How to count the monthly cycle: 5 most frequently asked questions and our answers to them


Not always women can immediately understand that menstruation is over. The end of the next regulation does not occur instantly. Often, copious discharge is replaced by insignificant daubs, which lasts several hours or days. No less important point is the onset of menopause. Recognize the symptoms of menopause and understand that the reproductive function has begun to fade, every member of the weaker sex should be able to.

Menstrual cycle and menopause

The menstrual cycle in women of reproductive age proceeds in several main stages:

  • egg maturation,
  • release of the ovum from the follicle (ovulation),
  • endometrial growth,
  • dying of the egg and rejection of the endometrium in the absence of fertilization. During this period, the arrival of menstrual discharge.

All these processes are regulated by the hormones estrogen and progesterone in women at puberty. Such changes are observed monthly. The duration of the cycle can vary from 21 to 35 days.

After a while, the reproductive function begins to fade. This process is due to hormonal adjustment and the gradual cessation of the production of sex hormones. This period is called menopause. As a result of such changes in the body, menstruation ends, menopause occurs.

When to wait for menopause

At a certain stage of life in women begins the process of biological aging. It is characterized by a decrease in reproductive function, hormonal changes and the impossibility of fertilization. Such changes occur over several years and are called the period of menopause. It proceeds in several stages:

  1. Premenopause. This condition is observed at the age of 40–45 years. At the same time, ovarian function is gradually suppressed. These paired organs are responsible for the production of estrogen, which is necessary for the maturation of the ovum. The concentration of the hormone gradually decreases, after which its production ceases. The duration of premenopause varies from 2 to 10 years.
  2. Menopause. This period begins a year after the cessation of menstrual flow.
  3. Postmenopause. The appendages cease to function as they should, estrogen is not produced, and the number of genetically laid eggs ends.

As a rule, critical days for menopause stop at the age of 49–52 years. Menopause occurs in a woman after a year. In this case, no physician will not be able to name the exact age at which menopause will begin. This process is influenced by many factors, including heredity, health, the presence of bad habits and lifestyle.

Biological aging may begin earlier or later than expected. Often, the extinction of reproductive function at the age of 50-60 years is observed in the presence of malignant tumors.

Symptoms of menopause

The first symptoms of menopause begin to appear long before the cessation of menstrual flow. Therefore, it is so important for women to figure out what changes are taking place in their bodies.

At the same time, the following clinical manifestations are noted:

  • cycle failure. Critical days become irregular, prolonged, the nature of the discharge and the volume of blood lost change. This period lasts about a year, after which the regulators are no longer observed,
  • tides. In this condition, there is a feeling of heat, there is a change in body temperature, excessive sweating, pressure drops, which are accompanied by a violation of heart rhythm. Such sensations are noted within 5–15 minutes, after which they disappear as unexpectedly as they appeared,
  • dry genital area. In this case, a woman may experience pain during intimate intimacy. It is also possible the appearance of itching and burning,
  • disorders of the urinary system. Often, menopause is accompanied by inflammatory processes in the urinary tract and bladder. Problems during urination are not excluded,
  • change in psycho-emotional state. Symptoms such as irritability, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbances, memory problems and frequent headaches are noted.
  • lack of sexual desire
  • lethargy of the skin and hair loss,
  • weight gain.

Heart rhythm disorder

The period when menstruation ends, is not considered menopause. After their complete cessation, a whole year must pass in order for such a diagnosis to be made. Clinical manifestations at this point are even more pronounced. This is due to the lack of sex hormones and the end of the functioning of the appendages. Then irreversible processes begin, indicating the actual aging of the female body.

How to determine the last day of menstruation

To determine the last day of your period is quite simple. Closer to the end of the menstruation, the blood comes out in a significantly smaller quantity, after which it completely disappears.. A slight daub in this case can be observed for another 1-2 days. She points out that the critical days will soon end. A woman finds out about their completion by the release of white discharge without any hue.

The regular menstrual cycle is the main indicator of women's health. Any changes in it are disturbing for the fair sex. For this reason, it is so important for them to understand exactly what is happening in the body. Particular attention is paid to the period of menopause and the time of menopause. Such age-related manifestations significantly affect overall health and indicate biological aging of the body. With the timely determination of the beginning of this period, it will be possible to alleviate some unpleasant symptoms to some extent and it is easier to postpone such a difficult life stage.

What time is considered the beginning of menstruation?

For so many girls and women, menstruation begins with a thin brownish daub, which can only go into spotting in a day. In this case, the question naturally arises: what is the beginning of the cycle: daubing or, nevertheless, blood. It is a rule for physicians to consider the beginning of menstruation to be an abundant bleeding, that is, daub is not taken into account when counting a cycle.

What is the normal duration of the menstrual cycle?

It is considered that the normal menstrual cycle has a duration from 21 to 35 daysbut ideally - 28. However, few women can boast of the constancy of their cycle; after all, this is a very complex natural mechanism, and it is sensitive to many factors, such as stress, heavy physical exertion, various diseases. If the cycle is shorter than 21 or longer than 35 days, you should consult with your doctor and be examined.

Why do I need to know how to count the menstrual cycle?

Such information is useful in many places. But first of all it is required when planning a child. Since there are days in the middle of the cycle that are most favorable for conception, it is better to know about them in advance and during this period to undertake more active attempts to fulfill the dream of the heir.

It is widely believed among girls that if there are days favorable for conception in the cycle, that is, there are unfavorable ones, the possibility of getting pregnant is minimal. Often this leads to the abandonment of contraceptives and turns into an unwanted pregnancy. According to statistics, calendar method is the most unreliable among all contraceptives, so it is better not to trust him.

In addition, the calculation of the menstrual cycle helps to diagnose pregnancy or serious illness in time. Therefore, if the monthly did not come in time, you need to think.

How to simplify the task of calculating the menstrual cycle?

Our mothers and grandmothers used special calendars, where they celebrated the first day of each menstruation. In our age of computers and mobile phones, there are smart programs that know how to count the cycle of menstruation. It is enough to enter in them the date of the last menstruation and the average duration of the cycle, as they will suggest the most favorable days for conceiving and even tell you when the boy is more likely to get, and when - the girl.

Causes of early menopause

Cessation of menstruation before age 40 is considered an early menopause. This condition requires a mandatory examination by a doctor.

Causes of early menopause:

  1. Wrong way of life. Irrational food (starvation, diet) and inactivity can accelerate the onset of menopause.
  2. Bad habits: smoking (especially systematic and prolonged) and alcohol abuse.
  3. Adverse living conditions (poor environmental conditions, climatic conditions, living above 3.5 thousand meters above sea level).
  4. Constant stress, nervous overload.
  5. Physical overload (especially for athletes).
  6. Hormonal disbalance. Often it is associated with inappropriate hormonal drugs (oral contraceptives).
  7. Genetic causes. Among them can be identified premature depletion of the ovaries, when they run out of eggs capable of fertilization.
  8. Undergone surgery on the organs of the reproductive system (ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes).
  9. Cysts and tumors.
  10. Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs.
  11. Chemotherapy and radiation.

The onset of menopause at an earlier age (up to 40 years) is undesirable because it entails a number of negative consequences associated with the hormonal rearrangement of the female body. This can lead to premature aging, which all women are so afraid of.

Symptoms and effects of menopause

Blood discharge cannot stop abruptly in an instant. Therefore, many women of the older age group are interested in how to understand that their periods have completely ended. The onset of menopause is accompanied by hormonal changes in the body, associated with the extinction of reproductive function against the background of the termination of the synthesis of sex hormones.

It is characterized by the presence of such symptoms:

  1. Violation of the menstrual cycle (its duration, frequency). There may be disruptions in the regularity of the monthly changes in their volume. Most often it lasts for about a year, after which the bleeding completely ends.
  2. The presence of tides. This is a special condition that is characterized by the appearance of a feeling of heat throughout the body, and especially in the neck and head. Tides are accompanied by a change in body temperature (either fever or chills), excessive sweating, pressure drops, and heart rhythm disturbances. This condition lasts about 5-15 minutes, and then dramatically retreats (ebb).
  3. Vaginal dryness. This is due to hormonal dysfunction and can provoke infection into the vagina, as well as discomfort and pain during sexual contact. Accompanied by itching and burning sensation in the genital area.
  4. Problems with the urinary system. Often there are inflammatory processes in the bladder (cystitis) and urinary tract, impaired function due to hormonal imbalance. There may also be urinary problems (dysuria, enuresis and others).
  5. Disruption of the emotional state. When menopause occurs depression, excessive nervousness, irritability, problems with memory and sleep, headaches.
  6. Loss of sexual desire.
  7. Hair loss, dryness and lethargy of the skin.
  8. Weight problems. Often, women gain excess weight while continuing to eat right and lead an active lifestyle.

When a woman fully enters the period of menopause, the body is aging. This is strongly reflected in her general well-being, there are metabolic and other disorders that lead to such states:

  • atherosclerosis,
  • high blood pressure
  • obesity,
  • decrease in mental abilities, attention and memory,
  • blurred vision, hearing
  • problems with the organs of the reproductive system (the formation of polyps, malignant tumors),
  • the development of weakening in the ligamentous apparatus due to the absence of collagen, which leads to the omission and sometimes the prolapse of the uterus and vagina,
  • urethritis, cystitis,
  • problems with the musculoskeletal system (osteoporosis, high probability of fractures, sprains).

But sometimes there are phenomena that should make a woman turn to a gynecologist, no matter how many years she has had menopause. If there are monthly periods a year after their complete cessation, then this indicates the presence of pathology in the organs of the reproductive system.

Evaluation of menstrual function during menopause

The absence of menstruation at the age of 45-55 years may be the first sign of an approaching menopause or testify to diseases of the pelvic organs. To distinguish the norm from the pathology, you must follow the algorithm:

  1. Rate how long there is no menstruation. If more than 12 months have passed since the last menstruation, we can talk about menopause. More menstruation in the life of a woman will not.
  2. Listen to your feelings. Most women with the onset of menopause (1.5-2 years before the actual menopause - the last menstruation) complain of the appearance of hot flashes, decreased sexual desire, emotional instability. All these symptoms favor menopause.
  3. Get examined by a gynecologist. Evaluate the ovarian reserve and see if the ovaries work, using ultrasound. On the screen, the doctor sees the number of follicles, and if there are still a lot of them, it's far from menopause. The depletion of ovarian reserve indicates the imminent approach of menopause.
  4. Take a blood test for hormones. An increase in FSH and a decrease in estradiol are detected during menopause.

If there are one or more factors in favor of menopause, you should expect that menstruation will become rare and will stop completely in the near future.

Helping a woman in menopause

In menopause, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive therapy to relieve symptoms and combat premature aging of the body. The following methods are used for this:

  1. Hormone therapy. Its main purpose is the normalization of hormonal levels due to the intake of drugs that contain estrogen and progesterone. It is important for the prevention of polyps and tumors, uterine bleeding and other complications. There are some contraindications for her appointment (breast or genital cancer, blood problems, renal or hepatic failure).
  2. Power correction. The diet should consist of dairy products, lean meat, cereal cereals, fresh vegetables and fruits. It is necessary to refuse alcohol, strong coffee and tea, fried, salty, spicy food, smoked products and confectionery.
  3. Moderate exercise. You need to understand that morning exercises, gymnastics, easy jogging, swimming will help not only to prolong youth, but also to preserve health.

It is important to treat irreversible changes in the body calmly. This can not be avoided by any woman, since the attenuation of the reproductive function is a natural process and inevitably occurs at a certain age.

Climax - this is not a sentence, it does not need to be afraid. To prolong your youth and avoid negative effects on health, you need to eat right, maintain an active lifestyle and, if possible, avoid stress, do not panic at the first symptoms of menopause.

How to make the monthly faster ended?

All sensible women understand that menstruation is an important and necessary process, although it brings a lot of trouble. These “bloody” days are a real challenge, as they bring significant discomfort: you can not swim in the pond and pool, stay in the sun for a long time, wear white lingerie and have sex. All these restrictions lead to the fact that women are puzzled over how to make the period ended quickly.

What provokes abundant periods?

If your period does not end for a long time, you need to exclude certain foods from your diet and follow the rules:

  • Completely eliminate spicy foods
  • Do not overload the body with fried, fatty and heavy food,
  • Rest more
  • Avoid stress, heavy physical exertion.

General recommendations

There are several ways to reduce the amount of discharge and slightly reduce this "blood" period. From the first day of your period you need to drink plenty of water and herbal decoctions. But tea and coffee, on the contrary, expand blood vessels and can increase bleeding.

Divorced lemon juice well removes pain. To do this, in a glass of water, you need to add a few teaspoons of lemon juice. You can also make tea from a shepherd's bag, burnet, nettle (1 teaspoon per cup of boiling water).

Enough to drink 150-200 ml during breakfast.

Proper diet contributes to the speedy recovery of women in this difficult period for her. Eat more protein foods, fresh vegetables, fruits. Be sure to include in the daily menu of cereals, dairy products, nuts.

Bleeding will not be so abundant if a woman gets enough sleep. You need to sleep about 8-10 hours a day. A little ease the state and remove the discomfort of a warm shower. But the water should be warm, it is better to give up the bath.

What can be done?

Proved that sex contributes to the reduction of "blood" days. But only if sexual intercourse is "colorful" and with a pronounced orgasm. To have the desired effect, you can not use contraception.Then prolactin, which is in the semen, will help to ensure that the endometrium leaves more quickly.

You can make menstruation shorter if you take vitamins C and E. They increase blood circulation in the pelvis, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, make them elastic. In order for the vitamins to have an impact, they must be taken two weeks before the menstrual period. Then the bleeding will be abundant, but short-lived.

In the first three days of menstruation, you should give up strong physical exertion, it is better to give preference to yoga, fitness, stretching. Why are they effective?

Experts believe that they have a beneficial effect on the flow of menstruation: improve health, reduce pain, shorten their duration.

There is an opinion that strongly absorbing tampons accelerate the process. But in order for the endometrium to completely detach, time must pass. But in recent days, tampons are a good solution. But you should choose the right size, otherwise you can damage the walls of blood vessels - they become very sensitive during this period.

Hemoglobin affects the speed of the "blood" period. If you raise its level in the body, it will end faster. A woman can eat hematogen, drink pomegranate juice - it is both tasty and healthy.

There are drugs that stop menstruation. They are used in the case when a woman wants her period to pass 1 day and end. But you can drink them only after consulting a doctor, as they can be harmful to health. The quick effect gives Pulsatilla. "Postinor" not only terminates the monthly, but also disrupts pregnancy. It is important to know that it has many side effects, so it should be used with caution.

If a woman needs her period to start again not according to the schedule, then a large dose of ascorbine will help her in this.

To enhance its effect, it is recommended to soar legs.

Recipes of our grandmothers

In folk medicine there are recipes with which you can interrupt the monthly. Very effective decoction of the burnet. But often it can not be used, as the plant has a fixing effect.

To make a decoction, you will need two tablespoons of rhizomes. They need to pour a glass of boiled water. Within half an hour, the contents should be held in a water bath and then cooled at room temperature. Strain and bring the volume to 200 ml. It is necessary to use broth on 7-10 ml, 5 times a day after meal.

Nettle decoction is another effective remedy. The plant increases blood clotting, so critical days will end faster.

And ascorbic acid, which is part of nettle, has regenerative, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. For 200 ml of water you need to take three tablespoons of raw materials and boil for a few minutes. The course is 1-5 weeks, should be consumed 15 ml three times a day.

A shepherd's bag has the same effect and is similarly brewed, but it cannot be taken by women who have a tendency to form blood clots. Will help to reduce the "heavy" period of decoctions of dill, oregano, bay leaf, parsley.

But it is important to remember that any method is an intervention in the body, which can lead to a failure of the menstrual cycle and hormonal disturbance.

If a woman is worried about why her period does not end and go longer than 10 days, then you should definitely consult a doctor.

Self-medication in this situation is contraindicated. This also applies to cases where the monthly has already ended and started again.

How to understand that a woman's menstruation is over

Menopause is a condition in which the production of sex hormones stops, and menstruation disappears. A similar phenomenon occurs at the age of 45 - 55 years. About the termination of menstruation a woman learns after the fact: only after several months of their complete absence. Finally, menopause as a gynecological diagnosis is made 12 months after the cessation of menstrual bleeding.

Not all women are able to understand the principles of the functioning of their body. Therefore, a number of questions often arise when the age changes appear: how to understand that the periods have ended, is it dangerous, and how can it affect health and general well-being?

How and why to count the cycle?

Why consider the menstrual cycle? There are several good reasons for this:

  1. Hygienic. Knowing what day menstruation will begin, the woman will be fully armed and the onset of menstruation will not catch her unawares.
  2. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy. Knowing her cycle, a woman will easily calculate dangerous days and thus protect herself from unplanned pregnancy and its negative consequences.
  3. For the onset of pregnancy. If a woman plans to continue the race, then after finding out the time when ovulation occurs, she will have a more active sex life during this period. Thereby she will increase her chances of getting pregnant.
  4. Health care. The regular menstruation cycle is an indicator of good female health.
  1. The first, simplest, but at the same time effective way is the calculation according to the calendar. Our grandmothers and mothers used this method as well. For him you need a simple pocket calendar, in which you will mark the beginning of menstruation every month. It would seem that you can remember this date. But very often, many women can not accurately remember the date of the beginning of the discharge in the last month. Therefore, it is easier to play it safe and make a calendar. With the help of a simple way you can analyze whether you have a regular cycle.
  2. The modern world does not stand still and offers its services on every occasion. The calculation of the menstrual cycle is no exception. There are lots of sites where you can easily calculate your monthly cycle. Moreover, a special computer program will calculate and give you ovulation days and safe days. You only need one thing - regularly, that is, each month to enter the date of the onset of menstruation. Everything else will do for you computer.

Method of calculating dangerous days

Here is an example of how easy and simple it is to count your cycle. In order to proceed with the calculations, you need to know the days of the onset of menstruation at least six months. It is necessary to take the shortest cycle in the past period and subtract 18. This will be the beginning of the so-called dangerous days.

Then you need to take the longest cycle in half a year and subtract number 11. It will be the supposed end of a dangerous time.

For example: June - 28 days, July - 27, August - 30, September - 29, October - 28, November - 28. As a result, the shortest cycle is 27 days. Down with 18 - we get 9. The longest cycle is 30 days. Minimizes 11 - as a result, we have 19. If we assume that menstruation begins on December 1, then the days from December 10 to 19 will be dangerous days, all the rest will be safe.

You can count in another way. The average of the cycle over the past six months divided by 2. So you will know the approximate date of ovulation. Accordingly, 5 days before the beginning and 5 days after its termination will be dangerous. The rest is not.

So consider the monthly cycle in women is possible in order to increase their chances of getting pregnant. However, one should always remember that such calculations do not provide a 100% guarantee, because the female body - matter is very thin and unpredictable.

Good female health to you!

From the day the girl started menarche - the first bleeding of the menstrual cycle, she is potentially ready to get pregnant. Menstruation persists for the next 35–45 years, reminding every month that the reproductive function is active.

When do menstruations begin?

Normally, the first bleeding of the menstrual cycle occurs between 9 and 14 years old - at the beginning or middle of puberty (adolescence) period. The age at which menarche appears depends on many factors. Hereditary predisposition plays a certain role. Often, in relatives on the maternal line, the menstrual cycle is activated at the same time. General health is also important: malnutrition, chronic diseases can delay puberty. During the six months or a year of bleeding menstruation are irregular, with delays of several days. Anovulatory cycles also occur, those that are not accompanied by the release of an egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube. If the monthly did not appear after 14 years - there is a reason to contact a pediatric gynecologist or an endocrinologist. The most favorable time for conception is from 25 to 35 years. By the beginning of this period, growth processes cease completely, ovarian function is gaining strength.

How to calculate the menstrual cycle?

Menstrual cycle is considered to be the interval from the first day of one month before the next. Its duration is 21-32 days. In 60% of women, the cycle is 28 days. The first phase of the uterine cycle is called menstrual. At this time, the endometrial cells lining the uterus from the inside are rejected, and bleeding is discharged from the female genital tract. The average blood loss is 20–40 ml per day and lasts, as a rule, from 2 to 5 days.

After completion of the monthly cycle goes into the next phase - follicular. In the ovary, follicles begin to mature. Despite the fact that the majority of the fair sex several are activated at once, only one of them finally matured, which is called dominant. The follicle includes an oocyte cell surrounded by a layer of specific epithelium. During maturation, the oocyte divides twice; as a result, four cells are formed from it - the egg cell itself and three minor cells, which then die. The epithelial cells surrounding the future egg cell are also broken up. In addition, they emit a special liquid. As a result of changes, the follicle increases in size and turns into a kind of reservoir - the Graafov vesicle, within which the egg floats. The follicular phase ends in the middle of the menstrual cycle, on the 12–15th day.

When ovulation occurs

The next phase of the menstrual cycle is called proliferative (from the Latin. Proles - scion, offspring and fero - carry). At this moment, under the action of the hormone estradiol, changes occur in the endometrium: its layers expand, and the glands located in them are more active. This adjustment is completed at the beginning of ovulation. The bubble that has matured in the ovary Graaf begins to accumulate lipids (fats) and lutein pigment, which gives the formation of yellow color, turning it into a yellow body.

Then ovulation begins - the Graafov bubble wall breaks, and the egg enters the fallopian tube. Before ovulation, the funnel of the fallopian tube is at some distance from the ovary, but by the time of its occurrence, it comes close to it and wraps around its edges from all sides.

While the egg cell is viable, the next phase of the female menstrual cycle, the secretory one, is launched. The glands begin to secrete thick mucus, and the endometrium expands even more, becomes loose — this is how the uterus prepares to receive the fertilized egg.

If this does not happen, the next phase of the cycle begins - luteal. It lasts about 14 days. At the end of the period, part of the newly formed uterine epithelium (also called the functional layer) is rejected, and menstruation occurs. The corpus luteum ceases to function. New cells form in the ovary, and the menstrual cycle repeats from beginning to end.

Menstrual hormones

The entire menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones. In its different phases, the level of some hormones increases and the number of others decreases. Before the start of the next, at the end of the previous cycle, levels of estradiol and progesterone always fall, which leads to the rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium and the appearance of bleeding. The increase in follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis provokes the growth of new follicles.

Another hormone necessary for the maturation of follicles - luteinizing - as the follicle grows, is synthesized more actively. At the same time, estradiol levels increase, which causes the growth of the endometrium. The occurrence of ovulation due to a very sharp release of luteinizing hormone (against the background of a small decrease in the amount of estradiol). Ovulation occurs 1–1.5 days after this level has reached its maximum level.

Immediately after the completion of ovulation, the level of progesterone increases, and a little later the second wave of increased estradiol formation begins. The changes lead to the corresponding metamorphosis in the endometrium (secretory phase of the uterine cycle). Then the production of both hormones is inhibited, and the next bleeding begins.

Difficult changes in the hormonal background during the menstrual cycle are controlled by the endocrine glands located throughout the body. Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones are produced by the pituitary gland, located in the brain. The signal for their production comes from the hypothalamus (located there): it produces gonadoliberin - hormones that stimulate the synthesis of sex hormones follyliberin and lyuliberin. Estradiol is produced in the ovaries, more precisely - in the follicles and the yellow body, which develops in place of the burst Graafov vesicle. Progesterone is synthesized by the yellow body itself.

Ovulation temperature

Of course, the most important point in the menstrual cycle is ovulation. Periodic menstrual bleeding can occur even in her absence, but pregnancy cannot occur in this case. Even in a perfectly healthy woman, ovulation does not happen in every menstrual cycle.

There are tests for determining the time of the beginning and completion of ovulation. There is another diagnostic method - measurement of basal temperature. It is checked throughout the entire menstrual cycle: in the morning, before getting out of bed, a thermometer is placed in the rectum. On the eve of ovulation, many women recorded a decrease in the rate of 0.2-0.5 ° C. But at the time of ovulation, after the release of progesterone into the blood, the basal temperature for 3–4 days is kept at around 37.1–37.3 ° C. The absence of a significant change in parameters may indicate that there was no ovulation in this cycle.

Menstrual disorders

It happens that the monthly come irregularly. Sometimes very often (polymenorrhea), or, conversely, rarely. They do not come for two months or more (metrorrhagia), and then they start very strong and last longer than usual, they can even be delayed for 10 days (menorrhagia).

These symptoms indicate various problems in the body, and there are quite a lot of them. The most common cause of failure is infection of the genital organs (chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, etc.). A smear on the microflora or a blood test for sexually transmitted infections will clarify the situation. Having identified the "unexpected guest", the doctor will prescribe treatment.

The situation is more complicated when hormonal disorders that occur in different periods of the cycle are guilty of irregularities in the cycle. To check the balance, an endocrinologist's consultation, urine and blood tests are prescribed. Menstruation disorders are also the result of chronic diseases of the sexual sphere - endometriosis, fibroids and others.

Many of these ailments begin in adolescence, are sluggish in nature and are accompanied by blurred symptoms, so the woman does not know about them. For the first time, the diagnosis is clarified when a couple is examined for infertility, when, after 1-2 years of marriage, the spouses turn to a specialist. To avoid the loss of precious time and unrest, it is necessary to conduct an examination when pregnancy is only planned. The gynecologist will advise which of the tests will be required first.

Usually they suggest that you first take an ovulation test, a blood test for hormones, and make a basal temperature chart. Modern medicine is capable of eliminating many reproductive disorders.

The menstrual cycle can be disrupted due to a stressful situation: strong experiences at work or in the family, physical overload (in athletes), and even banal starvation, with the help of which some women try to put themselves in shape, cause failure.

How many eggs does a woman have?

Even before the birth of the girl, a follicular ovary reserve is formed, thanks to which she can become a mother. This resource is completely dependent on genetic predisposition. And nothing else can affect him. At birth, the girls ovaries contain an average of 300 thousand potential eggs. Every year the strategic reserve is depleted. From 10 to 25 years a woman loses a few eggs - nature retains the bulk until better times. But by the age of 35, the follicles become two times smaller. After forty of them there are no more than a thousand.

Since there are two ovaries in a woman, the maturation of the eggs in them usually occurs alternately: during one menstrual cycle - in the right, while in the other - in the left. Если в каждом яичнике появляется по яйцеклетке, а затем обе попадут в маточные трубы и будут оплодотворены, то родится двойня, точнее, разнояйцевые близнецы. При лечении некоторых видов бесплодия используют препараты, стимулирующие овуляцию. В этом случае вероятность забеременеть двойней повышается. Существует и наследственная предрасположенность к многоплодной беременности.

Ч What makes a woman beautiful and easy, does not let her grow old? What allows a woman to be a mother? These are hormones, whose fluctuations in the level of our mood, attractiveness, desire, and performance sometimes depend. It is about hormones and is described in this article

The hormonal background of men does not have sharp fluctuations. From here their purposefulness, reliability, constancy and maximalism.

In women, everything is different: every day of the menstrual cycle, hormone production changes. From here our inconstancy, windiness and suddenness.

Probably almost every one of us is a “fury” a couple of days a month. However, mood swings are not the only “natural disaster” that can be foreseen, knowing how cyclical fluctuations of hormonal levels affect our lifestyle.

The first day of the cycle is usually considered the day of the onset of menstrual bleeding.Against the background of a decrease in the concentration of the main “female” hormones (progesterone and estrogen), rejection of the endometrium begins - a thick layer of uterine mucosa, “feather beds” prepared by the body in case of a possible pregnancy.

The concentration of prostaglandins increases - mediators of pain, stimulants of uterine contractility. It is good for the body - the uterus contracts, throwing out the old endometrium and squeezing the bleeding vessels. And for us - one disorder: pain and heaviness in the lower abdomen.

Spasmolytics will help to relieve discomfort: “No-shpa”, “Belastezin”, “Papaverine”, “Buscopan”. But "Aspirin" is advisable not to take, as this can increase blood loss.

In the ovaries, the most "advanced" follicle begins to develop, bearing the egg cell. Sometimes “advanced” is more than one, and then after successful fertilization, several babies can be born at once.

So you want to be beautiful, but today the hormones are working against us. As a result of low estrogen production, the activity of the sweat and sebaceous glands increases. You have to spend half a day in the shower, devote more time to your face and more often correct makeup.

It's time to make yourself a beauty plan for the next week. Every day the concentration of estrogen in the blood increases - the main hormone of beauty and femininity. Which means skin, hair, nails and body become most susceptible to all kinds of cosmetic procedures and simply shine with health.

After the depilation performed on these days, the skin remains smooth and tender longer than usual. And the reason for that is not at all the newest formula of the cream after depilation, but a change in the hormonal background.

A few days before ovulation. Usually the days from the 9th are considered dangerous in terms of conception baby but If you are dreaming about the birth of a girl, your time has come!

There is a theory that sperm with the X chromosome (determining the female sex of the baby) longer than others can "expect" the release of an egg from the ovary in the female genital tract. Therefore, you have about 4-5 days left. And on the day of ovulation and immediately after it increases the opportunity to conceive a boy.

To this day, thoughts about work and everyday difficulties are becoming increasingly distant, and about love, passion and tenderness - literally absorb all of your consciousness! The main hormones responsible for female sexuality and libido, occupy a leading position.

The woman excitability, sensitivity of erogenous zones increases, and even a special smell appears that can attract male attention, like pheromones. Therefore, some experts believe that the use of perfume in these days may even somewhat weaken our attractiveness for the stronger sex.

The body accumulates the maximum amount of estrogen. This serves as a signal for the production of another hormone - luteinizing, which very quickly reaches its peak concentration and stops the growth of the follicle.

Now it contains a mature egg ready for ovulation and fertilization.

Under the action of estrogen and luteinizing hormone, the wall of the mature follicle bursts, and the egg cell enters the abdominal cavity. At the same time a small amount of blood is poured into the abdominal cavity.

Some women may even feel soreness in the lower abdomen to the right or left (depending on the ovary in which the ovulation occurred).

Once in the abdominal cavity, the egg is immediately captured by the fallopian tube and embarks on a journey towards the "male element."

On the day of ovulation a woman has the highest libido and is able to experience the most vivid sensations of intimacy with her beloved.Sexologists argue that if a woman regularly abstains from sex on the days of ovulation (fearing an unwanted pregnancy) and does not experience an orgasm, then her libido can steadily decline with time.

To make it easier for spermatozoa to reach the egg, cervical mucus (the mucous membrane of the stopper, which closes the entrance to the uterus, protecting against infection) occurs. Therefore, casual sex on the day of ovulation is fraught with not only an unwanted pregnancy, but also a high risk of getting an STI.

On this day There is a high probability of conceiving twins. If during ovulation a woman leaves several eggs at once “(there is usually a genetic predisposition for this), then with good luck all of them can be fertilized.

In the ovary in place of the bursting follicle a yellow body begins to form. This is a special education, which, regardless of whether fertilization has occurred or not, will diligently prepare the body for pregnancy within 7-8 days.

The corpus luteum begins to produce the hormone progesterone, the main hormone of pregnancy. His goal is to turn an active and carefree girl into a future mother, carefully preserving her pregnancy.

Progesterone begins the preparation of the uterine mucosa (endometrium) for implantation of the egg, each day the concentration of this hormone increases.

In this phase of the cycle appetite increases, weight gains faster. Be especially careful with carbohydrates. As a result of complex hormonal relationships, the body begins to demand more sweets and put them “in reserve” in the form of fat.

Under the action of progesterone there is a decrease in the smooth muscle tone. As a result, peristalsis (undulating movement) of the intestine slows down. This may lead to bloating and constipation.

Therefore, try to enrich the diet with coarse fiber, dairy products.

In case of a possible hunger strike, the body is fully stocked with nutrients for future use, as a result of which the fat metabolism also changes. There is an increase in cholesterol and harmful (atherogenic) fats. And their excess not only spoils the figure, but also creates an extra burden on the heart and blood vessels.

Therefore, try in this phase of the cycle to increase the proportion of vegetable fats in the daily diet and avoid gastronomic feats. In addition, it is useful to eat garlic and red fish, it helps reduce cholesterol.

Despite the fact that ovulation has already occurred, during the second phase of the cycle the body still has a fairly high level of testosterone, which increases our libido. Especially its production is enhanced in the morning.

This can be used to fill the dawn hours with passion and tenderness.

To this day is the flowering of the yellow body. The concentration of progesterone in the blood reaches a peak value. The ovum, traveling through the fallopian tube, approaches the uterus. By this time, she is practically incapable of fertilization.

It is believed that from this day begin relatively safe days for fertilization.

The concentration of luteinizing hormone decreases and the reverse development of the corpus luteum in the ovary begins. The concentration of estrogen and progesterone gradually decreases.

However, the level of progesterone and all its effects will be sufficiently pronounced until the beginning of the next cycle.

The metabolism slows down, which is typical for the entire second phase of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone acts as an antidepressant: has a calming effect, relieves tension, anxiety, relaxes.

These days we are becoming "impenetrable" for reprimands from the boss, troubles and other stressful situations.

Lowering levels of estrogen and elevated progesterone, potential bowel problems, carbohydrate abuse these days - all this is reflected on the face, especially if there is a predisposition to acne.

The activity of the sebaceous glands increases, the pores expand, the process of keratinization in the skin intensifies.Therefore, these days you need to pay more attention to diet and proper cleaning of the face.

Under the action of progesterone, changes in the structure of the connective tissue occur: the ligaments become more extensible, hyper-mobility appears in the joints. There may be nagging pains in the spine and large joints.

The greatest number of injuries, especially those related to sports, women get exactly these days.One awkward movement can lead to stretching or dislocation, so be careful with yoga, gymnastics and other physical activities.

Scientists have proven that these days a woman has a special smell, which makes it clear to a man that there is a forced period of abstinence ahead.

Perhaps it is this fact that is the reason for the synchronization of the cycles of several women living for a long time together.

Often the most difficult days for women and her loved ones. As a result of fluctuations in the level of hormones, a woman becomes sensitive and vulnerable, at which time she needs sensitive support.

In the blood increases the level of prostaglandins, the pain threshold decreases, the mammary glands become painful, painful, the picture is complemented by headache, constant daytime sleepiness, anxiety, apathy and irritability. Is this not enough to spoil the mood?

Experts believe that sex and chocolate can be a wonderful medicine these days. However, with sex things are more complicated than with chocolate. Before menstruation, the level of all hormones that arouse passion in a woman decreases. According to doctors, in the premenstrual days the woman’s libido tends to zero.

But at the end of the cycle, some representatives of the fair sex, on the contrary, passion and desire wake up, sensitivity and sharpness of sensations increase. An explanation found by psychologists. They believe that these days women are not afraid of the thought of a possible pregnancy, which is why their sexual fantasies are becoming bolder, and their feelings brighter.

Of course, for every woman, the “hormonal clock” goes differently: for someone, they hurry a little, shortening the cycle to 20-21 days, for others they slightly slow down - to 30-32 days. The 28-day cycle is only the most common, so it is impossible to create an accurate and universal hormonal calendar. Every woman will have to adapt it for themselves.

However, the general patterns of fluctuations in hormonal levels and the associated changes in the body persist. Not knowing these features, we sometimes start to fight with our own hormones: we sit on the strictest diet, when the body tries to do everything in store, forget about the face, when it needs the most intense care, or scold ourselves for being too cold with your loved one our sensuality is on “forced vacation”.

Having made some changes in the usual way of life, you can make the hormones work with double force, making us more attractive, vigorous, cheerful and desirable!

Phases of the menstrual cycle - These are consecutive hormonal and structural changes in the female body of a cyclical nature, ensuring the realization of reproductive function. The hormonal function of the ovaries always dominates in the formation of the phase of the menstrual cycle, which affects not only the genital sphere, it modifies the work of the whole organism.

Since in women the menstrual cycle has individual features, the concept of its “norm” varies in a very wide range. To characterize the menstrual cycle, the following concepts are used:

- Duration. Measured by the time interval between the beginning of two subsequent menstruations, that is, the first day of menstruation at the same time is the beginning of the next cycle and the end of the previous one. Most modern women celebrate the first day of each menstruation in the calendar, so they can very easily calculate the duration of their menstrual cycle, counting the number of days between the marked dates. The menstrual calendar also always clearly demonstrates any violations of the usual rhythm of menstruation. The normal duration of the menstrual cycle is considered to be, if it falls within the range of 25 - 35 days, for most (60%) it is equal to 28 days.

- The number of days of the cycle, which accounts for menstrual bleeding. Menstruation is an integral part of any (and pathological, too) menstrual cycle. Menstrual bleeding in 75% does not last longer than a week, but should not be too short (less than three days).

- Menstrual blood loss, its volume and duration. On average, it is equal to 40 - 150 ml. The amount of blood lost with each month is not difficult for a woman to measure. Therefore, the quantity of menstrual blood that does not require the use of more than four sanitary pads daily is taken as the conditional “norm”. It should be noted that this parameter is acceptable for situations when the change of gaskets corresponds to the established mode of their use.

Menstrual blood should not contain many clots or mucus. In the normal course of monthly blood loss, it quantitatively decreases from the first day to the last, and the number of “abundant” days, as a rule, does not exceed three.

It is also believed that menstrual blood loss should proceed painlessly, not to disturb the usual rhythm of life. Short weakly expressed pulling or aching sensations in the projection of the uterus on “abundant” days are allowed.

It should be noted that there is a small group of women (less than 30%) who have an individual “rate” of the menstrual cycle against the background of absolute gynecological health. As a rule, it is established from the first menstrual period and does not change until the completion of the menstrual function, that is, before. If a woman's menstrual cycle differs from the conventional “norm”, but it is not accompanied by pathology and does not interfere with the implementation of reproductive function, it is correlated with the concept of individual physiological “norm”.

In addition to the conditional "norm", there are several strict parameters that any menstrual cycle should possess; one of these is the presence of two phases.

Phase 1 of the menstrual cycle starts with the next menstrual bleeding and, under the condition of the physiological cycle, it completes a short period of ovulation. After ovulation, in the absence of the beginning of pregnancy, phase 2 of the menstrual cycle starts, ending with the beginning of the next menstruation. Two-phase cycles are not always accompanied by ovulation, but without the presence of both phases, ovulation is impossible. In terms of duration, both phases of the normal cycle are equivalent, but they differ in hormonal and structural changes, which we will talk about later.

The phases of the menstrual cycle are formed with the mandatory participation of complex biological processes of the entire female body, which are controlled by the central nervous system: the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. Each of its phases is characterized by certain hormonal changes in the ovaries, which provoke a structural reorganization of the endometrium.

For the menstrual cycle "looks" the hypothalamus. It secretes biological active compounds (releasing hormones) in the pituitary gland in a cyclical rhythm. The pituitary gland is capable of producing hormones that affect the ovaries: follicle-stimulating (FSH), luteinizing (LH) and prolactin. Each of them is secreted by the pituitary according to the phases of the cycle. Under the influence of pituitary hormones in the ovaries, certain changes occur, ensuring the maturation of the egg. All events occurring during each menstrual cycle provide the implementation of reproductive function.

Diagnosis of a two-phase menstrual cycle is very important for studying the causes of menstrual dysfunction and. Laboratory techniques are used to determine the level of major hormones, their number and ratio are studied at different periods of the cycle. Ultrasound scanning allows you to visually assess the state of the endometrium and determine how structural changes in the uterine mucosa correspond to the intended phase of the cycle. It also helps to study the structure of the ovarian follicular apparatus.

To find out the nature of the menstrual cycle, a woman can independently, if she resorts to the method of basal temperature measurement, it is based on the ability of hormones of the second phase of the cycle (progesterone) to slightly increase body temperature, which is measured rectally. If this temperature is measured daily and the results are recorded in a graph, as a result, one can see the characteristic graphic signs of a two-phase ovulatory cycle. Measurements are performed over several subsequent cycles. Метод рекомендуется специалистами в качестве одной из диагностических процедур, но при отсутствии менструальной дисфункции и/или бесплодия измерять базальную температуру не имеет смысла.

Условно обе фазы менструального цикла равны по продолжительности, чаще каждая продолжается около 2-х недель. Since ovulation divides the menstrual cycle in two, it is conventionally assumed that it belongs to the middle of the cycle.

The first phase of the menstrual cycle

Phase 1 of the menstrual cycle implies the growth and maturation of the follicle and, accordingly, the egg cell.

In the ovaries under the outer (albuminous) sheath there are a lot of thin-walled small vesicles of formations - follicles, and each of them serves as a container for an egg cell. A follicle that has not reached due maturity is referred to as primordial. Primordial follicles mature symmetrically with the egg cell, but for a period equal to one cycle, only one of them reaches maximum maturity.

First, the follicular phase of the pituitary gland cycle produces follicle-stimulating hormone so that the follicle develops correctly. As the follicle matures, its structure changes: it increases slightly (up to 20 mm), is filled with a transparent follicular fluid, and from the inside its cavity is lined by a granular membrane. The primordial follicle that has completed the maturation stage is called the graaf bubble. Cells of the granulosa of the follicle secrete estrogen, responsible for the proper development and growth of the egg.

The state of the endometrium changes in the first phase. Under the direct influence of estrogen (estradiol) in the endometrium, the process of enhanced proliferation (growth) of the outer (functional) mucous layer and the glandular structures located in it starts. The volume of the uterine mucosa increases significantly, the structure of the mucous membrane becomes more loose, many new small blood vessels appear.

Certain structural changes are observed in the muscle layer (myometrium): its cells increase volume (hypertrophy).

The culmination of the first phase of the menstrual cycle is ovulation. When the egg reaches its maximum stage of development and no longer needs the nutrition and protection that the follicle provided for it, the wall of the graaf bubble collapses and releases the egg. A viable egg remains no longer than two days, and then, if fertilization does not happen, dies.

Thus, the first phase of any menstrual cycle:

- matches at the beginning with menstrual bleeding,

- occurs with the participation of follicle stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland,

- characterized by the maturation of the egg,

- accompanied by the secretion of estrogen by the follicle,

- differs in the processes of proliferation and vascularization of the endometrial functional layer,

- ends with an ovulation period.

Elongation of the first phase of the cycle indicates hormonal dysfunction. The long first phase of the menstrual cycle is often associated with impaired ovulation processes. Inadequate or absent ovulation provokes a hormonal failure: the ovaries do not stop secreting estrogens, and the endometrium proliferation of the endometrium continues in the uterus. The result of such violations are often serious pathological changes, when the diagnosis of the causes of uterine dysfunctional bleeding and / or infertility reveals a long first phase of the menstrual cycle, as well.

In order not to get confused in the variety of terms, patients need to remember that the first phase of the cycle can be called follicular (as it is characterized by the process of follicle maturation) or the phase of proliferation (according to structural adjustment in the endometrium). The second phase can also be characterized in different ways: it is called luteal or secretory.

Second phase of the menstrual cycle

The second, secretory, phase of the menstrual cycle starts immediately after the accomplished ovulation. At the same time, another regulating hormone, luteinizing (LH), begins to be produced in the pituitary gland. When an egg leaves a ruptured follicle, hemorrhage develops in it and. The remaining cells of the granular membrane begin to actively divide, germinate in small vessels (vascularization) and are gradually transformed into a new, temporarily existing hormone structure, called the "yellow body". It got its name because of the yellow substance produced by the cells of the granulosa shell of the destroyed graaf bubble. After the beginning of the functioning of the corpus luteum, the maturation of new follicles stops and resumes only at the end of the second phase.

The second, luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is closely related to the hormonal activity of the corpus luteum, which is secreted by the hormone progesterone. Immediately after ovulation, the increasing concentration of progesterone provokes further changes in the endometrium in the form of stromal proliferation and an increase in glandular structures. The glands of the mucous membrane begin to intensively produce a secret, their cavity expands, the stroma cells become voluminous. The secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, in fact, prepares the endometrium for potential implantation of the ovum, that is, for the development of pregnancy. If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum continues to function to keep the fetus in the uterus until the placenta is formed. Then, passing her the baton, the corpus luteum is reduced.

If the fertilization of the egg does not happen, the corpus luteum, according to the law of feedback, begins to regress. The process of its reverse development is accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of progesterone. The corpus luteum dies shortly before the next menstruation, and in the endometrium the processes of degeneration start. The overgrown mucous layer is gradually rejected.

The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle always ends with bleeding. Menstruation is the result of complete rejection of the functional (surface) epithelial layer of the uterine cavity, which is restored again after 5-6 days.

Thus, the 2nd phase of the menstrual cycle:

- occurs with the participation of the hormone progesterone, produced by the corpus luteum,

- accompanied by the activation processes of glandular structures of the endometrium,

- different degeneration of the mucous membrane on the background of the death of the corpus luteum,

- ends with menstrual bleeding.

You will soon get used to menstruation, and it will seem to you to be just as natural a process as breathing. You will know your period of menstruation, learn to better understand the signals of your body and listen to them. Below you can read useful information about the menstrual cycle, as well as what will happen in your body between critical days.

What is the menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is the period from the beginning of one menstruation to the next. It is approximately 30 days. That is why this cycle is called menstrual (in translation from the Latin mensis means “month”). During this time, many changes will occur in your body, among which you may notice only. In fact, everything is not so simple.

What happens during your menstrual cycle?

The cycle will begin as soon as your body begins to produce a sufficient amount of the necessary sex hormones. Under their influence, the first egg will mature in your ovaries. Then it will happen regularly, about once every four weeks. After maturation, the egg leaves the ovary and reaches the fallopian tube. In this case, you will be able to notice the abundant transparent discharge from the vagina.

After about three or four days, the egg cell, passing through the fallopian tube, will reach the uterus.

As the egg moves, the uterine lining (endometrium) starts to thicken. In this phase of the cycle, your body prepares a place to place a fertilized egg. In the endometrium will accumulate nutrients, strengthen blood vessels.

If the egg cell is not fertilized at a certain time, then the implantation does not occur. Secretory transformations occur in the uterus and approximately two weeks after the onset of ovulation, the upper layers of the endometrium begin to tear away. At the same time there will be a selection of bleeding, which is called menstruation. At this cycle will be completed. With the advent of menstruation, a new egg cell will begin to mature in your body. The menstrual cycle will resume.

How many days is the menstrual cycle?

The duration of the cycle may vary in different girls. On average, this period is four weeks, or 28 days. But this is only a theory. Sometimes it is longer, and sometimes shorter. Monthly can come and in 24 days, and in 33 days. All this is the norm. All menstruation go differently, and, consequently, the time between them. The first is considered the day when bloody discharge from the genital tract begins.

The pink color on the graphs indicates the menstruation days, yellow - the period of ovulation (the most favorable time for conception).

What if the menstrual cycle is irregular?

You should not expect a regular menstrual cycle immediately after the beginning of the first menstrual period (). Your body is just being formed and it needs some time to cope with the increased load and achieve a certain balance.

The first menstrual cycle can be short or, on the contrary, long. Therefore, you do not have to worry if your periods come irregularly and often do not start on the day you expect.

If the monthly intensive and abundant, it is recommended to use in the first days, and then.

Will the monthly flow always be the same?

The menstrual cycle can change as you grow and develop your body. The cycle can also become longer or shorter. Most women note a certain change in the intensity, duration and duration of menstruation. As a rule, they are most irregular in young girls and in some women before menopause. The regularity of the cycle may vary due to the use of birth control pills. Today, there are many different sizes. Each of these products provides a certain level of protection. You can pick up tampons that meet the needs of girls who have just started their period.

Normal discharge from women indicates health. Normally, they must be present in every woman. However, they may not always be harmless. In many cases, the selection of unnatural hues, accompanied by

It would be easier for a woman to live if the first signs of pregnancy appeared the very next day after fertilization of the egg. Unfortunately, this does not happen. A woman should clearly monitor the menstrual cycle, visit a gynecologist and listen

Emotional breakdowns are familiar to most women during their periods. In one way or another, we allow one to be “a little bit insane” on such days. The problem would not be so painful if so many women around the world were not subject to change

How the cycle is calculated

The most incorrect way to calculate the date of arrival of the next critical days on a calendar date, it is very often used by inexperienced young girls. For example, menstrual flow went on the 3rd of January, and the lady is expected to follow the monthly periods on the 3rd of February, and she is very surprised when she starts to bleed a little earlier.

In fact, the cycle is not tied to a specific date, it is characterized by a certain duration, which is individual for each woman, and the countdown of the new cycle starts from the first day of the following regulatives. The number of days that have passed from the beginning of the previous menstruation to the beginning of the current, is precisely the cycle length. This parameter can vary within 21-35 days, the main thing is that the monthly should be at regular intervals.

If the cycle time in each month is different, and at the same time the woman feels discomfort or even sharp pain in the lower abdomen, she should always consult with a specialist.

How many days between the monthly norm?

No specialist will give a specific answer to the question of what the interval between the monthly is considered the norm. This interval is individual for each woman. The average frequency of the onset of regul is 28 days, and it is this cycle that is artificially formed when using contraceptive hormonal drugs. In life, not every woman can boast perfect health and a cycle of 28 days. Specialists allow a deviation in this indicator of +/- 7 days, that is, with a minimum cycle duration, periods start every 21 days, and the maximum interval between regulations, which can be considered the norm, is 35 days. During this period, the woman’s reproductive system must undergo many important processes aimed at preparing the body for a possible pregnancy and bearing a fetus:

  • matures a dominant follicle,
  • the follicle is torn and the ripe egg leaves,
  • preparing enough for the implantation of a fertilized egg endometrial layer,
  • a corpus luteum is formed, which releases pregnancy hormones.

Each process of the above should be complete and complete, otherwise there are irregularities in the menstrual cycle - it shortens or lengthens. In case of one-time failures, you should not panic, but if your period starts to come irregularly in each cycle, then you should seek medical help.

Normally, the intervals between the regulations may be unstable in adolescents, in women during the period of withering of reproductive function, after childbirth and while taking certain medications. If the cycle is violated, but all these factors are missing, then the cause may be pathological. In addition, it is worth to worry if the monthly began to take place more abundantly or poorly, as well as if their duration is too shortened or lengthened.

The following factors can alter the gap between critical days:

  • drastic weight loss or weight gain before the cycle, unbalanced diet, alcohol, bad habits,
  • stressful situations can increase the break between regulation
  • increased physical or psycho-emotional stress
  • climate change,
  • abortion, surgery.

If, in addition to changing the interval between menstruation, a woman feels severe pain in the lower abdomen, bloating, nausea, dizziness, or any other unpleasant symptoms, this may be a sign of inflammatory or infectious diseases, endometriosis, polyps, myomas, or cancers in the reproductive organs.

The gap between ovulation and the following regulations

The length of the gap between menstruation in most cases is determined by the moment when ovulation occurs. An indicator of the norm is the release of the egg from the dominant follicle on day 14 after the start of the regul. If the cycle is 28 days, then from ovulation to the next menstrual period should also pass 14 days, but a minimum delay of 1-2 days is allowed.

If a woman is characterized by the arrival of menstruation every 28 days, but for any reason ovulation occurred earlier, for example, on days 11-12, then menstruation will also come earlier on days 25-26. A similar situation may occur after the successful completion of the treatment of any pathology. Similarly, the body shows that he has recovered and is ready to bear offspring. Reducing the duration of the first phase of the cycle can rest in a hot climate zone or on mineral waters. If menstruation comes a little earlier than usual, no need to panic, it is important that the cycle does not become less than 21 days.

The second, luteal phase from ovulation to the arrival of the next regulator lasts 14 days clearly, but the first part of the cycle is too influenced by various factors, which leads to both slow and rapid maturation of the egg, and this leads to a lengthening or shortening of the cycle as a whole . With age, the interval between menstruation increases, and closer to menopause, it can reach up to 40-48 days, this is not a pathology, if the figure is approximately the same from month to month.

Small cycle

Ovulation is a very complex process for which the body prepares in advance, so immediately after menstruation, new ovulation cannot occur. The ripening of the follicle takes some time, for this reason, the first 8-10 days of the cycle are conventionally considered safe for pregnancy. It is on this principle that the calendar method of protection is based.

But the female body is a very subtle mechanism, which can be affected by almost any factor, so it is difficult to predict what effect on the range between monthly changes in lifestyle or another quarrel with the boss at work. In theory, conception can occur on the 7-8th day of the cycle, when conditions are created for the rapid maturation of the egg, and such cases do occur, especially when the normal duration of the cycle due to the individual characteristics of the organism for a woman is less than 21 days.

The minimum break between periods can occur during adolescence and during menopause, as well as due to hormonal imbalance. For example, when progesterone levels increase significantly, the egg cell may not even mature. The follicular phase, which usually lasts 2 weeks, can be reduced to 7 days. Most often, when the period between periods becomes less than 21 days, there is no ovulation. Диагностировать подобную аномалию можно на УЗИ, которое проводится в разные фазы на протяжении месяца.

Большой цикл

If a woman’s monthly period occurs every 28-35 days, there is no need to worry, this cycle duration is a variant of the norm. A large gap between the regulations is observed in cases where the length of the follicular phase increases. Most often, this phenomenon is due to the peculiarities of the hormonal background, under which the body needs more time to mature the follicle and release the egg.

If the monthly come more than 35 days, you should consult with your doctor, as this may be a sign of pathology. Closer to the pre-menopausal period, the interval between menstruation may actually increase, but gradually. This is due to changes in the process of maturation of the egg due to the withering of the reproductive function of the ovaries.

If long delays occur in women of reproductive age, the diagnosis of oligomenorrhea can be established. This is a condition in which menstruation occurs after 40 days or more, caused by ovarian depletion. Such a pathology requires mandatory treatment. Additional symptoms of the disease are acne on the face and back, as well as an increased level of testosterone, which suppresses the maturation of the egg. The menstrual flow with oligomenorrhea is very scarce and more like a daub.

Increasing the duration of the interval between critical days may endocrine diseases, which lead to a violation of the secretion of hormones by the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid. If a woman is in reproductive age and is still planning to have children, she should definitely find out the reason for both lengthening and shortening of the cycle duration, and to undergo treatment of the pathologies found.

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