It is not in vain that gynecologists closely monitor the condition of the cervix - changes in this organ signal not only pregnancy, ovulation and the onset of menstruation, but also many infectious diseases and pathological deviations.
Usually endometriosis, cancer and other malignant tumors affect the state of the cervix. Therefore, it is recommended to check the body before menstruation and during ovulation.
What happens to the uterus before the critical days?
It is considered normal if the cervix before menstruation is firm to the touch and dry. When ovulation, on the contrary, it opens and becomes loose, preparing for fertilization. If the pregnancy did not come, then there will be critical days. The position of the cervix before menstruation is low. A completely different picture with ovulation and conception - the organ softens, becomes wet, and the pharynx opens slightly (a symptom of the pupil). So the cervix before menstruation and during pregnancy are two different things. It is on these grounds that the gynecologist can determine conception in the early stages. In addition, the fertilized uterus acquires a bluish tinge, as during this period the number of vessels in the organ increases.
Also, many women are not only interested in how to touch, but also how the cervix looks before menstruation. Of course, it is impossible to look into the vagina and examine the organ on its own, but you can determine its appearance by palpation - the uterus descends and is easily palpable, and the pharynx is tightly compressed. That is, if during ovulation the cervix looks like a tubercle with an expanded pupil, then before the critical days the organ’s “eye” is much smaller.
The neck during menstruation
We found out what is the state of the cervix before menstruation, now we will find out how it looks directly on critical days. At this time, the pharynx slightly expands, as in ovulation, but the purpose of this disclosure is different - not the willingness to fertilize, but the desire to erupt blood clots. Such a position of the cervix during menstruation creates fertile ground for the reproduction of bacteria and the addition of infection. That is why on critical days it is not recommended to swim in open reservoirs, visit the pool, engage in unprotected sex and introduce foreign objects into the vagina - fingers, gynecological mirror. Although the moderate mucous secretions that are observed during this period are designed to protect a woman from infections, it is not worth the risk.
The condition of the cervix with menstruation requires observance of external hygiene. Ideally, you should wash twice a day, not counting procedures after a bowel movement. You can not wipe the anus in the direction forward - such actions are fraught with infection. It is also strongly recommended not to carry out water procedures inside the vagina during this period - no douching and injecting of intimate hygiene products. Often during menstruation, women experience pain in the uterus. Most often they are associated with rejection of blood clots. In this case, help the usual antispasmodics. But sometimes painful cervical contractions signal an infection or pathology in the development of an organ. Therefore, do not neglect routine examinations at the gynecologist, so as not to bring a banal ailment to infertility.
By the way, it is not so much pain, which is often a sign of dysmenorrhea, as abundant discharges warn about abnormalities - myomas, endometriosis, impaired blood clotting and acute infections. In any case, after menstruation, especially if the pain in the uterus is not stopped, you should consult a doctor and do an ultrasound. If the cause of discomfort is dysmenorrhea, then it makes sense, along with painkillers or contraceptives, to drink away a course of vitamins and the Omega-3 complex. If the cause of pain in serious diseases, it is necessary to immediately proceed to the treatment prescribed by the gynecologist.
A healthy cervix after menstruation begins to re-prepare for conception. Immediately after the end of the critical days, the pharynx narrows, as the bleeding stopped. At the same time as the organ is pulled upwards, the growth of endometria begins, into which, at conception, a fertilized egg can be implanted. In addition to the high location, the state of the cervix before and after menstruation is similar - the same dryness and density of tissues.
But during the period of ovulation, the organ again loosens and begins to secrete mucus. The contraction of the uterus is the norm during this period, but if it is still enlarged, then we can talk about pregnancy, a tumor or an infection.
No need to think that conception during menstruation is impossible - despite the reduced fertility of the organ, there is a certain percentage of the probability of becoming pregnant. Therefore, if the uterus after critical days has not diminished, then it is necessary to pass the analysis for hCG or make an ultrasound.
Another thing, if you are not pregnant, but neoplasms are found on the neck - we can talk about polyps, erosion or myoma. However, to determine whether the uterus is enlarged or not, only a gynecologist can. Feels like a woman is unlikely to be able to independently identify suspicious signs.
Naturally, there is a method of preliminary diagnosis, which is easy to apply at home. This is an independent palpation of the cervix. It is necessary to carry out the manipulation with extreme caution.
Palpation of the uterus at home: recommendations and precautions
If you are worried about something, it is easier to conduct a preliminary inspection of the house than to be nervous before going to the gynecologist. It is better to cut the nails on the index and middle finger of the right hand before the beginning of palpation and wear a sterile glove.
The easiest way to feel the uterus is sitting on the toilet, squatting or putting one foot on the sofa, the edge of the bath, etc. You can try to take a position similar to what you are taking in a gynecological chair.
So, insert two fingers into the vagina and feel the tubercle. It is quite easy, the main thing is not to make sudden movements in order to avoid injuries to the body. But to determine the consistency of the cervix is not so easy, if you are not a professional. Amateur will only help the method of comparison.
And yet you can find out something yourself - if the middle finger literally rested against the cervix, it means that it is located rather low, as before menstruation. If you barely reach it, then the uterus is reduced, as it should be after menstruation. Remember, before and especially during critical days, palpation of the organ is not recommended.
What is fraught with self-examination
If you are used to constantly palpate the cervix, refrain from manipulation at least 2-3 days before menstruation. Even the doctor will prefer to postpone the examination until the end of the month and that is why:
- at this time, partial dilation of the cervix begins, so it is easy to infect the infection and get inflammation of the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Against this background, adhesions may form, leading to infertility.
- even if you use sterile gloves there is a risk of damaging the cervix. Usually such injuries heal quickly, unless, of course, there is an accession of the infection.
- for the most part, independent palpation of the organ does nothing, and pathology can be detected only by a doctor. After all, the gynecologist not only feels the cervix, but also examines it with a mirror.
These warnings are not a direct prohibition of self-palpation, but suggest that with any suspicious symptoms it is better to consult a doctor and clarify the diagnosis in a professional way.
Check (examination) of the cervix.
Checking the cervix is quite simple. At the same time, it is necessary to know which signs to pay attention to and what a woman should feel.
Wash your hands before cervical screening.
The first thing you need to pay attention to when checking the cervix is its rigidity (hardness). The softening of the cervix is an excellent indicator of ovulation. Knowing this, a woman can determine her most fertile time of the month, that is, the days during which it is easiest to conceive a child.
Next, you need to check the position in which the cervix is located, namely how low or high. The closer the ovulation, the higher it is. At the same time, the cervix may rise 2.5 cm to the pelvic region, and decrease again at the end of ovulation.
And in the end, checking the cervix can be seen, it is open or closed. Knowing her condition, a woman can easily determine the phases of her cycle. For example, when ovulation occurs, cervical dilatation begins. When this happens you can even stick your finger in there.
So, how to properly implement the above points?
Check always do in one position. To do this, it is better to put one foot on a low chair or stool. Then insert the finger into the vagina and feel its upper surface and walls.
It is most convenient to feel the cervix with your fingertip (inside). If you cannot feel the cervix, you must press on the lower abdomen. Just make sure you do this with every neck check. This is necessary because constancy is very important for accurate graphing of cervical feelings.
Then, on opposite sides of the cervix, place one of the fingers and connect them to collect the mucus that is there. Make sure that while the cervix is not compressed. When collecting mucus, observe the strength (hardness), the degree of openness and the position of the cervix. Then the closed fingers should be pulled out, and check the cervical mucus obtained in this way using the advice described in the article “Preparing for conception”. If necessary, ovulation can be determined using basal body temperature.
When should the cervix be checked?
During menstruation, it is not necessary to check the cervix. Remember that during this period you will not only fail to recognize signs of fertility, but also you can bring an infection there.
The cervix also cannot be checked in such cases:
- Immediately after a long lying down or sleep. In this case, the cervix is often higher before your first ascent.
After defecation, as the cervix may change position.
If you have a Pap smear # 2 or higher, you must stop cervical screening before it returns to normal.
The culminating day of cervical screening is the last day of signs of fertility, which include slippery mucus or slippery sensation, as well as an open, soft or low cervix.
This period will be the best time for sexual intercourse to conceive a child.
How to make a graph of cervical changes?
Any changes may indicate fertility, so remember to remember the sensations of the cervix during the infertile period. This will allow you to determine when changes occur in fertility. Often, observations take from 1 to 3 cycles, so it is very important to make the correct schedule of the cervix.
When observing and scheduling, be as consistent as possible. This will enable you to better see the structure of the cervix capable of conception.
Changes in the cervix are most easily displayed. FERTILITY TABLE. It can also be used to determine ovulation by recording basal temperature and cervical mucus readings.
In the table, the closed cervix is denoted by a dot, and the open one by a circle. If the location of the cervix in the vaginal canal is low, in the area of observation of the cervix, draw it below, and vice versa, if high, draw it higher in the area of observation of the cervix.
If during the examination there is cervical mucus, then in the line of observations for cervical mucus add the letter "P" - early mucus, "P" - transitional mucus and "I" - like egg white or fertile mucus. Then enter "T" if the cervix is hard, or "M" if the neck is soft. In addition, you will find in the table other designations required to determine fertility, ovulation and the best time to conceive a child.
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What is the complexity of the method?
The female body is arranged in an amazing way - immediately after fertilization of the egg, the active growth of the ovum begins with the advancement into the uterus. Immediately begins an active hormonal and physiological adjustment - a woman is preparing for a safe carrying and childbirth. But how to determine pregnancy on the cervix, even before going to the antenatal clinic?
When viewed by a gynecologist to the touch, you can even set the duration of pregnancy - a specialist with the help of palpation determines the size of the body with the embryo growing inside. You can call a more accurate date, if you keep a schedule of cycles, where the marked days of ovulation. At home, self-diagnosis will only be approximate. It is necessary to have at least a general idea of the size and shape of the cervix, its density and color before conception and after the fact, as in the figure.
Not all women, even those who have given birth, have a complete understanding of the internal genitals and how they work. What is the role of each reproductive segment in PA, during fertilization and gestation? If this basic knowledge is not available, it is difficult to understand how to determine pregnancy by the uterine cervix.
To look to yourself "there", even with a mirror, is problematic, especially for women with overweight. The only way to compare the cervix before and after pregnancy is to feel in the vagina during hygienic procedures in order to compare the changes.
Attention: This type of diagnosis is very accurate, but it is also considered in the complex of sensations and symptoms. Due to the complexity of self-examination, it is rarely used even by those who know how to determine pregnancy by uterus.
Where is the cervix?
The uterus belongs to the internal organs, therefore not visible. The cervix at the lowest part goes into the vagina, this is the visible part, which makes the visual diagnosis of the organ. It is firmly rooted in the vagina, so all sensations are transmitted from the walls of one organ to another (with PA and touches).
You can groping determine pregnancy by the uterus, and visually - by the neck. In the uterus, mucus is constantly produced, including bleeding during menstruation. A cork is formed in its neck, blocking the internal organ to protect against infections and moisture from the external environment.
Attention: Do not think that the neck is a minor organ, the level of protection of the fetus and its retention during pregnancy depend on its condition. If she has lost elasticity and elasticity, the doctor during the examination can determine the impending miscarriage and take steps to preserve the pregnancy.
The specialist also knows how to determine pregnancy in case of uterine myoma (an internal neoplasm from a pathological proliferation of tissues). On visual examination, the doctor can evaluate only the cervical part, but this is enough to assess the state of health of the entire genital organ.
The cervix has a simple structure - a rounded muscular body, slightly advanced in the upper part of the vagina. It differs in tissue structure and color from the vaginal walls. This pinkish tubercle is coated with mucus and a small hole in the center is the cervical canal. It closes in the normal state, but slightly expands during menstruation.
The passage into the uterus is filled with a mucus plug. The size of the cervix is small - about 2.5 cm in circumference up to 4 cm in length. It's amazing how this miniature light pink "tunnel" opens and expands during childbirth, so that a baby head goes into the aisle!
During ovulation, the mucus plug is diluted so that the most active sperm can overcome this barrier. The cervix is slightly raised and becomes softer, making the vagina more free to penetrate the male organ.
How to determine pregnancy by touch
Every gynecologist knows how to determine pregnancy in the uterus, even in the early stages - the lower part of this organ is informative. It is shifting, changing color, size and density of tissues, they say that the cervix is soft and "oak". These changes are considered the most significant signs of pregnancy, along with the absence of menstruation in its time frame. In addition, traces remain on the cervix:
- transferred operations
- abortions and miscarriages,
- happy birth,
- internal uterine pathologies.
As the vaginal part can be a lot to understand, for example, if the flat neck - the woman did not give birth, conical - were giving birth. But not only there is an opportunity to determine pregnancy by the neck to the touch. Really understand the phase of the cycle (pre-ovulation, ovulation, premenstrual).
The specialist can easily diagnose the fact of fertilization, even the approximate duration of pregnancy. In women who have not given birth, this pharynx is small and round, after birth it closes like a slit. После кесаревого сечения шейка больше похожа на зев нерожавшей, хотя шейка становится чуть больше по размеру.
Об этом нужно знать, перед тем как определить беременность на ощупь по матке:
- In women before pregnancy, the neck is firm, about the wings of a nose, after conception - softer, about the lips.
- Before pregnancy, the cervix has a velvety pink color, and after it becomes blue (from active blood circulation and the growth of the vascular network, in order to actively supply the fetus with nutrients).
- Under the influence of progesterone (hormone), the cervix descends - a consequence of the completed fertilization.
What changes are in the cervix after conception?
Minor deviations in the state of the reproductive organs can only be determined by a specialist. There are individual features of the body and pathology, but usually it is necessary to focus on the average indices before determining pregnancy by the cervix. It is very difficult to estimate the density of tissues by yourself, without having a medical education and feeling experience.
Warning: If something “seemed” during self-examination, do not rush to wind your fantasies and make a diagnosis! Up to 6 weeks, it is difficult to understand when feeling yourself, whether pregnant or not.
Even if there is a pathology, a specialist who can actually determine the state of the genital organs must deal with this. For example, a too hard cervix may indicate a hypertonus (muscle tension) may “signal” about an impending miscarriage. This rarely happens in early pregnancy, so do not panic after feeling. The best way to avoid rejection of the ovum is to get to the nearest medical center.
On examination, the specialist will pay attention to other signs of pregnancy:
- Cyanosis of the cervix and vaginal walls.
- Slight swelling of the external genital organs.
- The change in the size, shape, and consistency of the uterine walls (rounded and enlarged, becomes soft, is called the “Gorvitsa-Gegar symptom”) in the period of 4–6 weeks.
- The uterus after conception becomes easily excitable, prone to sharp cuts, becomes dense and sags during the examination with 2 hands - from the vagina and from the abdominal side, this is "Snegirev's symptom", later she takes the primary position.
- Some mobility of the cervix or the “Gubarev-Gaus symptom”, for some women, there is the “Henter symptom”, this is a forward deviation of the uterus with a comb-shaped thickening in the center.
- Asymmetry of the uterus or "Piscachek symptom" is observed in a two-horned uterus, with one horn slightly larger than the other - a normal phenomenon while the embryo develops on one side of the organ. Over time, it will round up, somewhere after the 8th week of pregnancy.
These are the peculiarities - how can they be determined by pregnancy by touch if not an expert? Any pathology examined by ultrasound. There may be an increase in watery and bloody discharge, rapid heartbeat (from increasing pressure on the bloodstream), frequent urination (due to the displacement of the uterus). There are congenital abnormalities and hormonal disorders. Only a doctor can assess the real condition of a pregnant woman. Especially if an ectopic pregnancy is suspected when the embryo is stuck in the fallopian tubes. We hope you are all well!
The cervix and its condition
The gang is called the lower part of the uterus. It looks like a tube connecting the vagina and the cavity of the genital organ. The average length of this area is 4 cm, and length - 2.5 cm.
Changes occurring in this body, allows you to diagnose pregnancy in the early period, as well as the period of ovulation or regular menstruation. A gynecologist can observe its changes, determine the consistency: there is a hard and soft neck.
Also, this body makes it possible to determine whether there are any abnormalities in the functioning of the female reproductive system.
An experienced gynecologist will be able to assess the various conditions of the cervix.
If it is not possible to visit the doctor often, the girl has the opportunity to identify some conditions on her own. Do it right.
How the cervix looks at different periods, a woman will be able to estimate only by comparison, and also knowing theoretically its parameters.
Uterine cervix during menstruation
From the first day of the cycle, the uterus begins to reject the enlarged endometrium. For this, the neck opens slightly. This happens a few days before the start of the critical days. The position of the uterus becomes lower.
When the body opens, avoid infection in the vagina. To do this:
- Follow the rules of personal hygiene.
- Do not use the pool.
- Do not swim in the ponds.
- Wipe the anus away from the vagina.
- Do not insert into the vagina foreign objects, fingers.
- Do not douche.
The small discharge from the cervical canal that appears at this time is designed to protect the internal environment from infection. But the risk is not worth it.
Cervix after menstruation
A healthy neck in the first phase of the cycle is preparing for the future conception. Her channel is narrowing. Bleeding stops. The uterus is highly tightened, and the endometrium begins to grow in it.
After the completion of menstruation, the neck becomes dry and hard. The cervical canal is closed. This position of the body allows you to avoid infection inside.
The cervix feels hard. To conduct an inspection at home, a woman should compare tactile sensations for two, preferably three cycles.
The soft cervix is determined on examination when the time of ovulation comes. A gynecologist during this cycle period may determine that the pharynx of the organ is opened. This is called the pupil symptom.
You can grope at home neck during ovulation, and note its high humidity. During this period, she rises a little.
If during the examination the cervical canal is open, mucus is liberated from it with a soft surface, then the egg is preparing to leave the ovary. The uterus is ready to receive sperm.
After this, either conception occurs, or the body begins to prepare for the next menstruation. If fertilization has not taken place, the canal is closed on the 16-17th day of the cycle, the organ takes another position.
The cervix before menstruation is low. It is dry and firm to the touch. The gynecologist during the examination will fix the tight compression of the cervical canal. This means that the uterus is not ready to receive sperm.
By the last days of the cycle after the absence of fertilization of the egg, the organ also undergoes a number of changes. The cervical canal is enlarged.
The cervix before menstruation, the day before they begin, is a bit like its appearance during ovulation. Only this time, she opened up not to take sperm, but to tear away the endometrial layer.
Cervix during pregnancy
The uterus during pregnancy undergoes a series of changes. In the early stages, even an experienced gynecologist will not be able to accurately diagnose the conception occurred. After examination, the doctor can determine what changes have occurred with the body.
First, there are hidden changes inside. They can not be so easy to see. She at an early period to delay looks almost like a uterus before menstruation. However, visible changes will appear soon.
It is possible to grope a dense neck with a soft uterus. Pregnancy begins to manifest itself. How many days it takes for the body to determine difficult. In the early stages, the uterus during pregnancy changes in the following parameters:
When fertilization occurs, the color of the neck begins to change. It can be described as bluish. There are objective reasons for this condition of the mucous. They consist in increasing blood flow.
A loose uterus is a sign of early pregnancy. If during the period of ovulation the cervix is high, then after fertilization, progesterone changes its position. During the cycle following ovulation, she falls in the absence of pregnancy.
The size of the reproductive organ with a successful implantation of the cell increases, and by the end of 4 weeks is already comparable with a chicken egg. After fertilization and development of the fetus, it is possible to probe it in the pelvic area.
If the gynecologist performs an examination during this period, he may detect neck mobility due to softening of the isthmus. How long it takes for the body to make all these changes depends on its characteristics.
A soft cervix during pregnancy is one of its first signs.
Palpation at home
Many women before going to the doctor would like to confirm or refute their assumptions about a possible pregnancy. Knowing the basic characteristics, there is a chance to determine the presence of the development of a new life at home before a delay. The uterus during pregnancy is soft. But her neck in non-giving ladies is tightly closed and high. Before menstruation, its position is lower.
Even an experienced specialist would not venture to diagnose pregnancy only on the basis of an examination.
Technique of palpation
This method is used only when it is impossible to visit the doctor often. It can not be used before menstruation, so as not to bring the infection inside. Deciding to use this technique, you must remember about its shortcomings.
Wanting to inspect yourself, you need to follow a number of recommendations:
- Before palpation, it is necessary to cut the nails on the middle and index fingers.
- Wash hands thoroughly and put on sterile gloves.
- Two fingers are inserted deep inside.
- The tubercle inside should be probed and draw conclusions about the state of the cervix.
Disadvantages of self palpation
There are a number of negative qualities in the presented diagnostics. These include the following facts:
- There is a chance of infection and cause various diseases.
- In case of accidental inaccurate movement there is a risk of injury to the neck, which will cause erosion.
- It is impossible to determine with a high degree of probability whether a pregnancy has occurred.
- You still need to go to an appointment with a medical specialist.
Self-diagnosis is considered a rather risky approach. Having even sufficient theoretical and practical experience on this issue, it is almost impossible to draw accurate conclusions about the state of the reproductive system on the basis of palpation at home.
Only the correct examination by a qualified specialist will be an adequate means of determining pregnancy.
The cervix and its purpose
The cervix is considered its integral part. It connects the uterus to the vaginal area. Externally, the cervix resembles a process with a hole at the end. The optimal length of the neck - 4 cm. Through it pass all the discharge of a woman. In addition, the neck is part of the birth canalAfter all, it is she who passes the fetus through herself during childbirth.
During the menstrual cycle, the location and texture of the uterus may vary. Along with this, the nature of the discharge changes. The main criterion by which the state of the cervix is determined is its hardness. It can be hard, resembling the tip of the nose, or soft, like an earlobe. The location of the cervix may be high or as low as possible. Knowing the parameters of the cervix by days of the cycle helps to identify the day of ovulation and diagnose pregnancy before the delay.
The beginning of the menstrual cycle is characterized by preparation for conception for the female body. After the end of the month, the neck begins to pull up and close cervical canal. Discharge stops, and in the uterus, in the meantime, the endometrium begins to grow. Gradually, the cervix may descend into the vagina, but the channel continues to be tightly closed. This is necessary in order to prevent infection in the woman’s body.
In the days before ovulation, the cervix rises abruptly and the canal opens. The ovulation period is characterized by abundant mucous secretions. In gynecology, they are called "egg white." The discharge is similar in its consistency.
If conception did not take place, then the cervix begins to prepare for the arrival of menstruation. It goes down into the vagina and changes the degree of its hardness. Shortly before menstruation, the neck becomes dry and hard. The cervical canal is completely compressed, which prevents sperm penetration into the uterus. Fertility in women during this period is reduced. With the onset of menstruation, the cervix of the uterus rises and pushes the detached layers of the endometrium through itself.
Definition of pregnancy by touch, normal
In the very first weeks of pregnancy, an experienced doctor can determine its presence by the cervix. This is possible and by self palpation.
The gynecologist determines pregnancy by the following criteria:
- The size of the uterus and cervix,
- Cervix shape,
- The position of the cervix in the vagina,
- Degree of hardness
- Neck color,
To determine the color of the neck can only be a doctor, using special tools. During pregnancy, the cervix loses its pink hue, and becomes bluish. This is due to the active flow of blood to the genitals. The position of the cervix during pregnancy is high. The cervical canal is narrowed as no ovulatory or menstrual discharge is foreseen. To the touch the neck becomes soft and even slightly loose texture.
Positioning by self palpation
There are situations in which it is extremely important for a woman to find out if she is pregnant before the delay and before going to the gynecologist. In this case, self-palpation of the cervix can provide partial relief. It should be carried out strictly with clean, disinfected hands, because there is a risk of infection. For a more accurate result, it is recommended to conduct research regularly during several cycles. To understand what position and texture the neck has, you can only based on the comparison.
To avoid unpleasant consequences, you should pay attention to the rules of self-palpation of the cervix.
- Hands should be clean and disinfected. If this is not possible, sterile gloves should be worn.
- The nails of the middle and index finger should not be long, as there is a risk of damaging the surface of the vagina.
- The most comfortable posture for diagnosis - lying on his back, spreading his legs and squatting.
- Push two fingers into the vagina until they press against the neck.
Disadvantages of home diagnostic method
Despite the ease of manipulation, the definition of an interesting position to the touch, at home, contains some negative aspects.
They are as follows:
- Lack of proper sterility leads to the occurrence of infectious diseases,
- Careless movement is fraught with damage. As a result, erosion can occur, which is problematic to cure,
- The percentage of reliability of the method is not high, as a gynecologist's consultation or the use of pregnancy tests,
- If you have a pregnancy, you can harm by causing palpation. uterus tone,
What is a short cervix during pregnancy?
Not always pregnancy can proceed seamlessly. There is such a pathology, which is called - shortened cervix.
This condition is fraught with the risk of abortion. The cervix becomes short under the influence of various injuries or excessive pressure in the size of the fetus. This is also characteristic of high water flow. This pathology can be detected by inspection and palpation of the cervix. Its texture becomes too soft. The neck itself becomes more mobile. The cervical canal is not closed, it can see a lumen. The extent of the anomaly may be different. Early diagnosis allows you to take action on time, and save the pregnancy.
General information about the cervix and its examination
The cervix is a part of the genital organ, which is a 2.5 x 3 cm hollow body. It can be called the connecting link between the vagina and the uterus.
A woman can independently grope this area at home, completely immersing the middle finger in the genital tract. As soon as the tip of the finger touches the bulge, there is no need to move on - the desired element is found.
Pursuing such a diagnosis every day for several cycles, a woman will learn to determine the position of the cervix before menstruation, calculate ovulation and select favorable days for conception. Or, on the contrary, it will understand on which days it is necessary to strengthen contraceptive measures.
The doctor examines the patient's genital tract on the chair using a special mirror. At home, it will be convenient to examine a woman's cervix in several postures:
- Sitting on the toilet.
- Standing, but one foot high.
During menstruation, the study is not carried out. On “clean” days, the organ is felt once a day at bedtime at the same time. If you suspect a gynecological disease of an infectious-inflammatory nature or with the onset of bleeding, the diagnosis is canceled.
Whether the cervix is high or low on a particular day helps to orient its detection rate. With a high location, the area is difficult to palpate, with a low detected immediately. The magnitude of openness is judged by the notch. Если нащупывается небольшая щель, матка закрыта. Если ямка круглая и глубокая, значит, орган открыт.
Despite the simplicity of this method, doctors do not recommend independently examine the internal organs. The ban is justified by the following reasons:
- With an open hole, there is a risk that the uterus will be affected by bacteria. Because of them, the ovaries become inflamed and obstruction of the fallopian tubes develops. In advanced cases, the disease can result in infertility.
- Since before the menstruation the cervix falls slightly, inept palpation can injure it and provoke the development of erosion. The pathological focus is susceptible to infection and is dangerous in terms of oncological transformation.
- A woman does not see the true state of the uterus. The gynecologist assesses the real picture visually with a mirror.
The shape of the cervix before menstruation should have a kind of pupil. Deviation signals estrogen deficiency and malfunctioning of the corpus luteum.
The tone of the uterus in the second half of the cycle is reduced and after ovulation closer to the monthly cervix becomes soft. The outer pharynx opens to such an extent that a fingertip penetrates inside.
The high location of the cervix helps sperm to get to the fallopian tube faster. The glandular part of the cervical canal intensively produces clear, whitish mucus. Alkaline secret indicator reaches 8 units. Slime does not stretch.
In the absence of a fertilized egg, the body begins to prepare for the rejection of the endometrium. A cork forms in the channel, the neck hardens and falls. The pharynx closes, the cervical canal narrows. In the case of pregnancy, the neck does not change its position. It will be difficult to find a pharynx in the manual way at home.
Experts know exactly what the cervix looks like on the eve of menstruation, and characterize it as follows:
- Located below.
- It has a soft soft surface.
- The outer mouth is open, the channel is expanded.
- There is little cervical mucus.
- The secret has a sticky thick texture.
Thus, before the onset of menstruation, the cervix is fully prepared for the rejection of bleeding. Along with internal changes, there are symptoms of PMS - nagging pain in the lower abdomen and worsening of general well-being.
At the stage of proliferation, the endometrium is restored in the uterus. It forms its own connective substances and circulatory network. The proliferative stage lasts until ovulation occurs. It begins in the second half of the follicular phase.
After menstruation, the cervix undergoes changes again:
- Falls into the vagina.
- The outer pharynx greatly narrowed.
- Endocervix becomes more dense.
- The amount of cervical fluid increases.
- The pH level gradually increases to 7.3 units.
Endocervix is the mucosa of the canal. Its epithelium produces cervical fluid. Its role is to protect the uterine cavity from invading microbes. When the egg leaves the mucus dilutes and facilitates the male semen penetration into the uterus.
Critical days - a difficult stage for the body. Feeling unwell, genitals are at risk of infection. For this reason, it is not recommended to examine the uterus manually, and to constantly use hygienic tampons too.
During the menstrual period, the cervix has other characteristics:
- She is lowered down.
- Resides in a low tone.
- The acidity level is close to 7 units.
- The vaginal epithelium flakes slightly.
- Cervical fluid is excreted in moderate volume.
- The outer throat is ajar, the hole is directed toward the vaginal fornix.
Menstruation occurs in the first segment of the follicular phase of the ovaries. Then begins the preparation of the reproductive system for the next ovulation.
The value of cervical palpation as a diagnostic method
Daily palpation of the cervix, including before menstruation, helps to track cyclical changes. In order not to injure and infect a tender organ, it is necessary to cut off the nail on the desired finger and polish the edge of the plate.
For greater safety, the procedure is best performed with sterile gloves or a fingertip. All data collected before the onset of bleeding, it is recommended to write in a notebook.
The purpose of the diagnosis is to assess the position of the cervix before menstruation and other phases of the cycle, as well as during pregnancy, if it has occurred. It is also important to know the density of the organ in the proliferative and secretory stages of the MC.
The information collected over the course of several months will help a woman with family planning and will signal that they should go to a doctor if there are any deviations.
How the cervix changes throughout the cycle
With menstruation, the endometrium is rejected and comes out with blood. Then inside the uterus, a new layer of mucous membrane builds up, and an egg cell matures in the ovaries. After ovulation, the 2nd half of the cycle begins. Through it, in the torn follicle, a temporary gland is formed - the corpus luteum. It produces the maternity hormone progesterone. If conception did not occur, the corpus luteum dies, and preparation for a new cycle begins.
The cervix can be reached with the middle finger by inserting it into the vagina. At the end, a slippery tubercle with a diameter of up to 3 cm with a hole in the middle is groped - the outer jaw. This is the external entrance of the cervical canal. The organ is designed to drain blood, cervical fluid, sperm and other secretions from the uterus, as well as barrier protection against infection from the vagina.
Phase neck position
In each period of the cycle, the entrance to the uterine cavity has its own physiological norm. It is necessary to distinguish the ovarian cycle, which includes ovulation and follicular with luteal phases, from the stages of uterine transformations: secretory, menstrual, proliferative. The composition of the fluid from the cervical canal is also changing, but at home only its consistency is analyzed. The cervix has 2 conditions: dense, resilient, hard or loose, soft. In addition, there are 2 of its position: high and low.
Diagnosis of the neck before menstruation
At home, palpation is performed daily to observe cyclical changes. It is advisable to get rid of the manicure and carefully polish the cut edge of the nail. It is recommended to use sterile gloves or a fingertip. This will prevent accidental mechanical damage to mucous membranes and prevent erosion on the body of the body. Manipulation is carried out regularly, writing data in a notebook, and during menstruation, palpation is stopped, so as not to introduce an infection into the cervical canal and uterus.
Mandatory requirement for self-diagnosis: the absence of gynecological pathologies, hygiene, hand disinfection, sanitary conditions that meet the standards.
Manipulation should be carried out at the same time. This is usually done at bedtime. After intercourse, palpation should be postponed to the next day.
The purpose of diagnosis is to find out the position of the cervix before menstruation, during ovulation, at the beginning of pregnancy, to determine how it feels during the proliferative and secretory stages. Information will be needed when planning the conception of a child, for timely referral to a gynecologist if the pathology of the uterine entrance is suspected, if the structure and form have changed abnormally during the cycle.
Palpation is carried out after intimate hygiene. It is more convenient to do this, squatting or standing, placing one foot on a stool or sitting on the toilet. That is, the position of the body is the same as with the introduction of a tampon. It is necessary to push the middle finger into the vagina for the entire length. Finding the cervix to the touch, it is necessary to do light circular and patting movement on the surface.
If the uterine canal is open, the gnarled bump is slippery, is high, and the basal temperature is elevated, which means that the ovulatory period begins.
As the month approaches, the cervix will lower and the cervical fluid will become viscous. If there was no fertilization, the body increases in diameter before menstruation, the edges of the external pharynx soften, the cervical cap begins to go out intensively, tinted with blood. After palpation, the data are recorded and the information is compared with the medical literature.
Causes for gynecological examination
The doctor sees how the cervix looks before menstruation or in another phase, which occurs with the epithelium of the lining of the uterine body and cervical canal. Medical diagnostics includes instrumental and laboratory studies, cytology. The use of a video colposcope allows you to see the state of the isthmus and internal os. As a result, medical examination gives a complete picture of the cervical tissues, about whether there are erosion and neoplasms.
Most cyclical changes affect the ovaries and mucous membranes inside the uterus and on its neck. In women who have given birth, it is easier to determine the state of the uterine entrance at different stages of the cycle by touch. Doctors warn that improper palpation at home can cause complications: inflammation, erosion, risk of infertility.