Polyp of the cervical canal is an outgrowth of a round or oval shape that occurs in the lumen of the cervix. Education grows from epithelial tissue and occurs in 5% of all women of reproductive age. Often a polyp is detected during pregnancy. The proliferation of cervical tissue is not particularly dangerous for the fetus, but it can bleed, and this causes understandable anxieties and doubts. In recent years, growth of cervical canal polyps has been observed, which is associated with an increase in the number of endocrine disorders and inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive organs.
A special form of the disease that occurs only during gestation. The polyp is formed from the decidual membrane - the part of the endometrium that provides the fetus with nutrition and protection for 40 weeks. Mucous tissue of the uterus expands to create favorable conditions for the development of the baby. It happens that the decidual tissue is formed in excess, and part of it extends beyond the uterus, hanging down into the lumen of the cervical canal. On examination, this formation is seen as a polyp — a mushroom outgrowth on the pedicle.
Many factors are involved in the development of the decidual polyp, but this is primarily about hormonal alterations during pregnancy. It is believed that excessive tissue proliferation provokes previous miscarriages and abortions with curettage of the uterus, but this theory has not been confirmed. The exact causes of the development of pathology are not known.
The decidual polyp is not dangerous for the fetus and the woman. It exists throughout pregnancy and safely goes into labor with the placenta. Such a polyp does not ozlokachestvlyaetsya and only rarely infected with the activation of conditionally pathogenic flora of the genital tract. No treatment required.
During pregnancy, there are not only decidual, but also other types of formations on the cervix. These are polyps that occur predominantly before the conception of a child, although the development of the disease at any time during gestation is possible. According to the histological structure, such polyps are divided into several groups:
- Glandular - consists exclusively of cells of the mucous layer and contains in its structure the gland. This formation is small, rarely reaching 2 cm in length. The risk of malignancy is minimal. After deletion almost never occurs again in the same place.
- Glandular fibrous - consists of connective tissue and mucous cells. It grows up to 2-3 cm, rarely malignant. After removal can recur.
- Fibrous - A polyp mainly from connective tissue. Reaches the big sizes. It occurs at an age close to the natural menopause, therefore, it is rarely detected during pregnancy. May be reborn into a malignant tumor. Often recurs after removal.
- Adenomatous - grows out of the mucous epithelium, but in its structure contains atypical cells. It is detected mainly in the late reproductive age and closer to menopause. It is considered a precancerous condition, often recurs.
The histological type of a polyp is established after its removal or a targeted biopsy. Before conducting an instrumental study, finding out the type of education is quite difficult.
By location, all polyps are divided into two types:
- Polyp of the cervical canal, which occurs in the endocervix and is not associated with the uterine cavity.
- Endometrial polyp reaching the cervical canal and beyond.
When viewed in the mirrors, it is difficult to distinguish one option from another, so the doctor will only talk about a polyp of the cervical canal. Find out the localization of education after hysteroscopy.
Causes of development of cervical polyps
The exact causes of the appearance of polyps are not known. There are several risk factors:
- Hormonal disorders. Malfunction of the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries and adrenal glands can lead to an overgrowth of mucous membranes and the appearance of polyps. A large role is played by hyperestrogenemia - a condition in which there is an increase in the level of estrogen against the background of relative deficiency of progesterone. In future mothers, hormonal imbalances can cause miscarriage, so in some cases a polyp should be considered as a risk factor for abortion.
- Cervical canal injuries - consequence of abortion, difficult childbirth, instrumental diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The damaged mucosa grows during regeneration, which leads to the appearance of a polyp.
- Chronic inflammatory diseases of the cervix. Recurrent cervicitis leads to the fact that the mucous layer of the organ is damaged, the ducts of the glands become blocked, tissue proliferation and the appearance of polyps occur. Against the background of chronic inflammation, polyps can be combined with cysts of the cervix.
- Immunological disorders. Constant stress or strong shocks, hard physical work - all this leads to a decrease in immunity, activation of infectious processes, the development of polyps and other comorbidities.
- Genetic predisposition. It is noticed that the tendency to the appearance of polyps is inherited.
Polyps growing from the uterus are often combined with endometrial hyperplastic process and require special attention from the doctor.
Symptoms of the disease
For a long time polyps of the cervical canal do not bother a woman. Often, such structures are detected by chance during routine examination by a gynecologist. If adverse conditions occur, the following symptoms occur:
- Contact bleeding and bleeding from the genital tract. Occur after intimacy, douching, transvaginal ultrasound or gynecological examination.
- Abundant clear vaginal discharge without peculiar smell.
- Pulling pains in the lower abdomen are noted with large polyps.
- Discomfort during sexual intercourse or when walking occurs with a significant growth of the hearth.
Contact bleeding is the main symptom of a cervical polyp. During pregnancy, bleeding episodes can be repeated quite often. The mucous membrane of the genital tract during gestation is well supplied with blood and becomes very vulnerable. Discharges can be of varying intensity - from scant smearing spots on linen to obvious bleeding, requiring the use of absorbent pads. With such symptoms, the expectant mother is hospitalized in a hospital with suspected miscarriage or placental abruption (in later periods). Further tactics will depend on the results of the survey.
Diagnostic scheme: how to recognize a cervical polyp
The following methods help diagnose:
- Gynecological examination. In the mirrors, a cervical polyp is seen as a rounded or mushroom-shaped protrusion protruding from the lumen of the cervical canal. The intensity of color varies from pale pink to bright red. At this stage it is impossible to calculate where the polyp grows from and to which species it belongs, but you can only set a preliminary diagnosis.
- Cytological examination - assessment of the cellular composition of the polyp. Allows you to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors.
- Colposcopy - examination of the cervix under high magnification. During the study, the decidual polyp can be distinguished from another pathology. It is performed at any stage of pregnancy, does not require anesthesia, and does not pose a danger to the fetus.
- Biopsy - material sampling for histological examination. In pregnant women, it is performed with caution and only according to strict indications (frequent bleeding, suspicion of malignancy).
- Ultrasound of the uterus. Allows you to identify endometrial polyps by the characteristic thickening of the M-echo. Best of all, ultrasound shows fibrous formations, whereas glandular ones are not always visualized. In the later periods, the study is uninformative.
Outside of pregnancy, hysteroscopy may be required to assess the size and localization of a polyp — endoscopic examination of the uterine cavity with examination of the mucous membrane under magnification.
Consequences for the fetus
Uncomplicated polyp of the cervical canal is not dangerous for the course of pregnancy, especially when it comes to the growth of decidual tissue. Such education exists up to the birth and usually safely goes along with the placenta.
Polyp, accompanied by frequent bleeding, disrupts the normal rhythm of life of the future mother. Hospitalizations and examinations, anxiety for the baby - all this plunges a woman into a state of chronic stress. And even the belief that the polyp itself is not dangerous does not always help to cope with legitimate fears. In such a situation, the only way to solve the problem is to remove the polyp.
Infected polyp, which appeared on the background of chronic cervicitis, threatens with intrauterine infection of the fetus. The risk is small, but the expectant mother should not ignore the symptoms of inflammation and postpone a visit to the doctor. When infection shows local anti-inflammatory treatment based on the duration of pregnancy or removal of the polyp.
A polyp with suspicion of malignancy is a serious problem, and expectant tactics are not justified here. After the biopsy, the question of surgery. Such a complication may be an indication for abortion.
Births with polyps of the cervical canal are conducted through the natural birth canal, if education does not block the exit from the pelvis. Otherwise, prior removal of the formation is required. For large polyps, cesarean section is performed.
Tactics of treatment for a polyp of the cervical canal
Outside of pregnancy, all polyps found in the lumen of the cervix should be removed. An exception is made for formations of small size - up to 5 mm. If the polyp does not bother and does not interfere with the conception of the child, you can not touch it. The growth of education, the appearance of bleeding or infertility is a cause for polypectomy.
Polyp removal methods:
- Traditional polypectomy with conchotome.
- Laser polypectomy - the operation is performed with a high-precision laser.
- Loop excision - excision of a polyp along with cervical tissue with a thin loop.
- Conical excision of the cervix (conization) is carried out with large polyps, as well as suspected malignant degeneration of education.
The removed polyp is sent to the laboratory for histological examination. The bed of education is cauterized with a laser, radio waves or other available method.
A expectant tactic is indicated during pregnancy. If the polyp is not bloodied and does not bother, it is not touched. Removal of education by any, even the most gentle method, can cause miscarriage or premature labor. Most cervical polyps in labor go out on their own. If a polyp remains, removal is indicated after birth.
Indications for polypectomy during pregnancy:
- Frequent bleeding on the background of a polyp.
- Suspicion of malignancy.
- Polyp infection.
- The impossibility of giving birth through the birth canal.
Polypectomy can be done at any gestational age, but is usually performed after 16 weeks. The procedure takes place under local anesthesia. After removal of the polyp, the cervix will bleed for 1-2 weeks. This is a normal condition that does not require special treatment.
Complete healing of the cervical mucosa occurs in 4-6 weeks. During this period it is recommended:
- Refuse intimacy to complete healing of a postoperative wound.
- Observe personal hygiene.
- Do not take a bath, be limited to a daily shower.
- Do not lift weights, avoid physical exertion.
- Do not douching.
According to the indications, after the removal of the polyp, preserving therapy is carried out. Antispasmodics and tocolytics, magnesium preparations and other drugs are prescribed, taking into account the duration of pregnancy. With the threat of miscarriage or premature birth, hospitalization is carried out.
Polyp of the cervical canal is a condition that can significantly disrupt the course of pregnancy and childbirth. In identifying pathology, it is necessary to undergo a full examination by a doctor to make sure that education does not pose a danger to the fetus. If the polyp is preserved after childbirth, it is imperative to get rid of it in the near future.
Polyps on the cervix in pregnant women occur as a result of total restructuring of the body after conceiving a child. The probability of the formation of a benign tumor in the cervix depends on the presence of provoking factors, which include:
- Causes of cervical polyp
- Can I get pregnant with a polyp in the uterus?
- cases of surgery in the uterine cavity,
- hormonal imbalances that occurred before pregnancy or after conceiving a child,
- the presence of chronic inflammation in the reproductive organs,
- weakness of the immune system
- history of abortion
- increased estrogen concentration
- the presence of untreated sexually transmitted diseases.
In most cases, the development of growth in the cervical canal is due to the fact that during pregnancy, due to hormonal disruption, the level of estrogen significantly exceeds the concentration of the hormone progesterone.
A polyp on the cervix during pregnancy is manifested by the following symptoms:
- minor and frequent bleeding,
- blood during and after intimacy
- pain in the lower abdomen, which bears the aching nature of moderate intensity - with growths of large diameter,
- vaginal discharge, without color and smell, quite abundant,
- discomfort during intercourse, transvaginal ultrasound, gynecological examination of a pregnant woman.
The appearance of these signs is the reason for the immediate appeal for medical help and an accurate diagnosis.
A cervical polyp that occurs during pregnancy or before conceiving a child can be of the following types:
- glandular - the formation of a benign formation occurs on the mucous layer, such polyps are small, do not carry any threat to the health of the mother and her unborn child,
- fibrous type - a tumor is formed on the connective tissue, it can reach a large diameter, the rarest species,
- glandular fibrous - arises simultaneously from the connective tissue and mucous structures, the average size does not exceed 3 cm, the probability of degeneration into a malignant neoplasm is minimal,
- adenomatous type - the most dangerous, as more often than other types of pathology is reborn into a malignant tumor, formed on the mucous membranes of the epithelium.
The need for treatment during pregnancy depends on the type of pathological education and the stage of its development.
Detection of a polyp of the cervical canal is performed during a gynecological examination of a woman. To determine its type, stage of development and size, additional methods of instrumental diagnostics are assigned:
- ultrasound examination of the uterus and pelvic organs.
To obtain a detailed picture of the woman’s health and to identify possible causes of pathology formation in the cervical canal, a general and detailed blood test is carried out, and blood is required to determine the level of estrogen and progesterone hormones.
Therapy in pregnant women is complicated by the fact that most drugs are forbidden to use, surgical intervention is undesirable because it carries the risk of injury to the organs of the reproductive system, which will have an extremely negative impact on the health of the mother and child.
Uterus cervix during pregnancy is not treated, if there is no frequent bleeding, there is no symptomatic picture that would disturb a woman. In most cases, a polyp that doesn’t bother a woman during pregnancy, comes out with the placenta after delivery.
Indications for treatment - the manifestation of intense signs of the disease, the active dynamics of the growth of pathological education.
Polyp removal is a cardinal measure, which is resorted to in the following cases:
- frequent and fairly heavy bleeding,
- high risk of infection,
- large size of education, which leads to the inability to give birth naturally.
The only way to remove a pathological formation with minimal risks for a pregnant woman is polypectomy. The operation can be carried out at any time, but preference is given to the second half of pregnancy, starting from 16-18 weeks. Depending on the size of the neoplasm, its soft structures are evaporated using a laser, or the cautery method is used with liquid nitrogen.
After the operation, the woman will have bleeding for several weeks and an aching pain in the lower abdomen, which is an indicator of the norm.If the polyp is large, and after its surgical removal there is a possibility of various complications, the woman is placed in a hospital under the constant supervision of doctors.
After removal of the growth, the woman is given supportive medical therapy, which includes the use of painkillers and antispasmodics.
Probable threat to the fetus
For the most part, polyposis formation on the cervical canal during pregnancy does not cause a woman special inconvenience and does not affect the normal development of the child, but this applies only to those cases when there are no complications. If the presence of a benign neoplasm on the cervix is accompanied by frequent bleeding and pain in the abdomen, the woman lays down "to save" in the hospital.
In the presence of concomitant diseases of the reproductive organs, there is a risk of attaching an infection that can affect the soft structures of the polyp. In this case, there is a risk that the infection will cross the placenta to the fetus. This probability is small, but not excluded. If there is a risk of infection, the formation is immediately removed.
Probability of conception
Many women are interested in whether pregnancy is possible in the presence of a polyp of the cervical canal. Doctors answer that everything depends on the size of the education. With a small polyp, difficulties with conception usually do not arise. But in the future there is a risk of infection, so if it is detected before pregnancy, you must undergo appropriate treatment or resort to surgical intervention.
Can I get pregnant with a large neoplasm of the cervical canal? If a neoplasm reaches 5 cm or more, it interferes with conception, since spermatozoa cannot penetrate to the egg cell, therefore it is necessary to remove it.
Although a small cervical polyp during pregnancy does not pose a threat to a pregnant woman or fetus, it can trigger a number of complications in the presence of concomitant diseases of the reproductive organs. Therefore, before conceiving a child, it is recommended to undergo a thorough medical examination. With the constant growth of benign education, there is a threat of premature birth.
A cervical polyp is diagnosed during a standard gynecological examination or during an ultrasound scan. To confirm the diagnosis, colposcopy, curettage, biopsy are performed, the doctor can refer to the conization of the uterine cervix.
On the chair, the gynecologist can see the growths localized in the lumen of the channel, protruding from it through the uterine cervix.
The doctor diagnoses induration, increase the uterine cervix.
Pathological seals can occur around the perimeter of the cervix, but most often occur in the area between the epithelial ball and the external os. With the massive nature of tumors, doctors diagnose extensive polyposis.
Small polyps have a pink color, they are ugly or round. Polyps of a more dense type have a white shade. When the blood flow in the capillaries is broken, the tumor-like areas become purple in color.
Thanks to colposcopy, the doctor determines in time that small polyps have appeared that are not yet visible in the mirrors. The colposcope helps to determine the structure of the uterine cervix, to identify signs of necrosis and other abnormalities.
Hysteroscopy is performed if the leg of formation is close to the uterine cavity. During the procedure, the endoscope is inserted into the cervical canal. The device is equipped with a camera, a knife. During the session, the doctor visually assesses the state of the anomaly and, if necessary, removes it.
During pregnancy, a woman can develop polyps of any kind. It is important to establish their nature. To this end, the specialist directs for histological analysis.
If there is a suspicion of a malignancy of the formation, perform a biopsy, examine the biomaterial.
The presence of tumor-like sites in the endocervix does not always indicate that a pregnant woman has holip. Sometimes it is pseudo-polyp: mucous has grown, but in this area there are no blood vessels. Such an anomaly arises due to a hormonal surge, it is important to diagnose it, so as not to delete or worry about it. After delivery, the pseudo-polyp will pass by itself.
Sometimes polyps of cervical localization bother on the background of ovarian cysts, endometrial polyposis, fibroids, colpitis, genital infections. In recurrent polyposis, it is worth checking whether a woman has chlamydia, herpes, trichomoniasis, thrush.
Features of treatment
In pregnancy, a polyp is removed only if there is a risk of interruption, suspicion of a rapid transformation from a benign growth to a malignant one. In other cases, choose waiting tactics.
Removal of the polypous tumorous area is carried out by the method of unscrewing, then the zone where the pathogenic area was located is cauterized. This is necessary to prevent relapse.
What treatment to carry out depends on the types of polyps:
Ferrous - the safest. It is found on the background of hormonal failure, has a loose glandular structure. It shows conservative therapy, it is not necessary to delete it.
- Fibrous - dense, has a fibrous structure. Diagnosed on ultrasound and is recommended to remove. This anomaly worries patients with hormonal problems during menopause. There is a risk of a malignant tumor. Therefore, after surgical treatment, therapy with hormonal drugs is prescribed.
- Glandular fibrous - the most common. The nest consists of glandular and connective tissue cells. It is recommended to excise.
- Adenomatous - unfavorable. Often occurs in precancerous conditions. Education of this type should be removed as soon as possible, and then systematically observed by a doctor who specializes in oncology.
With constant injury to the decidual polyp, when it grows vigorously, there is a threat of cervical insufficiency, surgical treatment is indicated. If the formation is infected, and this leads to an inflammatory process in adjacent areas, it is worth excising. The same method of elimination - if you bleed after an examination on a chair at the doctor or after intimate intimacy.
If necessary, remove the neoplasm as soon as possible, first they can locally apply the medication, and then apply one of the methods of surgical removal.
- Scraping. The doctor removes the top layer of endometrial tissue and removes the growth. In pregnancy, the method is shown only if the center of the polyposis is large. The biopsy is sent for histological examination.
Target hysteroscopy. The method is gentle. Polypous leg unscrewed from the mucous ball. The woman almost does not feel pain, the method does not apply to traumatic.
- Hauling. The method is chosen if the polyp is localized near the external os, it can be easily seen on the gynecological chair. Catgut suture is applied to the leg, the tissues die off.
- Cryodestruction Liquid nitrogen is used for this method. Abnormal area burned. The procedure does not cause pain. Takes 2-5 minutes.
- Electric cautery. The method is chosen when others are recognized as ineffective.
What is dangerous disease
Among all benign lesions, polyps occupy a quarter of all cases. However, this is not a disease, but a sign that not everything is in order in the body. Therefore, if left untreated, there is a risk that a woman will have an imbalance of the hormonal background, endocrinological pathologies will turn into chronic forms. Therefore, it is important as soon as possible, even if you only notice unusual whitish discharge, consult a doctor to prevent complications.
Polyp can complicate the course of pregnancy, provoke a threat of miscarriage, as it irritates the cervix. If the polyp is injured during the birth process, it will lead to the risk of it becoming malignant.
With decidual growth, it is considered that there is no threat of spontaneous miscarriage. The general state of health of the pregnant is normal if the size of the neoplasm does not increase. In rare cases, after birth, a regression of the site occurs.
If a woman has pseudopoly, then it does not affect the functioning of the neck, does not impair the health of the mother, does not complicate childbirth. The woman does not even feel discomfort, except for discharge: plentiful, resembling thick mucus. In the discharge, the patient may notice whitish streaks with a brown tinge. Then there are fears that this may be harmful to the fetus, a woman should consult a doctor who is watching the pregnancy.
Probable complications, if the growths are not removed:
- degeneration into a malignant form,
- exacerbation of STIs
- preterm labor,
- cervical insufficiency,
- inflammation of the endometrium, vaginal tissue.
Adverse effects possible after removal of pathological tissues:
- relapses - if the leg is not fully burned,
- thermal burns
- obstruction of the cervical canal,
- secondary infertility
- scars on the cervix.
The neoplasm as it grows can interfere with the new conception, since the growth can close the passage into the uterus and impede the penetration of sperm. In order for a subsequent pregnancy to occur, it is important to remove the anomaly. But we should not forget that during a new pregnancy due to a hormonal surge, a relapse is possible. Therefore, the expectant mother should always come to the antenatal clinic.
The value of the cervical canal
The cervical canal is an important part of the cervix because it combines the vagina with the uterine cavity. It has a cylindrical or conical shape, and in its center is the very connecting hole. Standard Cervical Canal Parameters 3-4 cm long and 7-8 mm wide. In the process of childbirth, this organ in diameter is able to expand to 10 mm.
The form of the cervical canal is not static and during the life of a woman under the influence of age, the presence or absence of childbirth, abortion, hormonal disruptions may change.
In addition to its connective function, the cervical canal provides reliable protection of the uterus against the penetration of various pathogenic microorganisms and the occurrence of infections.
To do this, the special glands of the body emit in large quantities a special secret that forms a kind of mucus plug that closes the opening of the channel. Such an important property of the body allows, without the risk of complications, to endure pregnancy and give birth to a healthy baby. Also, this channel during ovulation gives the sperm green light to enter them into the uterus.
Polyps, like cervical pathology
Among the known diseases of the pelvic organs, the cervical canal polyposis accounts for the largest percentage of all cases. According to statistics, the average age of a woman prone to the development of this pathology, 40-50 years old. At the same time in its history must be present repeated birth. For reproductive age, the occurrence of such formations is only 4%.
Polyps are benign tumors and do not pose a risk to life. But sometimes they are prone to rebirth. Bumps are formed from the tissues of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal and are cylindrical and flat layered in their structure. To the walls of the body are attached with a thin or thick legs. Polyps are localized in different parts of the cervical canal, but most often in the area of the external pharynx.
Polypous growths are equipped with their own blood vessels, the number of which affects the color of the tumor - from pale pink to purple or purple. In addition, the tumor can develop as single formations, and in the form of clusters of multiple polyps. Depending on the amount of fibrous tissue they contain, polyps of the cervical canal are hard and soft in texture. Mostly such growths are small, only 2 mm, but sometimes their size can reach 40 mm.
Polyp development factors
Today, the true causes of the formation of polyps of the cervical canal are unknown.. It is believed that the main factors for tumor development are hormonal imbalances and infectious organ damage. But, according to recent medical research, these reasons are not the only ones in the formation of growths.
Other factors that trigger polyp growth include:
- Mechanical injury of the canal and cervix,
- Chronic inflammation of the genital organs,
- Violations of general and local immunity,
- Age-related changes in the body,
The association of polyposis with sexually transmitted diseases - papillomavirus, chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis and others has also been observed. Recently there have also been cases of the formation of growths of unclear ethology.
Hidden flow patterns for polyps of the cervical canal are not uncommon. They, as a rule, do not cause discomfort and are detected only during the next oncological examination by a gynecologist. Clinical manifestations of polyps are usually associated with secondary changes in the tumors themselves. In this case, the following symptoms may be observed:
- Mucous, sometimes bloody, vaginal discharge, especially after sexual intercourse or gynecological examination,
- Intermediate menstruation bleeding,
- Pulling, cramping or aching pain in the lumbar region
Having found at least one of these symptoms, a woman should immediately visit a gynecologist and undergo a thorough examination. Treatment will depend on the nature of the pathological formations, their size and dynamics of development.
- The possibility of relapse with improper removal of growths.
- Difficulties in conception and sterility.
- Abundant mucous and bloody discharge.
- Rebirth of a benign tumor into a malignant one.
Polyps and pregnancy
It happens that the polyps of the cervical canal are detected already during pregnancy. As such, the build-up does not pose a danger to the fetus, however, it can directly affect the well-being of the child bearing and the birth of a healthy baby. Therefore, throughout the pregnancy, the woman is under close medical supervision, observing a special regimen. If absolutely necessary, the polyp can be removed, but only in the early stages.
Polyp in the cervix during pregnancy - a rare phenomenon. If such pathology is diagnosed, conception becomes complicated and the risk of early miscarriage becomes high. Although polyposis is one of the most common gynecological diseases, the exact causes of its occurrence are still unknown.
It is believed that the formation of polyps can be triggered by factors such as:
- chronic inflammation in the cervix or organ cavity,
- a history of sexually transmitted infections
- pathologies in which the endometrium grows,
- hormonal disruptions
- previous scraping,
- pathological proliferation of blood vessels,
- autoimmune diseases
- endocrine disorders
- genetic predisposition.
Scars in the cervical canal can be caused by other reasons. Uncontrolled medication, overweight and metabolic disorders contribute to the development of pathology. A neoplasm may appear due to an unsuccessful pregnancy ending in miscarriage or fading.
Prolonged wearing of the IUD changes the normal structure of the endometrial tissue. The onset of pregnancy may be complicated by the formation of polyps.
Symptoms of the disease
Often polyposis is asymptomatic. As long as the tumor is small, it may not cause discomfort. If the pregnancy has already begun, the woman should know how this pathology is manifested.
Most often, education in the area of the cervical canal hinders normal conception. This is partly due to the inability of sperm to penetrate the genital tract, and against the background of hormonal changes, ovulation may not occur at all.
There are frequent violations of the menstrual cycle, critical days come at different intervals. Even in vitro fertilization attempts are unsuccessful.
If the pregnancy has nevertheless occurred, the following clinical signs may indicate the formation of a polyp:
- in the lower abdomen pain of a cramping or aching nature,
- highlight brown color of the cervical canal,
- whites with a characteristic odor,
- minor bleeding after exercise,
- appearance of bloody mucus after visiting a gynecologist.
Polyp in the cervical zone in pregnant blood rarely. But if it is large, the risk of injury increases, and then reddish or brownish secretions may appear.
Burning occurs only when an infection is present in the woman’s body besides polyposis. This is especially dangerous during pregnancy, as pathogens can adversely affect the development of the fetus and its nutrition.
Polyp blood during pregnancy
The presence of polyps usually interferes with the conception of the child and the successful bearing of the pregnancy. Когда новообразование большого размера, оно чаще повреждается, вызывая кровотечения.
The location of the polyp in the cervical canal requires constant monitoring by the doctor. During intercourse, the formation is injured, causing pain and bleeding.
The threat to the fetus is preserved due to the risk of infection. If the thin surface of the neoplasm is damaged, an infection can penetrate through this opening. There is a possibility that not only the mother will suffer, but also the child.
Some bacterial lesions lead to spontaneous miscarriage and congenital developmental disorders of the fetus.
Large blood loss affects the well-being of women. A lack of nutrients in her body affects the baby. Therefore, if there is bleeding, you need to urgently call an ambulance.
Diagnosis of the disease
Polyposis can only be detected after visiting a doctor. Diagnosis of decidosis includes the following procedures:
- examination of the cervix in the gynecological chair using vaginal mirrors,
- colposcopy during pregnancy
Examination of the cervical canal during pregnancy to identify a polyp allows you to see a protruding tumor. At this stage it is impossible to establish the type of growth, further examination is required.
In appearance, the protrusion is pinkish, purple or brownish. The survey allows you to make a preliminary diagnosis.
Cytological examination of uterus diseases allows you to determine what type of growth has formed. Laboratory analysis will show what it is: a benign polyp or a malignant neoplasm.
If necessary, after the gynecological examination, the doctor will perform a colposcopy. This is a procedure that does not require anesthesia. It is not dangerous for the child and painless for women. During the study, you can see the formation and the entire cervix with a multiple increase.
Biopsy in pregnant women is carried out only if there is serious evidence. The basis for this procedure is frequent bleeding or strong suspicion of a cancer.
Conducting an ultrasound to identify the formation of cervical neoplasms is not always reasonable. Polyps can only be seen in early pregnancy. Not all types of growths are visualized during this examination.
Opening the cervical canal
The formation of polyps in the cervix during pregnancy can lead to serious problems. Buffles provoke the opening of the channel ahead of schedule. This leads to premature labor, miscarriage, and early miscarriage.
The cervical area protects the developing fetus from the environment. The neck is normally closed, the canal is thin and tightly blocked by a mucus plug. As the fetus grows and its mass increases, the pressure on the neck increases, the polyp is pushed lower, causing disclosure.
Violations in the mucous structures and channel opening more than 6 mm for primiparous women are corrected by using a pessary or suturing the uterus. If, after the opening of the cervix, help is not provided, miscarriage will occur or birth will begin (depending on the period).
Treatment during pregnancy
Surgical removal of a neoplasm is not always performed. If a polyp does not give a woman pain, discomfort during intercourse, does not increase in size and does not turn into a cancer, the treatment is delayed until the postpartum period.
Pregnancy can proceed normally, and the neoplasm does not affect the course of the generic process. Some types of polyps leave the woman’s body with the child. In other cases, prescribed hormones and, if necessary, antibiotics.
Removal of a polyp during gestational pregnancy by surgery is indicated in the following cases:
- outgrowth exceeds 1 cm
- per month increases by more than 2 mm,
- new growths appear in the tumor,
- high risk of infection of the fetus,
- frequent heavy bleeding occurs.
Surgical therapy is performed only on the cervical area. Intervention in the uterine cavity leads to the death of the embryo. The operation is done with a hysteroscope. The canal of the cervix is opened and excision is performed.
Although pregnancy and a polyp in the cervix are compatible concepts, sometimes pathology can lead to complications. Matters localization and size of education.
A cervical polyp is dangerous with the following complications:
- can be a source of infection for a woman and a fetus,
- leads to premature disclosure of cervical tissue,
- perhaps oncological rebirth.
The operation is indicated if the tumor is cancerous. In this case, the polyp is removed, despite the risk to the fetus.
To avoid many problems, a woman must take care of her health even before conception. Having treated all pathologies in advance, you can bear and give birth to a healthy child without risks.
Symptoms of decidual polyp
As a result of any loads, including during sexual intercourse or during a gynecological examination and taking smears, bloody clots can occur. Including in the early stages of pregnancy. But the gynecologist sees that the bleeding is contact and can immediately calm the woman. But when it happens in the process of intimacy, worse. Usually, future moms take this symptom for the threat of miscarriage and call an ambulance. It is right. But after the diagnosis becomes calmer.
If there is no bleeding, no sex restriction is required. You need to live a normal life and consult a gynecologist for the following possible complications:
- discharge of blood from the vagina
- unusual vaginal discharge (with an unpleasant smell, gray or green),
- fever without signs of illness.
All this may indicate either a malignant degeneration of a polyp or its necrosis or an infectious process.
When placental abruption, a very dangerous complication of pregnancy, blood also appears from the vagina or there is a discharge of brown color. Without examination and ultrasound can not accurately determine the cause of bleeding.
Diagnosis of decidosis and is it dangerous?
Changes of this nature are clearly visible when viewed with a gynecological mirror and (or) with optical magnification (with colposcopy).
There are cases when deciduosis is similar to warts and cervical cancer (CC). In this case, to establish an accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment, a cytological examination is necessary - preferably liquid cytology. If according to its results there is no severe atypia, surgical treatment is postponed until the end of the postpartum period. And by that time the polyp may disappear.
A biopsy of a neoplasm from a pregnant woman is taken only if cancer is suspected.
Treatment of a cervical polyp during pregnancy
Many experts adhere to conservative methods in the treatment of decidual polyps in pregnant women. This is justified, because often tumors do not require the intervention of a doctor (only if they do not bring obvious discomfort) and fully regress after childbirth during two months.
Having diagnosed decidioses, specialists constantly monitor the development of the growth, control the vaginal flora, and during the inflammatory process prescribe antiseptics, antibacterial and antifungal agents - depending on the causative agent of the disease. The use of vaginal suppositories can lead to bleeding.
There are situations when it is necessary to remove the polyp. Experts resort to a radical method of treatment (polypectomy) in the presence of the following symptoms:
- constant discharge of bloody mucus,
- appearance of ulcerated areas on a polyp,
- suspected malignant degeneration,
- neoplasm threatens pregnancy: provokes spasms, pain, hypertonia of the uterus, disclosure of external and internal pharynx.
Removal of a polyp is carried out by the method of unscrewing using laser technology, endoscopy. Such operations are safe during pregnancy, as they do not require extensive intervention in the uterine cervix affected by the polyp. But it is possible only if the polyp has a thin leg, not a broad base.
Liquid nitrogen can also be used (cryotherapy), but this method is very painful, and there is a bleeding wound in place of the removed polyp.
Getting rid of a polyp with medications (Solkovagin) is quite problematic, as it takes about two weeks and does not guarantee complete relief from the growth. With drug removal and cryotherapy can not get material for histology. Duphaston, Utrozhestan and other hormonal pills cannot cure polyps. They will not resolve. At least before the birth. Only increase in size can.
An accurate diagnosis - decidual, whether it was a polyp or not, that is, not related to pregnancy, will only be shown by histological examination of the material removed.
What is a polyp?
The polyp is the proliferation of the endocervix, that is, the epithelial tissue lining the lumen of the cervical canal. It may be asymptomatic, but more often its characteristic symptom is the presence of a woman's abnormal discharge. On examination, both single and multiple sprouts can be diagnosed.
Externally, the polyp in the cervical canal in its structure resembles a mushroom. Its leg is pierced with a multitude of capillaries. The color of the formation can be from pale pink to purple-red. The length of the growth usually does not exceed 2 cm. As the polyp grows, it can be born into the vaginal cavity and be injured, causing bleeding.
According to their tissue structure, the following types of formations are distinguished:
The result of the proliferation of glands endocervix.
Proceed from the connective tissue, have a tendency to malignancy.
However, decidual polyps occur most often in women during pregnancy. This is a special group of formations of this type, which arise as a result of hormonal changes in the female body.
In 90% of cases, a cervical polyp detected during pregnancy has a hormonal nature of formation. In this case, we are talking about decidual formations and the process is called decidua.
This condition occurs due to an increase in the blood concentration of the hormone progesterone. He, in turn, causes an increase in the thickness and blood volume of the mucous membrane of the uterus and cervical canal. Because of this, endocervics can grow in size and protrude into the vaginal cavity.
Prerequisites for the occurrence of this pathology may be:
- Cervical injuries in previous births,
- Damage due to surgical interventions (abortion, diagnostic curettage),
- Chronic infectious and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs (including sexually transmitted diseases),
- Hormonal instability of the body, leading to violations of the menstrual cycle.
However, there is no reliable data on this cause of the occurrence of pathology, and it is not worthwhile to cancel drugs prescribed by a doctor on their own due to the risk of developing such pathologies.
Are polyps dangerous during pregnancy?
New growths that do not tend to grow and degenerate, as a rule, do not cause any harm to a pregnant woman. The main concern for her is the appearance of minor changes in the nature of the discharge.
However, cervical polyp, which increases in size during pregnancy, may cause the following complications:
- The threat of termination of pregnancy in the early stages,
- Inflammation of the cervical canal and vagina,
- Cervical insufficiency, which can lead to premature labor,
- Process reduction,
- Severe bleeding from the cervical canal.
To prevent the occurrence of these pathological conditions when a polyp is detected during pregnancy, a woman should strictly follow all the doctor's recommendations related to the diagnosis and treatment of this process.
Removal of polyps during pregnancy
If the doctor has discovered a polyp of a cervical canal in a girl during pregnancy, then his main task is to find out the nature of its occurrence. When confirming decidosis, in most cases no action is taken, and the main action in relation to it is observation.
In some cases, a pregnant woman may require surgical removal of the polyp. The reasons for the radical treatment may be:
Periodic contact bleeding.
Ulceration on the surface of the formation.
Suspected malignant process.
With the growth of a polyp, there is a threat of abortion (cramps and abdominal pain, dilatation of the cervical canal).
Removal of cervical polyps is painless and completely safe for a pregnant woman. The outgrowth is removed from the cervical canal by means of twisting actions.
It is very important to completely remove the tissue of the polyp, otherwise it may grow again. For this purpose, shallow curettage of the cervical canal is performed.
Further tactics depend on the location of the polyp bed: if it grew near the internal os, it may require stitching on the cervix to prevent miscarriage. Remote education is mandatory sent for histological examination.
Surgery with appropriate indications is usually carried out for the period from 16 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. This period is considered the safest in terms of threatening to bear a fetus. If the case is an emergency (heavy bleeding or the detection of cancer cells), then surgery is possible on any period of gestation.