Health

Disruption of the menstrual cycle: how to find and eliminate the cause

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The basis of women's health is a regular monthly cycle. There are times when he gets off. The causes of this phenomenon are varied. We will consider them further. Although the best with problems with the cycle immediately contact a qualified gynecologist. After all, self-medication can only harm their health.

What is the monthly cycle? This is the period from the onset of menstruation to the next. The process of leaving an ovum ready for fertilization into the fallopian tube is called ovulation. It divides the monthly cycle into the follicular and luteal phase. And what is it? The follicular phase is the period when the follicle matures. By luteal is meant the period from ovulation to the onset of menstruation.

For those girls whose cycle lasts 28 days, ovulation usually occurs on the fourteenth day from the beginning. After that, a woman’s estrogen level drops. But during this period the bleeding is not yet occurring. As hormone production is controlled by the corpus luteum. Strong fluctuations of estrogen in any direction during ovulation can cause uterine bleeding between menstruation, before, or after.

Cycle calculation

Normally, the cycle duration is 21-37 days. As a rule, most girls have 28 days. The duration of the menstruation itself is approximately three to seven days. If you have a two-day or three-day failure of menstruation, treatment is not required here. Since such a phenomenon is not a pathology. But if the menstruation has not come and seven days after the required period, then you need to consult a doctor for a consultation.

How to calculate the cycle? The time period between the first day of the month and the first day of the next is the duration of the cycle. In order not to be mistaken in the calculations, it is better to use the calendar on which to mark the beginning and end of menstruation.

Failure symptoms

Let's now look at signs of monthly failure:

  • lack of menstruation,
  • shortening the cycle (less than twenty days),
  • the increase in time between menstruation,
  • the appearance of bleeding,
  • abundant or, conversely, scanty periods.

Another symptom of failure is the duration of menstruation for more than seven days or less than three.

Adolescence and weight problems

Why did the monthly delay or cycle failure occur? The reasons may be many. In adolescence, the cycle often fails. This problem is quite common in girls. Since their hormones are just beginning to be established. If after the first menstruation more than two years have passed, and failures continue, then you should definitely go to the gynecologist.

Another reason for the failure of menstruation is a strong weight loss (or, conversely, obesity). Fasting and extreme diet the body perceives as something that hard times have come. Therefore, it includes natural protection, as a result of which the menstruation is delayed. Rapid weight gain also has a negative effect on the body. As a result, the cycle may be broken.

Hormonal disbalance

Delay of menstruation (the symptoms of this phenomenon are known to every girl) is one of the main signs of problems with hormonal background. This can be caused by problems in the pituitary gland as well as the hypothalamus. In this case, it is worth referring to an endocrinologist, he will conduct an examination, prescribe the necessary examinations, the results of which will diagnose.

A common cause of monthly failure is stress. It often leads to a cycle violation. During stress, excessive amounts of prolactin are produced. An excess of it inhibits ovulation, as a result there is a delay. In this case, doctors recommend to get enough sleep, to spend more time in the fresh air. A gynecologist may prescribe a sedative medication when menstruation fails due to stress. It can be as valerian, and tablets "Cyclodinone" and others.

Diseases and hormonal contraceptives

Diseases of the female organs also lead to the fact that menstruation fails. Often the cause of this is the pathology of the cervix, inflammation of the uterus itself, or appendages. Another reason for the failure of menstruation is cysts and polyps. All such problems are treated surgically.

Acceptance of hormonal contraceptives or the rejection of them lead to a failure of the monthly cycle. In this matter you should consult a doctor. You may have to take a break in taking oral contraceptives.

Pregnancy, lactation

Failure of menstruation after childbirth is also quite a frequent occurrence. A similar problem after the appearance of the baby and during breastfeeding is the norm. When lactation stops, the cycle should recover.

If there is severe pain, immediately consult a doctor. Since the cause of this phenomenon can be an ectopic pregnancy. If it is not determined in time, it can be fatal due to painful shock and large blood loss due to rupture of the fallopian tubes.

Other reasons

Why is the delay of menstruation? Also, the cause of this phenomenon can be adrenal gland diseases, thyroid gland or infectious diseases. In addition, bad habits (use of drugs, alcohol, smoking), medication, vitamin deficiencies and vaginal injuries lead to cycle failure.

When to go to the doctor?

In no case should one postpone a visit to a specialist if:

  • two years have passed since the beginning of menstruation, but the cycle has not yet been established,
  • there are pains during ovulation. This symptom most likely indicates ovarian rupture,
  • there is abundant discharge of blood. Normally, for the period of menstruation, the girl loses no more than 250 ml of blood. If more, then this is a sign of hormonal imbalance. It should be treated with drug therapy,
  • there are regular violations of the cycle (its duration is less than three days, or, conversely, more than seven days),
  • there are spotting before and after menstruation. A similar symptom indicates endometriosis.

Diagnostics

How is the diagnosis of the patient, who has a broken menstrual cycle? First, a survey and gynecological examination, in which all the smears are taken. Also, the patient, if the diagnosis is not made, you need to undergo an ultrasound of the pelvic organs and MRI. In addition, blood for hormones is donated. To clarify the diagnosis, the patient is prescribed hysteroscopy, as well as a blood and urine test.

Thanks to all the methods mentioned, it is possible to determine the reason for which the cycle was lost. After the diagnosis, appropriate therapy is prescribed.

First of all, the disease is treated, which led to the failure of the monthly cycle. As a preventive measure, doctors usually recommend patients:

  • eat right,
  • eat three to four times a week food that is rich in iron and protein,
  • sleep at least eight hours a day,
  • stop smoking and other bad habits
  • take vitamins.

When teenage girls fail with a cycle, doctors often use vitamin therapy. The patient is prescribed ascorbic and folic acid.

With anemia, women are given iron supplements.

If, in addition to the fact that the girl’s cycle is broken, she was diagnosed with “infertility”, then to stimulate the development of the follicles, such drugs as Pergonal and Horiogonin are prescribed.

When a patient has severe bleeding, but blood clotting disorders are excluded, doctors may prescribe hemostatic drugs. Ε-aminocaproic acid is also prescribed.

Even with heavy bleeding is plasma infusion. Sometimes even practiced the infusion of donor blood.

An extreme method for severe bleeding is surgery.

Also prescribed hormones and antibiotics.

Failed monthly cycle. Possible complications

Remember that only your health depends on you! Therefore, it is not necessary to treat lightly the fact that violations of the monthly cycle occur. Since such problems can lead to infertility. Frequent intermenstrual bleeding causes disability and fatigue.

Late detection of pathology, which caused the failure of menstruation, can lead to very serious problems and death. Although this could have been avoided, if on time I turned to the doctor. Treatment should be carried out under the supervision of a qualified doctor.

Why is it important that the monthly cycle is stable?

In a healthy woman of childbearing age, menstruation should be regular. The duration of the menstrual cycle (from the beginning of the previous menstruation to the first day of the next menstrual period) should be approximately 28 - 35 days.

Why is menstruation occurring? Every month in the body of a healthy woman matures egg. If fertilization has not happened, the egg cell comes out.

The regular cycle of menstruation is the main indicator of the normal functioning of the body's reproductive function. In other words, a woman whose menstrual cycle is constant is able to conceive and bear a child.

Menstruation is a necessary process for the normal functioning of the female body. However, there are many reasons that can disrupt the woman's menstrual cycle and cause changes in the nature of menstruation. Let's take a closer look at why such violations can occur.

Causes that can cause failure in the cycle of menstruation and the main clinical forms of violations

Violation of the menstrual cycle, as a rule, is a consequence of any pathology or occurs as a result of the influence of adverse factors on fertility.

There are three main types of causes provoking failure of the menstrual cycle:

  • pathological (violation of the cycle due to the presence of disease),
  • physiological (stress, diet, climate change, etc.),
  • medication (violation of the cycle caused by the admission or cancellation of any drugs).

Pathologies that can cause menstrual disorders:

  1. One of the main and most common causes of menstrual disorders in women is ovarian pathology.
  2. Malfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
  3. Pathology in the adrenal glands.
  4. Endometrial polyps.
  5. Endometriosis.
  6. Uterus diseases.
  7. Oncological diseases.
  8. Damage to the uterus as a result of curettage or abortion.
  9. Liver disease.
  10. Disorders in the blood-clotting system.
  11. States after operations on the organs of the female reproductive system.
  12. Genetic causes.

As mentioned above, one of the types of reasons that can affect the regularity of monthly, are external factors. This work in hazardous industries, and change of residence, and strong emotional turmoil, drinking and smoking, unbalanced diet, sudden weight loss.

In addition, irregular periods are observed in women undergoing drug therapy with hormone therapy, antidepressants, anticoagulants, and others. That is why the appointment of medicines and monitoring the patient during the treatment should be carried out only by a doctor.

The main clinical forms of violation of the cycle of menstruation are:

1. Cyclic monthly changes:

  • hypermenorrhea - an increase in the volume of menstrual flow during the normal duration of menstruation,
  • hypomenorrhea - scanty menstruation,
  • polymenorrhea - normal in terms of the volume of discharge monthly lasting more than a week,
  • menorrhagia - a significant increase in menstrual flow, the duration of menstruation for more than 12 days,
  • oligomenorrhea - short menstruation (1-2 days),
  • Oppensenorrhea - rare periods, the interval between which can reach 3 months,
  • Proiomenorrhea - menstruation cycle less than 21 days.


2. Amenorrhea - the absence of menstruation for more than 3 months.

3. Metrorrhagia (uterine bleeding):

  • arising in the middle of the cycle (anovulatory),
  • dysfunctional (independent of the ovulation process).

4. Painful menstruation (algomenorrhea).

Diagnosing

In order to regulate the menstrual cycle and restore it, it is first necessary to understand what caused the violations. To do this, you must undergo a comprehensive examination, the results of which the specialist will be able to choose the necessary treatment.

Diagnosis includes several steps:

  1. History taking - you need to tell the doctor about all diseases, the number of births and abortions, drugs taken, external factors that could affect the constancy of menstruation.
  2. Gynecological examination and delivery of smears.
  3. Ultrasound.
  4. Blood tests, including the determination of hormones.
  5. Additional studies prescribed by a doctor.

How to cope with violation of the cycle of menstruation

After the diagnosis, the doctor decides on the need for a particular method of therapy, it can be both conservative drug treatment, and the elimination of the causes of a violation cycle through surgical intervention. Often these two methods are combined in the course of treatment.

To normalize the cycle of menstruation, it is necessary to eliminate the cause that caused the cycle to fail, so anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal contraceptives, and hemostatic drugs can be prescribed.

Restoration of the menstrual cycle after childbirth

Separately, I would like to talk about the restoration of the cycle of menstruation in women in the postpartum period. Consider that the monthly resumed, it is only after the onset of the first menstruation. But even here you should not hope that the cycle will immediately become regular.

Alterations that occurred in the female body due to pregnancy and childbirth, including hormonal, can affect the stability, nature, pain of menstruation. Irregular monthly allowable during the first 2-3 months from the start of their renewal.

Worry is worth women, month who do not come 2 months after birth, provided that the child is on artificial feeding. If your baby is on a mixed diet, then your period may be absent up to six months. Young moms who breastfeed their baby may not wait for menstruation throughout the first year.

To restore the menstrual cycle takes time. Often, failures in the menstrual cycle occur precisely because of the influence of external factors: try to avoid conflicts, stress, emotional experiences, eat right and fully relax in the postpartum period.

If the period after childbirth has become more abundant or scarce, long and short-term, more painful, you should immediately consult a gynecologist for advice.

Particular attention should be paid to the process of menstruation recovery for women who gave birth by caesarean section. To avoid complications or identify them at the very beginning, you must constantly visit a gynecologist. Read more about when menstruation should be restored after cesarean section →

In conclusion, I would like to emphasize that the identification of pathologies that caused the violation of the menstrual cycle in the early stages significantly increases the chance of getting rid of them. Do not self-medicate - it can only aggravate the situation. Appointment of medication should be carried out only by a doctor, taking into account the diagnosis and history of the patient.

In order to minimize the possibility of menstrual dysfunction, it is necessary to carefully monitor your health, eat right, eliminate excessive physical exertion, and be sure to regularly visit a gynecologist.

The health of every woman is in her hands. Take care of yourself and be healthy!

Types of menstrual disorders

Many women cycle failure is perceived as a banal delay of menstruation. In fact, this is far from the case.

Violations of the menstrual function are considered in a comprehensive manner, taking into account the duration, intensity, regularity and the presence of associated symptoms. Based on this, certain types of failures are distinguished.

In gynecological practice, the following classification of menstrual disorders is used:

  1. Amenorrhea in women - the absence of menstruation for more than six months.
  2. Metrorrhagia - frequent and prolonged menstruation. The interval between them is irregular.
  3. Proomenorrhea - the interval between menstruation is less than 21 days.
  4. Algomenorrhea - critical days are accompanied by severe pain and a general deterioration of the condition.
  5. Oligomenorrhea - the interval from one month to the other for more than 38 days. The nature of the discharge is scarce.
  6. Menorrhagia - there are no failures, but blood loss is more than 250 ml per menstruation.
  7. Dysmenorrhea - menstruation may appear sooner or later.

Main symptoms

Violations of the menstrual function may have different symptoms. There are several signs of failure:

  • unstable cycle, changing every month. There may be a delay of the next menstruation, despite the fact that the previous one was earlier than expected,
  • short periods of menstruation. Monthly periods of critical days are only 1-2 days,
  • violation of the menstrual cycle (excessively short or long),
  • обильные или скудные выделения,
  • изменение менструального цикла и отсутствие выделений длительный период,
  • продолжительность месячных более 7 дней,
  • excessive pain

Any symptoms that indicate a violation of cyclicity, should not be ignored. Unstable, scanty, heavy or painful menstruation is a reason for a visit to the gynecologist.

Such changes may indicate serious health problems. In the absence of proper treatment, they can lead to undesirable complications. Infertility is among the most dangerous.

Why the cycle of menstruation

Reproductive failure is possible for various reasons, which are divided into the following groups:

  • functional - caused by exposure to external factors,
  • organic - a consequence of the development of a number of pathologies,
  • Iatrogenic - the result of taking medication or therapeutic, operational activities.

Functional reasons

An explanation of why the cycle of menstruation has gone astray may be external factors. Under their influence, malfunction of the ovaries and changes in the level of hormones are possible, and as a result, menstrual dysfunction.

In the same period, there is a change in the activity of the pituitary gland, also provoking the failure of the cycle of menstruation.

The causes of impaired reproductive function in this case are due to etiological factors affecting the cerebral cortex. The intensity, duration of discharge and the interval between them may vary. To solve the problem, it is enough to eliminate the influence of an external factor.

Finding out why the menstrual cycle fails, you need to consider a few things. Similar changes occur on the background of a sharp climate change and stressful situations. Failure of the cycle of menstruation is possible with a strict diet and excessive physical or mental fatigue. A negative impact on the reproductive function of smoking and alcohol consumption.

In addition, a violation of the cycle with previously normal periods is possible for women working in hazardous industries.

Organic causes

If a woman has lost the cycle, the reasons may lie in various ailments. The most common of these is the pathology of the ovaries. This may be a cancer or a violation of the relationship between the organ and the pituitary gland.

Violations of the menstrual cycle are often caused by excessively active or insufficient production of gonadotropic hormones. The causes are also brain or pituitary tumors and necrosis.

The development of endometriosis also leads to the fact that the menstruation schedule gets off. Such changes are due to hormonal imbalance. Diseases of the liver, gallbladder and endocrine system diseases affect the reproductive function.

Sometimes the cause of failure of menstruation are disorders in the development of the uterus, polyps on the mucous membranes and cancers. Such changes are possible with problems with blood clotting and genetic pathologies.

Failure of the menstrual cycle can cause genital infections that have a negative effect on the ovaries. Even infectious diseases that were transferred in early childhood can provoke a violation of menstruation.

Endometritis, chromosomal abnormalities, hypertension, hypovitaminosis and vitamin deficiency affect the cycle duration.

In any case, if the cycle is lost, you need to conduct a full survey. Only in this way will it be possible to identify the cause of the occurrence of violations and eliminate it.

Iatrogenic

Causes of menstruation failure may be associated with hormone or antibiotic drugs. As a rule, after they are canceled, reproductive function is quickly restored.

Any surgical intervention, curettage or abortive measures leads to the fact that the integrity of the layers of the uterus is broken. For this reason, women note that after such procedures they have lost their menstrual cycle. In most cases, it can be restored in a natural way, without medical assistance, but sometimes it is still impossible to do without medication therapy. therefore if you have any problems you need to consult with a gynecologist.

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Why are there problems with the cycle of menstruation? Various causes of deviations

Menstrual cycle women - a rather complicated mechanism. If everything in the body is good, then it works like a clock. But failures happen very often, and are one of the most common problems in gynecology.

In order not to have problems with reproductive function, a woman should constantly monitor the regularity of the cycle, noticing all deviations from what is normal.

It is important to remember that cycle failure always has some reason. At the same time, in itself, it is not a disease. This is only a sign of certain problems in the body.

Causes of cycle failure

There are a lot of reasons that lead to an imbalance of the menstrual cycle. In addition to adolescence, age over 40 years and taking contraceptive drugs, which will be discussed below, it is worth to highlight such common causes:

  • Sharp gain or weight loss. If a woman in an attempt to lose weight often resorts to starvation diets, she may not be surprised at the failure of the cycle. Malnutrition is perceived by the body as being unsuitable for pregnancy, and he does everything so that it does not come, knocking down the cycle. Not the best way is also reflected in the menstrual cycle fast and strong weight gain.
  • Acclimatization. If you recently moved or went to rest in a country with a completely different climate, the cycle may be lost. The fact is that climate change is stressful for the body, and it can react to a cycle failure. It usually recovers after the body adapts to new conditions.
  • Very often too active cause a failure of the menstrual cycle. exercise and stress. With the latter, the body produces too much prolactin - a hormone that can delay menstruation. To restore the cycle, in this case you just need to calm down, try to get enough sleep and relax in the fresh air.
  • Hormonal disorders in the body. The production of certain hormones may be confused due to diseases of the hypothalamus and pituitary. In this case, you need to consult an endocrinologist, who will prescribe the necessary measures of treatment.
  • Female diseases reproductive system. Note that failure of the menstrual cycle can be a consequence of fairly serious problems, such as inflammation of the uterus, cysts, polyps, cervical pathology. Most of these problems need to be treated surgically.
  • Abortion, both forced and spontaneous, has a negative effect on the condition of the uterus. They can provoke delayed menstruation, and sometimes infertility.

Also note that a lost cycle can be a symptom of adrenal, thyroid, infectious diseases. The effect may be a shortage of certain substances in the body, transferred vaginal injuries, as well as bad habits.

Сбой цикла месячных у подростков

Сбой цикла у девушек подростков также может иметь разные причины.

Если месячные только недавно начались, и идут нерегулярно, то, возможно, цикл еще просто не успел нормально установиться. Но причины могут быть и другими.

Даже самая простая черепно-мозговая травма и грипп, протекающий тяжело, могут привести к сбою цикла. Tonsillitis and tonsil inflammation also lead to serious malfunctions.

One of the common causes of cycle failure, and even the complete lack of menstruation - is illiterate and too active weight loss.

If a girl whose body develops sheds 15% of her weight, this can cause a loss of her period, as well as a decrease in the size of the uterus and ovaries.

The cycle may break due to early and erratic sexual intercourse, bad habits, which are especially harmful for a growing organism, and also due to certain problems in the development of the reproductive system.

In adolescent girls, cycle disorder can lead to uterine bleeding when menstruation is too long and abundant.

These bleedings, called juveniles, can be triggered by severe nervous tension or infectious processes in the body.

Failure of the menstrual cycle after 40 years

One of the main causes of the strayed menstrual cycle in women older than forty - approaching menopause. Before menopause occurs, menstruation often becomes more rare, irregular, and in between them there is a possibility of heavy bleeding.

Also, the reasons may be all the same diets, which are often sinned and women aged, stress, emotional disorders. At this age also, it is not necessary to exclude the risk a number of diseases, because of which the menstrual cycle can get off.

Cycle failure after pills

These medications used by a woman can lead to a cycle failure. Basically in this case it is worth talking about hormonal birth control pills, which can affect the hormones of women, and accordingly the menstrual cycle.

When a woman stops drinking contraceptives, there is a restructuring in the body.

If the cycle is lost, then it may take a month or a year to restore it.

It should be remembered that even in case of failure of menstruation after the cancellation of contraceptives, the probability of becoming pregnant remains.

Also, sometimes a hormonal failure occurs in a woman who is just starting drink contraceptives. The body just needs time to get used to it.

In any case, if something is bothering you, consult with the specialist who prescribed your pills. It is worth paying attention to additional symptoms. It is not always the case in the pills that you use. Perhaps something more serious led to the failure of the cycle in your case.

To lack of menstruation can lead progestin drugs as well as progestin injections. The latter are often prescribed in cases where artificial menopause is needed.

The most important thing to start a cycle recovery therapy with is establish the cause. If it is not obvious, numerous tests may be required to help the specialist clarify the situation. Whatever it was, do not do without the intervention of a professional.

Sometimes it is enough to correct the lifestyle and diet, and the cycle is restored by itself. In other cases, the doctor may prescribe these or other medicines.

In especially difficult situations, when one or other problems of the female reproductive system lead to a failure of the cycle, it may be necessary and surgical intervention.

If the production of thyroid hormones is disturbed, the woman is sent to an endocrinologist, who will refer to an ultrasound scan of the thyroid gland and select the appropriate course of hormones.

Inflammatory diseases of the uterus and ovaries are treated with antibiotics in the hospital.

Benign tumors (fibroids and polyps) are surgically removed, preserving the reproductive function of women.

There are many popular ways that supposedly should cause menstruation in their absence.

They are far from always justified, especially if the failure was provoked by serious pathologies of the body. Not worth the risk and engage in amateur.

Consult a doctorand follow all of its guidelines.

Experience in the clinical diagnostic service 14 years.

Disruption of the menstrual cycle: is it possible to conceive?

Menstrual cycle (lat. Menstrualis monthly, monthly) - cyclical changes in the organs of the reproductive system of women, the main manifestation of which is the monthly bleeding from the genital tract - menstruation.

These processes are controlled by hormones produced in the brain and ovaries.

Changes associated with the development of the egg, not only affect the reproductive system, but also occur in many internal organs, since their purpose is to prepare the whole body for pregnancy.

The cycle begins on the first day of menstruation, and ends on the last day before the next menstruation. The normal cycle duration is on average from 21 to 35 days.

Most often, the correct cycle is established during the year from the first menstruation at the age of 12 to 14 years, less often menstruation becomes regular after the first pregnancy.

Normally, for the same woman, the cycle time can vary within 3-5 days, since many factors influence ovulation (stress, viral diseases, change in the day regimen, moving, change of climate and time zone).

If the duration of the menstrual cycle varies from time to time within large limits, there are abundant, painful or scanty menstruation, this indicates a violation of the menstrual cycle. This is a symptom of most gynecological and many common diseases in women and one of the most frequent reasons for which they refer to an obstetrician-gynecologist.

Menstrual cycle: what is considered normal?

The menstrual cycle is divided into 2 phases, which are characterized by the predominance of different hormones.

The first phase (follicular) begins on the first day of menstruation. The pituitary gland, which is located in the brain, produces FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), which is responsible for the maturation of the follicle in the ovary.

The body of a newly born girl contains about 2 million eggs. Their number is reduced to about 400 thousand to the beginning of puberty.

During each cycle, 20 or more eggs begin the process of maturation, but in the second week after the onset of menstruation, among them it is already possible to distinguish a “leader” - the dominant follicle, which contains a mature egg.

The walls of the follicle produce female hormones - estrogen, through which it increases and bursts in the middle of the menstrual cycle, releasing the egg. This is how ovulation occurs.

Under the influence of estrogen, the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium) is gradually restored after menstruation, and its growth occurs.

The second phase (luteal, or yellow body phase) begins from the moment of ovulation. In order for the follicle to break, LH (luteinizing hormone) is actively formed in the pituitary gland.

It also contributes to the formation in place of the bursting follicle of the so-called yellow body, which produces progesterone. This hormone causes increased blood circulation in the endometrium, preparing it for attachment (implantation) of a fertilized ovum.

Coming out of the ovary, the egg is "captured" by the fallopian tube and, thanks to its contractions, moves towards the uterus. The egg cell maintains its fertilization capacity on average 24 hours.

After fertilization, the ovum moves along the fallopian tube into the uterus, where on the 11–12th day after conception implantation occurs - the embryo attaches to the uterine mucosa.

If there was no conception, then 12–16 days after ovulation, there is a decrease in the number of LH and progesterone, which leads to the rejection of the endometrium “as unnecessary” - apparently this is manifested by menstruation. And the body enters a new cycle of preparation for conception.

How are menstrual irregularities manifested?

In order for this complex mechanism to work, a clear functioning of the hormonal system of the woman’s body is necessary. Under the influence of various factors, menstrual disorders sometimes occur.

Conventionally, all deviations of this kind can be divided into two large groups - those that flow with excessive bleeding and those in which the cycle is extended, and the volume of menstrual blood loss decreases.

  • Less than normal. If menstruation comes less often than every 35 days, then they talk about opsymenea (rare menstruation). If the menstruation is very short (1-2 days), then about oligomenorrhea, if it is very scarce (spotting), then about hypomenorrhea. If there is no monthly for 6 months or longer, they talk about amenorrhea. Violations associated with an increase in the duration of the cycle, most often accompanied by the lack of ovulation - maturation and release of the egg, which naturally leads to the impossibility of fertilization and the occurrence of pregnancy.
  • More than normal. There is also a reverse situation when menstruation takes place too often (cycle less than 21 days). Such violations are often associated with the inferiority of the endometrium - the inner layer of the uterus, which leads to the impossibility of attaching the ovum to its wall and the preservation of the pregnancy. It happens that the monthly stretch for a very long time - more than 7 days (polymenorrhea) or become very abundant (hypermenorrhea). Violation are painful menstruation - algomenorrhea.

Causes of menstrual disorders

Break the menstrual cycle can for various reasons: there may be "guilty" and diseases of the female genital organs, and problems with the body as a whole:

  • Diseases of the uterus, accompanied by frequent and irregular menstruation. In this case, normal development of the endometrium to which the fertilized fertilized egg is attached is impossible. These include chronic inflammatory diseases of the uterus (for example, endometritis), endometrial injuries after abortions and surgical interventions on the uterus, neoplasms in the uterus (for example, polyps). And endometriosis, in which endometrial cells (the inner layer of the uterus) grow beyond the limits of this layer, is the main cause of painful menstruation. In addition to endometrial dysfunction, this disease often leads to the occurrence of adhesions and obstruction of the fallopian tubes, which can cause infertility.
  • Diseases of the ovaries. In this case, the processes of maturation and release of the egg are violated in the ovary. This situation is observed when ovarian damage occurs during operations, polycystic ovaries (a disease in which the follicles in the ovary do not reach maturity), early menopause, cysts and ovarian tumors. In addition to the violation of ovulation, there may be a failure of the corpus luteum of the ovary (which is formed after the release of the ovum from the follicle) of the hormone progesterone. And this is the main pregnancy hormone that supports it, and when it is deficient, problems with conception often arise, and the pregnancy itself can be interrupted in the early stages.
  • Diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. The pituitary gland is the endocrine gland, which is located in the brain and produces many hormones that regulate the activity of all the endocrine glands of the body. In particular, it produces a hormone that stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovary (FSH), and a hormone that causes ovulation and supports the function of the corpus luteum (LH). If the production of these hormones is disturbed, then there will be no ovulation, and since there is no ripe egg, then conception is impossible - infertility develops. The absence of cyclic hormonal changes also violates the structure of the inner layer of the uterus - the endometrium, which prevents the attachment of the ovum to it. Also, the pituitary gland produces prolactin - a hormone that supports lactation after childbirth. If this hormone is abundant in women who are planning a pregnancy, then the menstrual cycle is also disturbed, and ovulation does not occur. This condition is characteristic of women with a benign enlargement of the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus (brain region) regulates the function of the pituitary gland in response to changes in the environment. For example, during long periods of severe stress, he rearranges the work of the pituitary gland in the "survival" mode. After all, the main task of the body in critical situations is to save your own life by turning off all minor functions, including the ability to reproduce.
  • Diseases of the thyroid gland. The hormones secreted by the thyroid gland are responsible for the normal functioning of all body systems, including reproductive. If the thyroid does not work very well, then this is also reflected in the menstrual cycle. With minor deviations, menstruation can continue to go, but ovulation does not occur, and therefore fertilization is impossible. Then the menstruation becomes scarce, rare, and sometimes stops altogether. In this case, the duration of menstruation is often increased.
  • Diseases of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are paired organs of internal secretion, located above the kidneys. They secrete more than 50 hormones, their work is controlled by the pituitary gland. One of the functions of the adrenal glands is the synthesis and processing of sex hormones, both female and male. If this function is impaired, then the woman can shift the balance in the direction of "male" hormones, adversely affecting the menstrual cycle and conception.
  • Liver disease. The liver destroys waste hormones. If it does not cope with its tasks, then hormones can accumulate in the body. Most often this leads to an excess of female estrogen hormones. As a result, the estrogen level rises, and menstruation becomes more frequent and more abundant.
  • Blood Coagulation Disorder can cause long-term bleeding and without disturbing the regularity of the cycle.
  • Overweight and underweight, as well as its rapid loss often cause irregular menstruation. This is due to the fact that adipose tissue is actively involved in the exchange of estrogen.

Treatment of menstrual disorders

Any violation of the menstrual cycle requires examination by a specialist.

The treatment in each individual case, individually, must be prescribed by the doctor after the examination, which includes a pelvic examination, pelvic ultrasound and a blood test for hormones.

Often the gynecologist needs the help of other specialists: an endocrinologist, a therapist, a hematologist. In most cases, menstrual irregularity is only a symptom of some underlying disease, so it will be important to eliminate this root cause.

Only then can you successfully restore the broken cycle. So, if the cause is a pathology of the uterus, then anti-inflammatory, hormonal or even surgical (curettage, hysteroscopy) treatment may be required.

If the reason lies in the violation of the hormonal background, then in order to bring it in order, hormonal drugs are prescribed. But sometimes for treatment it is enough to eliminate external causes, for example, to normalize weight, choosing the right diet, eliminate stress factors and excessive exercise.

Almost all violations of the menstrual cycle can be corrected, but the sooner treatment is started, the faster and easier it will be to pass.

Signs of monthly failure

  • If your menstrual cycle lasts less than 21 days (from the first day of your period to the next) or more than 33, this is a cause for concern. Although for someone such a deviation may be the norm - a lot depends on heredity. Only a doctor can help resolve doubts.
  • A sign of failure of menstruation may be the lack of a cycle as such. Mark the start days and the duration of the monthly in the calendar to see the pattern and understand how regular they are.
  • Abnormal duration of menstruation. Too abundant or long (more than 5 days) periods are considered a deviation from the norm and, moreover, bring a lot of inconvenience.

Monthly failure: causes

If you have failed cycle of menstruation, the reasons may be varied. Consultation of the gynecologist will help to resolve this issue. If you have already made an appointment and are thinking about possible reasons, here are a few options:

  • Diet and excessive exercise. If you have drastically changed your diet or have lost a lot of weight, this may affect your menstrual cycle. Often there are violations in girls who are engaged in bodybuilding, sit on a protein diet, exhaust themselves with exercise and eat a lot of sports nutrition. The body reacts to abnormal loads for it, and the monthly ones stop. Often, diets and underweight interfere with conception and healthy childbearing.
  • Hormonal disbalance. Thyroid diseases and other hormonal problems are a very popular cause of failure of the menstrual cycle. Get the details will help blood test for hormones. In addition, as already mentioned, after discontinuation of hormonal contraceptives, monthly periods may be irregular for half a year. If the problems do not end after six months, it's time to guard.
  • Infections. Cycle disorders are often a signal that you have genital infections (for example, chlamydia). But do not worry: after you go through a course of treatment, everything will return to normal.
  • Stress. Depression and stress affect the nervous system, which in turn causes menstrual disorders. In this case, you will save vacation, long walks and a pleasant hobby.
  • Pregnancy. Если задержка произошла впервые , причиной сбоя месячных может быть беременность. Возможно , тебя стоит поздравить!

Что собой представляет менструальный цикл

Менструальный цикл – это цикличные изменения в организме женщины, которые происходят с постоянной периодичностью времени. To determine the duration of the cycle, you need to count the number of days from the first day of one menstruation to the first day following it. The optimal cycle is 28 days, but this is only an average figure.

After all, every organism is individual and the cycle cannot be absolutely identical for everyone. Therefore, the normal cycle duration is from 21 to 37 days, but taking into account the constancy.

Deviations from one to a maximum of three days are considered acceptable. The duration of the same monthly not less than 3 and not more than 7 days. If your cycle meets these conditions, you are healthy. But, if you notice a failure, then you need to immediately visit a gynecologist. Since the causes of failure can be from harmless to dangerous for reproductive function and overall health.

Failures in the range of three days are quite normal.

Varieties of menstrual failure

Often, under the failure of the menstrual cycle understand the delay of menstruation. But this opinion is erroneous. Since the analysis of the monthly cycle consider a number of characteristics: duration, regularity, intensity, accompanying symptoms. Based on this, there are types of failure.

  1. Amenorrhea - the absence of menstruation for more than 3 months.
  2. Polymenorrhea is a very short menstrual cycle, less than 21 days. With polymenorrhea, menstruation can go several times a month.
  3. Oligomenorrhea is the complete opposite of polymenorrhea. The main symptoms of oligomenorrhea are as follows: a cycle duration of more than 38 days, scanty discharge during menstruation.
  4. Menorrhagia - profuse blood loss during menstruation with a regular menstrual cycle. The rate of blood loss is no more than 50-80 ml per day and 250 ml during the whole period of menstruation. The first two days are characterized by the greatest blood loss. Every day the amount of excreted blood decreases. If the monthly pour on the 5th day to the extent that the first day, then this is not the norm, and to establish the reason you need to undergo an examination.
  5. Metrorrhagia - long and frequent discharge, which can be both abundant and insignificant, with irregular intervals. Metrorrhagia, like menorrhagia, is a form of uterine bleeding.
  6. Uterine bleeding between menstruation is also considered as symptoms of a failure of the menstrual cycle.
  7. Dysminorrhea - poor health or popular PMS. When dysminea, the symptoms can be very different. The symptoms that often appear include nervousness, mood swings, severe pain in the lower abdomen and lower back, and nausea. Why do women tolerate them and do not seek help to alleviate their suffering? Just the majority consider them the norm.

Often, discharge during menstruation may be accompanied by blood clots, which may give rise to excitement. But this is a normal phenomenon, which is explained by the fact that during heavy periods the blood accumulates in the vagina and coagulates. More often with this women face with a spiral.

You should not be happy if your period is accompanied by scanty discharge. It is very convenient, but a small amount of blood secreted indicates a lack of estrogen in the body.

Dysmenorrhea - severe pain in PMS

Causes of menstrual failure

A one-off unplanned menstrual cycle may not be dangerous, but rather the exception to the rule, rather than a pattern. But, if the failure lasts for a long time or repeats itself, then there are unpleasant reasons. Let us consider in detail what exactly causes provoke failures of the menstrual cycle.

  • Genital infections (syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomonas, chlamydia, microplasma, etc.). They are also called pelvic infections. If you have lost cycle of menstruation, then you need to pass tests that are refuted or confirm the presence of pathogens in the body. Since, analyzing all the reasons, it is infectious that most often lead to failures. Characteristic of these infections is that they are all sexually transmitted. Therefore, if you are having sex, then you should take care of security measures, namely: having one regular sexual partner, using a condom during sex. But, if you are already infected, you need to undergo a course of anti-inflammatory treatment.
  • Hormonal disbalance. Hormones are responsible for the normal functioning of the reproductive system, if a failure has occurred, then it will primarily affect the menstrual cycle. To understand where the failure occurred, you need to go through a series of studies (thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries, pituitary). After 25 years, hormonal changes occur in the woman’s body, which may lead to a decrease in progesterone levels.
  • Gynecological diseases. Among them are the following: inflammation of the ovaries and appendages, polyps, endometriosis. Moreover, in girls who suffer from inflammation during adolescence, the menstrual cycle is often lost in adulthood.
  • Polycystic ovary (PCOS). Every year the problem of polycystic affects an increasing number of women. So why be afraid when faced with PCOS syndrome? In polycystic follicles, the follicles do not leave the ovary, but stop developing with unripe eggs. As a result, the woman does not have ovulation. Polycystosis is clinically manifested in the failure of the menstrual cycle and can lead to infertility. In addition to failures, PCO is accompanied by the following endocrine symptoms: increased hair growth on the body, oily skin and hair, acne, hair loss, fat deposits in the abdominal area.
  • Previous rubella or smallpox. These viruses are dangerous because they affect the number of follicles in the ovaries.
  • Weight problems. People suffering from overweight have problems with menstruation. Why it happens? The answer is very simple. Adipose tissue is directly involved in the formation of hormonal levels due to the production of estrogen. At the same time, lack of weight and depletion of the body are no less dangerous.
  • Pre-climax. For women aged 45-55 years, menstrual problems are forerunners of menopause and do not require the intervention of doctors, because they are the norm. The only exception is uterine bleeding.
  • Adolescence. In the first two years since the onset of menstruation, failures indicate a hormonal adjustment of the body.
  • Climate change. Changing the place of residence or going on a business trip, to rest with the change of the climate zone, get ready that the body can react unpredictably. After completion of the acclimatization process, the menstrual cycle will be adjusted.
  • Stress and exercise. Stress is the most common and banal cause of all diseases. It is important to minimize the influence of negative factors on the emotional state. Severe physical exertion during work or sports can be perceived by the body as a stressful situation and fail. Therefore, do not forget to distribute the load evenly and rest regularly.
  • Medications. Often menstruation get off under the influence of medication or after its completion. Hormonal contraceptive drugs have the greatest effect. In this case, it is important to consult a doctor and replace one medicine with another.

A permanent cycle is a key indicator of women's health and its reproductive ability.

If you have lost your menstrual cycle, then immediately contact a qualified gynecologist. Indeed, the timely identification of the problem and its causes are the key to a successful recovery.

And remember that even a healthy woman should visit a gynecologist at least once every six months. Indeed, many problems do not immediately manifest themselves, but manifest themselves over time.

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