast. After all, the main purpose of the breast is to feed a small person. If the mammary gland did not fulfill this task, if its cells never produced milk or produced it for a short time, not too favorable changes occur in the metabolism inside the cell.
    • Watch your weight, do not overeat: an excess of adipose tissue leads to metabolic disorders and estrogen hormones.
    • Remember also that an active lifestyle, good sleep (at least 8–9 hours), avoiding bad habits (smoking, alcohol), as well as proper nutrition are important components of mastitis prevention.

    Do not self-medicate, do not try to apply the experience of their girlfriends. Timely diagnosis and qualified treatment of benign diseases (mastopathy) will not only create conditions for a high quality of life, but also reduce the risk of developing serious diseases.

    Cystic mastopathy

    Patients are recommended increased consumption of plant food. The enrichment of the diet with vegetables, fruits, seafood in case of refusal from large amounts of tea, coffee, cocoa and chocolate can be a matter of mastopathy and prevention of relapse.

    Menstruation becomes painful during mastopathy. what is to blame all the same hormonal disorders. Discharges can be much larger. they alternate with bleeding in the middle of the cycle. At the same time, the duration of menstruation increases to 6-7 days. As a result, iron deficiency anemia may be added to mastopathy. which aggravate the course of the disease. One of the factors that provoke it is the lack of vitamins and nutrients. Such a deficiency is unfavorable for hormonal background.

    During the manual examination of the mammary glands in the case of diffuse mastopathy, it is possible to reveal fine granularity and characteristic hardness, as well as sharp lobulation. Similar signs of mastopathy are in both mammary glands, but, more often, pain in one gland is more pronounced. Seals may have the character of nodes with fuzzy borders.

    There is also a form of mastopathy, like adenosis. It is divided into local and diffuse forms. In the local form of adenosis, the appearance of seals is observed, which have a lobular structure. Each lobe of the gland may have a large size and may be enveloped by a fibrous capsule. Seals with a local form of adenosis are grouped only on one site in the mammary gland. In the diffuse form of adenosis, the seals do not have clear boundaries and a certain shape. Chaotic growth of such formations and causes a diffuse form of adenosis.

    Possible complications of mastopathy:

    Mastopathy - is a benign dyshormonal disease of the mammary glands, characterized by abnormal proliferative processes (growths) in the tissues of the gland.

    Every month cyclic changes occur in the mammary glands, which also take place in the uterus. This process is regulated by female sex hormones. It is known that the mammary glands are easily amenable to hormones, as are the organs of the small pelvis. When the pathological ratio of sex hormones begins to form tissue proliferation in the glands, which is a provoking factor in breast mastopathy. First of all, the parenchyma is affected by the hormones in the mammary glands. It has a direct effect: prolactin, estrogen, somatotropic hormone and progesterone. During pregnancy, the parenchyma of the glands is directly affected by placental estrogens, progesterone, prolactin and lactogen. To a lesser extent, the parenchyma of the breast can be exposed to glucocorticoid hormones and insulin. The least susceptible to hormones is the breast stroma. But it can also develop hyperplasia under the influence of estrogen.

    Drug treatment of mastopathy

    Yes maybe. It creates a heavy load on the ligamentous apparatus.

    Breast ultrasound - A safer and simpler diagnostic method than mammography. Breast ultrasound allows you to clearly define the structure of education in the breast (cyst, fibroadenoma, etc.). Ultrasound examination for mastopathy is performed on the 5-10 day of the menstrual cycle for more informative,

    Breast Diagnosis Video

    ¦ To the 2nd group of drugs that are used in the treatment of mastopathy, include oral contraceptives. Properly selected contraception with OK inhibition suppresses ovulation and steroidogenesis by suppressing the production of androgens and the production of estrogen receptors. Contributes to the alignment of excessive fluctuations of sex hormones. Also, oral contraception contributes to long-term protection against cancer of the reproductive organs.

    Experts believe that up to 60% of women in mature reproductive and involutive age (from 25 to 55 years) suffer from various forms of this disease. In adolescence and adolescence, this condition occurs in 35-45% of girls.

    Gourd from infusion wormwood. The tool is prepared from 3-5 st.l. plants and 3 tbsp. boiling water, leaving in a sealed container for 12 hours. Adding 1 tsp in the morning warm water, the composition moistened linen fabric and applied to the chest 3 times a day for half an hour.

    Adenomioepithelial adenosis is characterized by the appearance of adenomioepithelioma in the breast tissue.

    When diffuse mastopathy is widely used funds from traditional medicine in the form of various compresses for the relief of a painful symptom. For this purpose, grated red beets, fresh pumpkin or warm rye bread are applied to the breast in the form of compresses.

    Iodine preparations (Iodomarin, Iodine-active, Clamin) help to reduce the proliferative activity of tissues and regulate the function of the thyroid gland. But before their appointment, an endocrinologist consultation is necessary to identify contraindications, such as hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis.

    - tumors and inflammations of the ovaries,

  • In any form of mastopathy, thermal procedures are absolutely contraindicated - saunas, baths, prolonged exposure to the sun, tanning beds.
  • Duphaston, Noristerster, Utrozhestan. All this is progesterone, the deficiency of which makes it possible for an abnormal proliferation of breast tissue,

    Mastopathy - It is a process of a pathological nature with a pronounced spectrum of growths of cells in the tissues of the mammary glands and an impaired ratio of the connective tissue epithelium and its components. Under mastopathy imply a group of dysplasia processes, mainly with a benign course in the pathologies of the mammary gland, with an increased growth of cells in its tissues. This pathology affects women of reproductive age. In menopause, mastopathy is relatively rare and in more than half of the cases, we can talk about the possible presence of a malignant process.

    The effect of an increased amount of estrogen on the ovaries inhibits the maturation of the germ cell. This also provokes delayed menstruation and often the lack of ovulation in the cycle.

    Treatment of mastopathy with non-hormonal drugs is prescribed in combination with hormone therapy or separately. The drugs help to quickly stop the symptoms of mastopathy with mild manifestations of the disease, and if you observe a healthy lifestyle, you can achieve a complete cure.

    8. Can fibroadenoma occur again after removal?

    Treatment of mastopathy is the use of several methods, because it is quite difficult to cure mastopathy. Before treatment, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive study, which consists in collecting anamnesis, conducting an ultrasound of the mammary glands, mammography, thermography, etc. When collecting the history, the patient’s heredity is established (the presence of oncology of the reproductive organs of the mother and other close relatives).

    In addition to drug treatment and with the permission of a specialist, you can use herbal medicine, which includes internal and external means:

    Types of mastopathy

    Before using any drugs, you should consult with a physician. There are contraindications.

    - if the cyst is single - removal of the fluid by puncture (puncture of the formation) is shown, but when the nodular cyst recurs, its exfoliation is shown.

    - With the rapid growth of fibroadenoma (tumor enlarged by 2 times within 3 months),

    - regular sex life,

    About fifty other terms are used to designate individual forms of mastopathy, which reflects both the various historical stages in the study of this problem and the features of these states of the mammary glands.

    2. Diffuse mastopathy with multiple nodes in the breast. Depending on the structure of the nodes, diffuse mastopathy can be:

    Recent studies show that taking Tamoxifen in the amount of 20 mg per day for 10-12 up to menstrual days, three cycles in a row, helps to eliminate almost all cases of pain in mastitis. But some patients showed increased chest pain and pain in the first month after the start of treatment. Similar reactions were attributed to the action of the estrogenic components of Tamoxifen. In rare cases, it was necessary to interrupt therapy because of the development of strong side effects, after the cancellation they passed on their own. Tamoxifen is successfully used in the treatment of mastopathy in a dose of 10 mg from 5-24 days of the cycle. Side effects of Tamoxifen include: pronounced sweating, flushing, mastalgia in the first weeks of treatment. There is evidence of carcinogenic properties of anti-estrogen drugs. The minimum duration of treatment with antiestrogens is 3 months.

    prolactin secretion inhibitors (Parlodel) are taken when hyperprolactinemia is detected from day 10-25 of the menstrual cycle,

    For severe pains, it is acceptable to take Diclofenac or Ibuprofen. But the choice of all drugs - the prerogative of the specialist. Treatment should be comprehensive and directed to combat the cause of the disease. And there are so many that it is impossible to determine it without examination. And different types of disease is useless to treat the same drugs. The effect will be exactly the opposite of what was expected.

    Abortion means a deep violation of the nervous and hormonal regulation of the body. This leads to the fact that after an abortion in some women the regular menstrual cycle is not restored. It occurs either with long delays, or with too short intervals between periods.

    In case of the nodular form of mastopathy, resection of the sectoral section of the mammary gland is used, because it is impossible to cure mastopathy of this form using an exclusively conservative method. A conservative method for this pathology can be used as a complementary method of therapy. Nodes for mastopathy are: cysts, fibroadenomas, intraductal papillomas, lipomas, leaflike tumors, lipogranulomas, angiomas. The large dimensions of such nodes imply excision of the pathological area under general anesthesia. Small seals can be excised under local anesthesia. It should be borne in mind that such manipulations are carried out in a hospital.

    - Breast self-examination is the main method of prevention of mastopathy and breast cancer, aimed at early detection of changes in the breast, which means you can consult a doctor in time and not start the disease. After menstruation for about 5-7 days of the cycle, a woman is recommended to palpate both mammary glands while lying and standing. Palpation starts from the axillary region towards the nipple. Далее-грудь исследуют вертикально-сверху вниз- мягкими движениями. При обнаружении подозрительных образований — срочно к врачу. Чем раньше будет начато лечение, тем легче будет предотвратить развитие мастопатии и онкологии,

    It should be noted that the significance and manifestations of fibroadenomatosis are different for each woman. In the overwhelming majority of cases, and these are about 75–80% of patients, FAM is within acceptable limits, within a peculiar variant of the norm. Changes in the mammary glands of a woman in this case are minor, she does not experience discomfort, especially before the onset of regular menstruation.

    It should be noted that any form of mastopathy with the onset of menstruation subsides. Seals are reduced in size, may disappear altogether. The mammary gland itself becomes soft, painless to the touch. In addition to all of the above, there may be lymphadenitis in the armpits, under the collarbone and above the collarbone. Common symptoms of mastitis include: dry hair and skin on the face, weight gain, migraine. sleep disturbance.

    Mastopathy after menstruation is characterized by the preservation of pain in the chest. The symptom may become less pronounced in the early stage of the disease, the tension and swelling in the mammary glands subside slightly. But over time, the end of menstruation brings less and less relief from chest discomfort. She remains tense and painful until the next menstrual period, discharge from the nipples also appear periodically.

    At a more mature age, patients with mastopathy decrease the tendency to shift responsibility to others, although hypersensitivity, indecision and general tension remain. More than a third of patients have a tendency to depressive reactions, almost 40% poorly adapt to the surrounding changes, almost as many combine the two previous psychological personality types. 75% of patients are emotionally unstable.

    Mastopathy and women's health - types, symptoms and causes of mastopathy

    With cystic mastopathy in the mammary glands, many small cavities are formed - cysts. Cysts can be single and multiple, of various sizes - from small ones - with a diameter of 1-3 mm, to large ones that reach several centimeters in diameter.

    There are three types of mastopathy:

    Diagnosis of mastopathy includes:

    Breast self-examination

    The factors that have a protective effect on this disease include: early births in the optimal reproductive period (20-25 years), breastfeeding, the number of births more than two with full lactation.

    The operation for nodular mastopathy is performed under general or local anesthesia and lasts an average of 30-40 minutes. The patient is discharged home the next day or day of surgery. Postoperative sutures are removed 7-10 days after surgery.

  • Infusion of burdock root. 25 g of crushed raw materials are placed in 400 ml of boiled water and kept wrapped up for 12 hours. Strainned means you need to take 1 tbsp. before eating,
  • It is advisable to limit the consumption of coffee, tea, cocoa and chocolate. The fact is that these products contain methyl xaptins, which can provoke the progression of diffuse mastopathy and increase pain.
  • Vitamin therapy, it is prescribed for a long time. Vitamins A, B, C and E are shown to all patients with mastopathy.
  • Smoking

    Less commonly with mastopathy, there may be discharge from the nipples. The discharge can be white, transparent or greenish. In exceptional cases, the appearance of blood discharge is possible, which is an alarming signal.

    Another form of impaired fertility is associated with the complete absence or restriction of childbirth. Women have lost the sense of their main natural destination - to be the continuer of the gens. They give birth to little, one, maximum two children.

    Despite the increase in the volume of tissues taken out during menstruation, the often encountered tandem mastopathy is a delayed menstruation. One of the likely causes of the disease becomes excess values ​​of the hormone prolactin. With full female health, it increases during pregnancy. With it, the breast is prepared for feeding: the milk ducts are dilated, a special fluid is produced that precedes milk. Prolactin helps progesterone to inhibit the rejection of the endometrium, preventing the development of the functional layer and maintaining pregnancy. And its development after childbirth inhibits the arrival of menstruation.

    Sometimes mastopathy develops due to excessive pituitary production of the hormone prolactin. Normally, prolactin is produced in large quantities during pregnancy and lactation to form mother's milk. But it so happens that prolactin is excessively secreted outside of pregnancy, which is a pathology and contributes to the appearance of mastopathy.

    Diet for mastopathy

    hormonal studies - check the level of estrogen and progesterone, if necessary, examine the hormones of the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands,

    To reduce the rapid proliferation of tissues in the mammary glands, you can prescribe minimal doses of iodine during the entire cycle before the onset of menstruation. The course of iodine treatment is approximately nine months. In some patients, mastopathy may manifest itself in the form of edema of the legs, especially during the period before menstruation. In such cases, it is necessary to take diuretic drugs to remove excess fluid.

    Often, such a person also develops a complex loser, who blames others for everything and feels envy towards them. Feeling of inferiority complicates personal contacts, which automatically leads to more and more new failures in personal life.

    Monthly with mastopathy can not be called a clear indicator to identify the disease, since their characteristic characteristics are found in other pathologies. But after the normalization of hormonal background with a correctly chosen treatment, the recovery will be obvious in this area. Intermenstrual bleeding and aching sensations in the chest will disappear, the volume of discharge and the pain of menstruation will decrease. And most importantly, the threat of cancer of the mammary glands, the likelihood of endometrial pathologies, ovaries, and related infertility will disappear.

    It has been established that in the group of patients with a localized form of fibroadenomatosis (when negative changes in the mammary gland are concentrated in a small part of it - this is the most dangerous form in terms of the possibility of breast cancer), the degree of emotional instability is much higher than in patients with mastopathy, who have localized FAM was observed.

    The effect of abortion on the development of this disease is high.

    Mastopathy often affects women of childbearing age - from 25 to 45 years.

    Fibrous mastopathy

    The use of progesterone derivatives is now widely used due to the fact that they have significantly stronger gestagenic properties, moderate anti-estrogenic activity and absent androgenic effects. Moreover, the administration of progestogens is justified in such patients who have an insufficiency of the luteal activity phase with manifestations characteristic of this disorder: hyperestrogenism, intermenstrual bleeding, uterine myoma. Assign MPA 10 mg, Noretisteron 5 mg from 15-25 days of the cycle, synchronizing courses of use within six months. In order to create an additional anti-estrogenic effect before ovulation, you need to take progestogens from 10-25 days of the cycle. To suppress ovulation, these drugs begin to take from 5-25 days of the cycle. During menopause, progesterone is prescribed gradually reducing the dosage of the drug. In addition, he is able to provide a good effect in the treatment of pathologies of the reproductive system, after treatment with progesterone, you can detect a decrease in breast tissue.

    They are usually associated with either a lesion of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, or with impaired functioning of the adrenal glands and the thyroid gland. In such cases, mastopathy is accompanied by episodic uterine bleeding or menstrual disorders by the type of amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). And here the root causes most often should be sought in the transferred stress and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    - delays in the development and onset of puberty, virilization - in particular, the underdevelopment of the external genital organs,

    Treatment of mastopathy is conducted by means of regulating the menstrual cycle and, if necessary, the activity of the thyroid gland - hormones, vitamins and homeopathic preparations.

    But the reproductive function is closely associated with complex rhythmic processes in the nervous and endocrine systems, the combined work of the hypothalamus. And the physiological changes in the mammary gland depend on these processes. Impaired fertility, while reducing the overall resistance of the body can lead to the development in the mammary glands of the process of excessive cell proliferation. This risk increases in the absence of childbirth and a large number of induced abortions.

    On the other hand, it is the hypothalamus that regulates emotions, ensuring the adaptation of the human psyche to external influences. If the emotional factors of the environment are moderate, the adaptation reserves of the body are sufficient to quickly restore the lost emotional balance.

    Until recently, it was believed that this disease is the “privilege” of women from 30 years old, who have childbirth, abortion, unhealthy thyroid and liver. But for some time, mastopathy has been diagnosed in adolescence. There are several types of it, which are determined by what tissue grows. Perhaps the predominance of glandular, connective, sometimes in the mammary glands are formed cysts and nodules, there is a mixed manifestation of the disease. In connection with all this mastopathy symptoms manifests as follows:

    Treatment of any form of mastopathy involves taking mineral and vitamin complexes.

    Mastopathy before menstruation begins to manifest itself very actively. An abnormal amount of estrogen acts in such a way that, in addition to enhanced cell division, the swelling of the breast increases. The pain becomes palpable not only when you touch it, but without any contact. Discomfort increases near the armpits, where it is easy to grope enlarged lymph nodes. In some forms of the disease, swelling appears on the arms and legs.

    Feedback between the ovaries and the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus is broken. Excessive amount of progesterone produced leads to the suppression of the production of luteinizing hormone of the pituitary gland (which is designed to promote the production of progesterone in the normal menstrual cycle) and to stimulate the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (which contributes to the production of estrogen).

    Up to 35-40 years, it is preferable to breast ultrasound, if you already have 40, it is better to do a mammogram.

    ¦ The first is anti-estrogens. To have a stimulating effect, estrogens need to interact with cell receptors. With a certain hyperestrogenism, these drugs prevent estrogens from interacting with these receptors, reducing their biological activity. In addition, they block the estrogen receptors in these tissues, which act as "targets" (uterus, ovaries, mammary glands). Studies have been conducted to the effect that anti-estrogen drugs (Tamoxifen) have been used since the early 80s. The positive clinical effect of Tamoxifen is observed in a large number of cases (more than 70%) and is objectively detected in 1.5-2 months after the start of use. This drug is prescribed 10 mg per day.

    4. I have big breasts, I do not wear a bra at home — I only put it on when I exit. Can this provoke mastopathy?

    Pumpkin compress. Raw vegetable pulp is ground in a blender, wrapped in 2 layers of gauze and fixed on the breast all night. The compress should not squeeze the chest,

    In addition, fats that come with food intake in the body, can contribute to a decrease in immunity, especially for animal fats. With mastopathy, it is necessary to get exactly vegetable fats, which help maintain a normal amount of prolactin levels. Omega 3 fatty acids, as well as vitamins in mastopathy, help reduce the risk of obesity. what kind of is the prevention of this disease. Such acids are found in fatty fish (herring, mackerel, halibut, oil), seeds, nuts, olive oil. It is also very beneficial effect on the hormone levels of legumes and spices, especially celery, cumin and parsley.

    The main causes of these violations are the following:

    Mastopathy, or, more scientifically, fibroadenomatosis (FAM). names of the same process. This disease is a complex of a variety of benign changes in the mammary glands.

    Focal mastopathy is the form characterized by the appearance of localized seals or foci in the mammary gland, which are not amenable to regression, despite the phase of the cycle. In case of focal mastopathy, pain can be localized in the quadrant of the gland where the node is located. Clinical manifestations of such mastopathy can change the character during the entire menstrual cycle. Before critical days, pain usually increases with radiating to the shoulder or arm, and compaction increases in size. Sometimes the pain can be given not only to the shoulder, arm and neck, but also to several areas at once.

    Basically, the development of mastopathy is favored by dysfunction of menstruation. During the examination by the breast specialist, the mammary glands are determined by the symmetry of their location, shape, and size. The condition of the contours and shape of the nipples, the appearance of the skin, the color and structure of the areola, the presence of dilated saphenous veins are taken into account.

    Janine, Marvelon. The contraceptive effect they give normalizes ovarian function. Hormonal disorders characteristic of mastopathy, often lead to a lack of ovulation. “Rested” when taking contraceptives the ovaries after the abolition of the pills are working more actively, which allows the germ cell to mature in time. Monthly with any form of mastopathy begin in accordance with the schedule.

    Before the operation, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis. It includes: laboratory blood tests, ultrasound examination of the mammary glands, breast biopsy (if necessary). If there is a cystic formation, then puncture aspiration is carried out with cytological examination of the aspirated fluid. The same manipulation is carried out in inpatient and outpatient settings. The patient is released on the same day. The aspiration puncture is performed under local anesthesia using Novocain, Ledocaine, Ultracain, etc. After aspiration, the recurrence of cystic-shaped mastopathy is no more than ten percent.

    In the body of a woman monthly cyclical changes occur. The mammary gland is involved in this cycle, which is manifested in its engorgement before menstruation. If the hormonal balance is disturbed, the premenstrual growth of the ducts and breast tissue continues after menstruation.

    - bad habits-smoking and alcohol,

    So women who have given birth to two children under the age of 25 have a threefold lower relative risk of the disease compared to having only one child by this age.

    Other reasons for the development of breast mastopathy include: drinking alcohol, smoking, abortion, habitual miscarriage, increased body weight.

    This disease affects eight women out of ten.

    - mastopathy with a predominance of the glandular component,

    Many women confuse mastopathy with signs of PMS (premenstrual syndrome), and often similar symptoms are perceived as a given from nature. However, this is not the case. If you have the above symptoms of mastopathy or if you find any education in the mammary gland, a full-time consultation of a breast doctor is necessary!

  • Mastodinon. Cyclodinone. Reimens. Homeopathic remedies normalize the level of prolactin.
  • From the nipples stand out the liquid of a different nature. This can occur spontaneously or with a slight touch. The color of the discharge ranges from whitish to brown,

    Forms of mastopathy

    - diseases of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands,

    There are also five types of adenosis of the mammary glands. Adenosis sclerosing is characterized by the proliferation of acini concentrated in one area while all the epithelial layers are preserved. These layers are surrounded by a basement membrane. But the tightness of the acini that surround the lobules with fibrosis tissues can be quite pronounced. At the same time, the configuration of the lobules is preserved. A breast examination can clearly see such a configuration. In apocrine adenosis, this is a pronounced epithelial metaplasia. Sometimes this condition can be called apocrine metaplasia, especially when they talk about the focus of adenosis with a sharp epithelial proliferation. The apocrine form is characterized by pronounced polymorphism in the nuclei of cells, which makes this form similar to infiltrating cancer.

    In case of nodal and focal mastopathy forms, a surgical method of treatment is used. Кистозная форма мастопатии также поддается оперативному лечению в случае объемного единичного образования.

    7. Я беременна и у меня мастопатия. Можно ли будет кормить ребенка грудью?

    Механизмы эмоциональных реакций довольно сложны, что не позволяет дать однозначный ответ на вопрос о глубинной роли психологических факторов в развитии мастопатии. It is clear only that the hypothalamus plays the main role here. On the one hand, it regulates the work of the endocrine system, controlling the work of the pituitary gland, regulates the vital activity of the whole organism.

    detailed survey and examination by a breast specialist. The doctor performs superficial and deep palpation (palpation) of the mammary glands in both standing and lying positions, since some masses in the chest may shift when the position changes. Examines the nipples, checks if there are any abnormal nipples. In addition to examining the breast, the mammologist palpates the lymph nodes in the armpit, in the sub- and supraclavicular areas. Also carried out palpation of the thyroid gland to exclude its pathology,

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as Diclofenac) for the rapid relief of a painful symptom if present.

    Fibrocystic mastopathy

    There are 2 types of surgery for mastopathy - sectoral resection (together with the breast sector remove the tumor) and enucleation (husking) of the tumor or cyst (only the tumor / cyst is removed).

    Treatment of mastopathy is selected individually, depending on the type and cause of mastopathy. Treatment of mastopathy may be conservative or surgical, but should begin with a change in lifestyle and nutrition.

    The processes of excitation prevail over the processes of inhibition (as occurs in the case considered above with the artificial termination of pregnancy), which directly affects the state of fertility and causes changes in the mammary glands leading to mastopathy.

    Ductal adenosis is characterized by dilated ducts, cells with cylindrical epithelial metaplasia.

    When glandular adenosis, as a form of mastopathy, breast granularity is often observed. Colostrum-like discharge appears when pressure is applied to the nipple. Their volume changes over the menstrual cycle.

    Mastopathy surgery

    5. Does the chest hurt when growing up?

    It should be noted that against this background, the development of malignant changes is very likely. Patients with such mastopathy are subject to surgical treatment with the obligatory urgent histological examination of the removed tissues (to determine the possible malignant transformation).

    Changing the menstrual cycle and the nature of monthly discharge. This is characteristic of any of the existing forms of the disease. Violation of the menstrual cycle in mastopathy is caused by a hormonal shift, in which the amount of estrogen begins to prevail over progesterone. The first provokes unnatural reproduction of cells in the tissues of the breast,

    Focal mastopathy is characterized by the formation of foci or nodes in the mammary glands. Focal mastopathy (nodular) may be characterized by the presence of fibroadenomas, cysts, lipomas and other formations in the breast tissue. Manifest in the form of a seal, which can be both mobile and stationary during palpation. When fibroadenoma can be observed cyclical symptomatic signs, increasing by the end of the cycle. Treatment of mastopathy of this option is carried out exclusively by surgery, because tumors are not served independent regression.

    The first manifestations of the disease - mastodynia (mastalgia), breast tenderness before menstruation. With further development of the disease in the tissues of the gland are formed dense nodes the size of a pea to walnut. The pain becomes intense, sometimes painfully the slightest touch to the chest, the movement of the hands. A bloody and clear fluid can flow from the nipple.

    Mastopathy - This is a benign breast disease, manifested in the pathological proliferation of its tissues.

    3. I was diagnosed with fibroadenoma during pregnancy. What to do, be treated now or wait until the birth?

    An increase in prolactin in the absence of pregnancy in mastitis causes a similar endometrial reaction. It develops more slowly, it reaches longer the state when its upper layer is ready to be torn off and replaced with a new one. Therefore, menstruation is late for a period of several days to 2 weeks. The main cause of overproduction of prolactin is a malfunction of the pituitary gland.

    - iodine deficiency in the body.

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