Hormones

What is the hormone prolactin

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It is noted that the amount of this hormone does not always reflect the strength of clinical manifestations. For example, women with severe hyperprolactinemia can have regular menstruation, a good ability to conceive and bear a child, and a slight excess of the norm can be combined with serious and unpleasant symptoms.

This phenomenon is associated with the existence of 4 different forms of the hormone:

  • "Small" PRL
  • "Big" PRL
  • macro PRL
  • glycosylated PRL

All these forms affect target organs in different ways, therefore their definition is extremely important. Microprolactin is considered the most active, it is it that causes all the external manifestations of hormonal failure. Large forms of this substance are bound, therefore almost inactive.

Outside of pregnancy, the norm of the hormone prolactin in women does not exceed 20 ng / ml (600 MCU / ml). A level rise up to 1000µU / ml is considered mild, insignificant. If hyperprolactinemia is detected, an additional analysis is required for macroprolactin. If its amount exceeds 60%, then the bioactive PRL is only 40%, which may well fit into the norm. If macroprolactin is low (less than 40%), then the active hormone still goes beyond the normal range and requires further examination.

Prolactin during pregnancy

With the approach of the day of birth in the blood of the expectant mother increases the amount of estrogen. This, in turn, stimulates the synthesis of PRL, the level of which increases several times, which is an absolute norm. Therefore, for women in the situation, this analysis is not informative and it is not passed.

Nature has created such a mechanism so that by the time the baby is born, the mammary glands of a woman are ready to release milk. The maximum PRL is increased at 25 weeks, slightly decreases before birth. With the first breast attachment, prolactin levels increase in response to nipple stimulation.

Hormone functions

Prolactin has many different effects on the female body. This is not surprising, since there are receptors for it in the mammary glands, ovaries, uterus, placenta, liver, eyes, lymphatic and immune cells, brain, kidneys, adrenal glands, intestines and pancreas.

  • Prepares mammary glands for lactation
  • Stimulates milk synthesis after childbirth
  • In the second phase of the cycle, it maintains the functioning of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone
  • Takes part in the ovulation process
  • Regulates the composition and volume of amniotic fluid
  • Has immune properties

Symptoms of hyperprolactinemia

  • Violation of the menstrual cycle (rare menstruation or lack thereof)
  • Infertility (due to lack of ovulation or shortening of phase 2 of the cycle)
  • Galactorrhea (the release of milk from the breast) - occurs in 70% of cases
  • Headache, loss of vision (for large pituitary tumors)
  • Decreased libido
  • Acne, facial hair growth (in 20% of patients)
  • Osteoporosis
  • Obesity (in 40-60% of cases)
  • Depression, insomnia (in 20% of cases of hyperprolactinemia)
  • Memory loss

Pathological

  • Diseases of the pituitary (often - prolactinoma)
  • Primary hypothyroidism
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Chest injuries (surgery, shingles, etc.)
  • Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia (in the absence of visible reasons)
  • Chronic renal and hepatic failure
  • Diseases of the hypothalamus
  • Estrogen producing tumors

Physiological causes

The amount of hormone in each particular woman varies throughout the day. It is known that during sleep the PRL level increases, starting from 60-90 minutes. This happens both during a night's rest and during daytime sleep, and after waking up, the amount of the hormone drops sharply. A slight rise is also noted during physical exertion, sexual intercourse, as well as after consuming protein foods. Stress reactions can also affect the hormone, especially when combined with a physical effect (for example, fainting during blood sampling is a guarantee of increased PRL).

Diseases of the pituitary gland

Prolactinoma - a common tumor of the pituitary gland - is the most common cause of high levels of PRL in the blood. Depending on its size, it is called microprolactinoma (less than 1 cm) or macroprolactinoma (more than 1 cm). About a quarter of the population of our planet has undiagnosed micropumpy pituitary, which do not cause significant symptoms and can be just an accidental find.

Most often, such adenoma is diagnosed in women aged 30-40 years. For the female, it is precisely the small size of the tumor. In addition to impaired fertility, the tumor can squeeze the visual pathways, leading to loss of vision, as well as cause headaches and degrade the quality of life. Therefore, in case of proven adenoma (prolactin is higher than normal due to microfraction, an MRI is a tumor), Dostinex treatment or surgical removal is necessary (extremely rare). When planning a pregnancy, you need to take Dostinex for a year, then, with a successful attempt at conception, to cancel the drug.

Other pituitary tumors

Any neoplasm blocking the path between the pituitary and hypothalamus can cause an increase in the concentration of PRL in the blood. Sometimes they are all united under the term "pseudoprolactinoma", although the amount of other hormones (GH, ACTH) increases with prolactin. Most of them have their own characteristics on MRI and CT, but the number of PRL is much lower than in the case of true prolactinomas.

Primary hypothyroidism

The link between reduced thyroid function and increased PRL in the blood is still not precisely explained. But almost half of patients with hypothyroidism have similar changes in the analyzes. After the start of replacement therapy, prolactin also returns to normal. We must not forget that hypothyroidism can safely coexist with tumors in the brain and other pathologies.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

The classic case of PCOS includes menstrual disorders, cystic ovarian masses and elevated androgen levels. But in 30-40% of cases hyperprolactinemia is added to these symptoms. The reasons for this relationship are not exactly known. But for any suspicion of PCOS, it is necessary to pass the analysis for prolactin and macroprolactin in order to prescribe the necessary treatment (see polycystic ovary).

Chest Damage

It is known that various surgical interventions can increase the rate of PRL for a period from a day (with surgery on the abdomen) to several months (with manipulations in the chest area). The same effect occurs with shingles (Herpes zoster virus), which affects the skin of the upper body. This is due to enhanced nerve impulses from the damaged area to the brain. The closer the source of irritation to the mammary glands, the more intense and longer these impulses.

Diseases of the hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is one of the highest links in the endocrine system. Therefore, any violation of its function leads to a change in the level of all hormones, including PRL. Hyperprolactinemia can result from hypothalamic tumors, craniopharyngiomas, gliomas, brain inflammation, metastatic lesions, and abnormal vascular development. A similar effect occurs with therapeutic irradiation of the brain.

Medication intake

  • neuroleptics (haloperidol, aminazine)
  • antiemetic (tsirukal, moltilium)
  • reserpine
  • levodopa
  • opiate substances (morphine)
  • verapamil
  • hormonal contraceptives.

Physiological causes

The amount of hormone in each particular woman varies throughout the day. It is known that during sleep the PRL level increases, starting from 60-90 minutes. This happens both during a night's rest and during daytime sleep, and after waking up, the amount of the hormone drops sharply. A slight rise is also noted during physical exertion, sexual intercourse, as well as after consuming protein foods. Stress reactions can also affect the hormone, especially when combined with a physical effect (for example, fainting during blood sampling is a guarantee of increased PRL).

Diseases of the pituitary gland

Prolactinoma - a common tumor of the pituitary gland - is the most common cause of high levels of PRL in the blood. Depending on its size, it is called microprolactinoma (less than 1 cm) or macroprolactinoma (more than 1 cm). About a quarter of the population of our planet has undiagnosed micropumpy pituitary, which do not cause significant symptoms and can be just an accidental find.

Most often, such adenoma is diagnosed in women aged 30-40 years. For the female, it is precisely the small size of the tumor. In addition to impaired fertility, the tumor can squeeze the visual pathways, leading to loss of vision, as well as cause headaches and degrade the quality of life. Therefore, in case of proven adenoma (prolactin is higher than normal due to microfraction, an MRI is a tumor), Dostinex treatment or surgical removal is necessary (extremely rare). When planning a pregnancy, you need to take Dostinex for a year, then, with a successful attempt at conception, to cancel the drug.

Other pituitary tumors

Any neoplasm blocking the path between the pituitary and hypothalamus can cause an increase in the concentration of PRL in the blood. Sometimes they are all united under the term "pseudoprolactinoma", although the amount of other hormones (GH, ACTH) increases with prolactin. Most of them have their own characteristics on MRI and CT, but the number of PRL is much lower than in the case of true prolactinomas.

Primary hypothyroidism

The link between reduced thyroid function and increased PRL in the blood is still not precisely explained. But almost half of patients with hypothyroidism have similar changes in the analyzes. After the start of replacement therapy, prolactin also returns to normal. We must not forget that hypothyroidism can safely coexist with tumors in the brain and other pathologies.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

The classic case of PCOS includes menstrual disorders, cystic ovarian masses and elevated androgen levels. But in 30-40% of cases hyperprolactinemia is added to these symptoms. The reasons for this relationship are not exactly known. But for any suspicion of PCOS, it is necessary to pass the analysis for prolactin and macroprolactin in order to prescribe the necessary treatment (see polycystic ovary).

Chest Damage

It is known that various surgical interventions can increase the rate of PRL for a period from a day (with surgery on the abdomen) to several months (with manipulations in the chest area). The same effect occurs with shingles (Herpes zoster virus), which affects the skin of the upper body. This is due to enhanced nerve impulses from the damaged area to the brain. The closer the source of irritation to the mammary glands, the more intense and longer these impulses.

Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia

It happens that a moderate increase in the amount of hormone in the blood (25-80 ng / ml) exists independently, without visible pathology of the hypothalamus and pituitary. Such cases are called idiopathic (causeless). Most people with this form of the syndrome have macroprolactinemia without needing treatment.

Diseases of the hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is one of the highest links in the endocrine system. Therefore, any violation of its function leads to a change in the level of all hormones, including PRL. Hyperprolactinemia can result from hypothalamic tumors, craniopharyngiomas, gliomas, brain inflammation, metastatic lesions, and abnormal vascular development. A similar effect occurs with therapeutic irradiation of the brain.

Estrogen producing tumors

Many tumors can secrete hormones. In women, ovarian tumors often synthesize estrogen in large quantities. This leads to a regular increase in prolactin. Therefore, such changes in the analyzes - a reason to examine the pelvic area on ultrasound.

Medication intake

Sometimes, prolactin in women is elevated when taking certain drugs: neuroleptics (haloperidol, aminazine), antiemetic (cerucal, moltilium), reserpine, levodopa, opiate substances (morphine), verapamil, hormonal contraceptives.

Pituitary heart attack (Sheehan syndrome)

During pregnancy, the pituitary gland of a woman increases in size, but his blood supply does not improve. Therefore, massive blood loss or pressure drop during childbirth can lead to a heart attack of this important organ. As a result, pituitary cells die off and hormone deficiency, including prolactin, is observed. In such patients, prolactin is lowered in the analyzes, therefore breastfeeding is not possible. If the volume of the pituitary gland that has undergone necrosis is too large, then the woman will need replacement therapy.

When do you need analysis for prolactin?

  • Menstrual disorders

  • Infertility
  • Galactorrhea
  • Decreased libido
  • Delayed sexual development in girls
  • Neoplasm in the pituitary and hypothalamus (according to the results of CT, MRI)

How to pass the analysis?

The level of the hormone is quite sensitive to all external influences, including stress, physical and nutritional stress. Therefore, to exclude physiological hyperprolactinemia, it is necessary to pass the analysis three times. Taking blood is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach.

The day before the analysis, it is necessary to exclude sexual acts, the effects of heat (in the sauna, bath), intense training. Immediately before the procedure is better to sit in a chair, relax and calm down.

Additional examination

If the blood test showed three times that the number of PRL is not normal, then additional tests are usually carried out:

  • Anamnesis of medication
  • Evaluation of the thyroid gland (TSH, T4 free)
  • CT, MRI of the pituitary and hypothalamus
  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs
  • Evaluation of the liver and kidneys (biochemical blood test, ultrasound)
  • Hormonal profile (FSH, androgens, estradiol)

Any changes in a woman’s hormonal profile are indications for further examination. If there are only deviations in the numbers on the form, and the symptoms are completely absent, then treatment is most likely not required.

What is the hormone prolactin responsible for?

This substance produced in the body is referred to as biologically active, neurotransmitters, which transmit electrical impulses from the nerve cell. Prolactin, what it is: a hormone, together with insulin and cortisol, is responsible for the growth of the mammary gland in the period of childbearing and feeding, the production of milk. It refers to lactogenic hormones.

A woman breastfeeds, prolactin continues to stand out in large quantities, and lengthens the luteal phase of the natural cycle, prolonging the life of the corpus luteum of the ovaries. Ovulation is inhibited, new conception does not occur, menstruation is prevented. This is a natural "contraceptive" mechanism that reduces the likelihood of pregnancy during breastfeeding.

If a girl, a woman constantly elevated prolactin, the possible consequences are as follows:

  • the menstrual cycle is disturbed
  • mammary glands grow, up to macrostasis, develop cysts and adenomas,
  • infertility threatens,
  • frigidity and anorgasmia are observed.

When the hormone prolactin is excessive in a man:

  • decreases testosterone levels,
  • sperm maturation is inhibited,
  • possible impotence
  • mammary glands increase.

In what cases prescribe analysis

Blood tests for the hormone prolactin are prescribed by specialists:

  • therapist,
  • endocrinologist,
  • gynecologist (women)
  • andrologist (men).

Symptoms in which women donate blood donate:

  • breast began to grow sharply
  • the menstrual cycle is broken,
  • colostrum is released for no reason,
  • Can't get pregnant.

The level of the hormone prolactin is checked and if a pituitary adenoma is detected on MRI, in order to exclude hormonal activity from the tumor. Men receive a referral for analysis, complaining of the extinction of sexual desire (up to impotence), infertility. Signs of high hormone levels independent of gender:

  • body weight increases
  • appeared multiple caries,
  • head often hurts
  • eyesight got worse
  • mood is suppressed.

Prolactin levels

The unit of the hormone is nanogram per milliliter (ng / ml). Some laboratories prefer µMU / ml; this is a micro international unit per milliliter. To calculate how many nanograms in an international unit, the value in µMU / ml is divided by 30.3. The body contains three forms of the hormone prolactin:

  • monomeric, predominant, its blood is about 80%,
  • dimeric - 5-20%,
  • tetramer - 0.5-5%.

When the level of the hormone is elevated, additional research may be needed for macroprolactin. This substance is eliminated from the body more slowly than monomeric prolactin, sometimes accumulating in high concentrations, which is reflected in the results of the analysis. The norm of prolactin in the blood of women has several meanings, depending on which day of the cycle to take. For each of the phases there is a valid value:

  • for follicular: 4.5–33 ng / ml,
  • for ovulatory: 6.3–49 ng / ml,
  • for luteal: 4,9–40 ng / ml.

During the period of childbirth, the level of the hormone prolactin changes in each trimester:

  • I - 3.2–43.0 ng / ml,
  • II - 13.0–166.0 ng / ml,
  • III - 13.0–318.0 ng / ml.

The level of prolactin is significantly increased from the eighth week of the term, reaching the highest concentration by the 25th week. This is an important condition for the development of the baby's lungs.Before childbirth, the level decreases, and the next time it will increase at the start of feeding. Male norms of prolactin are less than female ones; a healthy organism is supposed to have a hormone concentration of 2.5–17 ng / ml.

Prolactin: the norm in women

The rate of prolactin contained in the blood of women is labile and unstable. During the day, there are constant changes in accordance with biological rhythms. Under the influence of any stimuli, the amount of prolactin can change significantly in just 1.5-2 hours. The impetus for an increase in the level of the hormone is often sex, mechanical irritation of the nipples, excessive exercise and emotional stress. Sometimes the reaction occurs under the influence of certain foods and medications taken. The maximum value of the level of prolactin often reaches between one in the morning and five in the morning.

The amount of the hormone begins to increase noticeably at the onset of the second, luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, starting at the onset of ovulation. In addition, an increase in prolactin may occur in the 3rd month of pregnancy, when the female body is rebuilt and undergoes active preparation for breastfeeding. Under the influence of the hormone, the mass of glandular tissue in the breast increases and becomes capable of first producing colostrum, and then breast milk.

While breastfeeding, prolactin begins to work in conjunction with oxytocin. This hormone provides a reduction in the smooth muscles of the ducts of the mammary glands, thereby helping to push the milk out and facilitating the sucking of the newborn. Elevated prolactin during feeding is a physiological norm, which is of great importance for the maintenance of lactational amenorrhea. Therefore, menstruation during this period are absent. In addition, hormone functions are directly related to the frequency of feedings and the duration of pauses between them.

With an increase in the intervals between feedings for a period exceeding 4 hours, the content of prolactin in the blood becomes variable. There is a decrease in the ability of the hormone to suppress ovulation. With unprotected intercourse, a new unplanned pregnancy may occur.

The concentration of prolactin in the blood is measured in ng / ml. Her rate is set for each category of women:

  • Non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding: 4-22.8 ng / ml.
  • In pregnant women, with a gestation period of more than 8 weeks: 35-385 ng / ml.

The level of prolactin can be altered by the action of inflammatory processes affecting the genitals, liver or kidneys. In some cases, the cause may be pituitary adenoma.

Hormone prolactin increased

The increase in prolactin is not in all cases associated with any pathology. These can be physiological causes in the form of pregnancy and feeding, or reflex, affecting the reproductive sphere. In these cases, the intrauterine device, endometriosis and various inflammations are irritating. Despite the fact that the main source of the hormone is the pituitary gland, the production of prolactin in small quantities is produced by the placenta, endometrium and ovaries. The presence of irritating factors leads to activation and subsequent increase in its level.

Modern international standards establish the upper regulatory limit of prolactin in the range of 500 to 600 microunits of the hormone per 1 liter of blood. A slight increase in its level is not cause for concern. However, a significant increase suggests that there is a prolactinoma of the pituitary gland, which is a benign tumor. It is formed from cells of this organ involved in the production of prolactin.

The physiological factors of increased hormone levels include pregnancy and breastfeeding, stress, sex, irritation of the nipples of the mammary glands, protein and protein intake. The amount of prolactin produced depends on the intake of certain types of drugs. Particularly influenced by oral contraceptives with high estrogen levels, antidepressants, pressure lowering drugs, narcotic drugs and psychotropic drugs. All medications taken must be reported to the attending physician.

The level of prolactin can increase under the influence of diseases such as impaired thyroid gland, pituitary tumor, inflammation and other diseases of the ovaries, as well as impaired hormonal levels.

When to donate blood for prolactin

It is recommended to take blood tests for prolactin before the fifth day from the moment when the next menstruation began. That is, the correct time must coincide with the first phase of the cycle. The reason for the delivery of blood hormones are various endocrine disorders that affect the reproductive system.

If prolactin is given separately from other sex hormones, then studies can be conducted on any day of the cycle. The time of testing is determined by the doctor individually, based on the specific clinical situation. When the menstrual cycle is disturbed, it is impossible to determine the specific day of blood tests, therefore research is allowed, not taking into account the real phase of the cycle.

When examining a patient with an identified endocrine form of infertility, it is recommended to use the second or third day of the cycle for analysis. A dynamic study of prolactin is repeated, repeated over several days, in order to obtain the most accurate result.

If drugs became the cause of hyperprolactinemia, their withdrawal contributes to the rapid restoration of normal levels of prolactin. Drugs can be replaced by analogues. With physiological pathology, special treatment is not required.

In the presence of a pituitary tumor, therapeutic measures are taken in different directions:

  • Drug therapy is considered the primary treatment. For this purpose, dopaminomimetic agents are used to reduce the level of prolactin, which reduce the size of the tumor, leading to its gradual complete disappearance. Basically, therapy is carried out using bromkriptina, cabergoline, quinagolide. The most effective is cabergoline, which has a minimal amount of side effects. If hypothyroidism is detected, the use of thyroid hormones is recommended.
  • Surgical intervention has a rather narrow range of indications. The reason is the low impact effectiveness, frequent recurrences of the pathology, the possibility of complications. Surgical treatment is carried out in the case of resistance to the means of drug therapy, with an increase in neurological symptoms, and in case of detection of apoplexy. Complications of such treatment are manifested in the form of hemorrhage in the brain, damage to the legs of the hypothalamus and pituitary, disorders of the optic nerves.
  • In cases where the hormone prolactin cannot be normalized by conventional methods, radiation therapy is performed. The positive effect is achieved by long-term treatment, which lasts from 1 year to 1.5 years.

Forms of prolactin

The hormone has several molecular forms circulating in the plasma:

  1. Monomeric prolactin is predominant in quantity and biologically active, up to 80-85% of the total.
  2. "Big" - moderately active, about 10-15%.
  3. “Very large” - low activity, less than 5%.

The growth of the 2nd and 3rd forms of prolactin may signal the presence of a tumor. Normally, these forms have a low concentration in the blood.

Note: The hormonal level varies greatly during the day. The highest indicators are at night and immediately after waking up. Enters the blood is not constant, but in portions.

Prolactin production

It is synthesized in the pituitary gland. It is regulated by dopamine secreted by the hypothalamus and inhibiting its production. Known also stimulating its secretion of the hypothalamic-pituitary mechanisms. These include, in particular, serotonin.

Estrogen also stimulates its production, activating the growth of lactotropic cells.

In pregnancy, progesterone is responsible for regulating prolactin levels. And when breastfeeding it helps to increase the nipple mechanoreceptors.

He is called the “hormone of maternity” for its role in breastfeeding and the tender feelings that form in mother to baby.

What is responsible for prolactin in women:

  • obstacle to ovulation
  • milk formation
  • adjusts the lungs of the newborn for the first breath,
  • is an immunostimulant
  • the structure of the nervous and visual systems of the fetus,
  • pain relief during childbirth,
  • the reaction of orgasm in women
  • the formation of the mammary glands at puberty,
  • electrolyte exchange control,
  • the formation of maternal instinct.

In men, with an increase in prolactin, estrogen also rises. In this case, testosterone drops.

The diagram shows the increase and decrease the secretion of hormone factors. Normally, they all work harmoniously, but in pathology, some influences predominate over others. This principle is used in the treatment of hyper- or hypoprolactinemia.

Diagnosis of various diseases

Blood prolactin levels are important diagnostic tests. For example, when making diagnoses:

  • hyperprolactinemia,
  • hypogonadism,
  • erectile disfunction,
  • epilepsy,
  • infertility,
  • diseases of the hypothalamus and pituitary,
  • hypothyroidism.

When prolactin is not normal

States when prolactin is elevated occur in hyperprolactinemia, infertility, obesity, polycystic ovary, and other conditions. It should be noted that it is increasing and without visible manifestations of any disease. These may be physiological causes.

Some drugs, such as serotonergic antidepressants, cause iatrogenic hyperprolactinemia because serotonin stimulates prolactin synthesis. Patients are concerned with galactorrhea, gynecomastia, menstrual disorders, decreased libido, orgasm disturbances, osteoporosis, acne and hirsutism in women.

With hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism can begin. This is an increase in the production of male hormones in women, visceral fat gain. Unwanted hairs on the face and chest.

Modern medicine gives the cause of 5% of cases of obesity hormonal problems.

Important. When the body mass index is more than 30%, diet and exercise do not help, prescribing medications that reduce the amount of prolactin. It inhibits estradiol, which controls metabolism.

With age, the metabolism slows down, weight is increasingly difficult to control, despite physical exertion and diet. It is not yet known why, with its elevated level, some people experience menstrual failures, while others do not, why some people lose weight while others are becoming stout. But if with obesity increased prolactin - it must be reduced. It causes an increased appetite in a nursing mother, because she needs to eat for herself and for the child. But if a woman does not breastfeed, it affects weight. The effects of obesity are very serious: cancer, heart disease, joints, etc.

Infertility is often reversible, one has only to begin treatment. Both elevated and reduced levels make conception impossible. Systematic treatment will lead to a positive result.

Often, couples who are screened for not being able to become pregnant are shown to increase this hormone. Women do not ovulate, and men find oligospermia. After a course of treatment for hyperprolactinemia, the couple will be able to safely conceive and give birth to a healthy baby. Drugs that reduce the amount of the hormone are harmless to the fetus.

Important. Decreased levels of this hormone can also cause infertility. After all, it stimulates the production of testosterone and activates the formation of male germ cells. And women with hypoprolactinemia may have early spontaneous abortions or ovarian dysfunction.

If a pituitary adenoma is detected, treatment is necessary. May have to resort to the help of surgeons. The reasons for hypoprolactinemia can be strict low-calorie diets, smoking, alcohol.

Note. Prolactin during breastfeeding inhibits follicle maturation and the release of an egg from it. If the mother feeds the child so often that ovulation does not occur - this is lactational amenorrhea. This condition protects the mother from new pregnancy.

Athletes resort to receiving special sports products for good shape. Unfortunately, they have a side effect. From 30 to 50% of athletes have gynecomastia. These are enlarged mammary glands in men, which are normally in their infancy.

When taking steroids with progestogenic properties, prolactin increases, reducing libido and potency. A large amount of it causes apathy, nervousness, depression and gynecomastia.

The known sugar substitute for aspartame during digestion breaks down into aspartate and phenylalanine. Aspartate directly affects the increase in prolactin. Vitamin B6, on the contrary, reduces the hormone levels in the blood. Athletes after hard training, his increase was completely canceled after 600 mg of vitamin and reached the norm.

Products that stimulate the synthesis of prolactin:

  • dairy products (the most useful cheese durum),
  • lean meat, fish, nuts,
  • fresh vegetables and fruits,
  • porridge.

When to see a doctor

Both hyperproduction and hormone hypoproducts are a symptom of serious diseases. This suggests a hormonal imbalance. It is possible to restore it after passing the appropriate treatment.

There are certain conditions when you can suspect a broken hormone level. These include:

  1. Failed monthly cycle.
  2. Weight gain.
  3. Difficulty with erection.
  4. The disappearance of natural moisture in the vagina.
  5. Difficulties with orgasm.
  6. Persistent headache.
  7. Visual impairment.
  8. Breast enlargement in men.
  9. Unwanted hairs on the face of women.

It is known that this hormone directly affects the organs. Research is underway to establish the link between prolactin and immunity. Medicine still does not know everything about this wonderful hormone. But what has already been discovered is greatly helpful in understanding the causes of infertility, the pathologies of the pituitary and the formation in the pubertal period.

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