There is no point in having a pregnancy test before the delay. Even the most sensitive system will not be able to answer the question plausibly. With a regular monthly cycle, you must wait for the date of the expected menstruation, in its absence, the test. And what if menstruation is irregular? When to analyze to get a truthful answer?
Types of pregnancy tests
Currently, you can find out about the presence of pregnancy at home without visiting a gynecologist. Means for analysis are sold at every pharmacy at an affordable price.
- Test strip. The most common tool for determining pregnancy. This product is represented by different manufacturers, different sensitivity and, accordingly, the price. You can find out the result within 1 minute without much effort. The test system with high sensitivity is carried out on the first day of the delay. The strip is impregnated with a special substance that reacts to chorionic gonadotropin. This component in the body of a woman increases with the onset of pregnancy. The rate increases with each day of the cycle. The longer the gestation period, the more likely the result. For analysis, you need to lower the strip in the urine for 30 seconds. Then put it on a dry surface. The result will appear within 1 minute. The presence of pregnancy notifies the second strip on the surface of the test system.
- Tablet test. Compared with the first option gives a more reliable result. Although the principle of action is almost the same. A certain portion of urine is poured into one section of the test system. In the second half there is a result with 1 or 2 strips for 1 minute.
- Inkjet test One of the most accurate options. To determine the result of the test strip is substituted directly under the stream of urine. The presence in the reagent of particles of hCG in the presence of pregnancy paint the active part of the tool in blue.
Choosing the right test system is the first step to determining pregnancy. However, the result also depends on what time of day the analysis is performed. In addition, with the menstrual irregular cycle it is very difficult to calculate the day of the delay. Oriented to the date of the unprotected sexual intercourse. It is advisable to carry out the analysis in 2 weeks. If there were several sexual relations during the menstrual cycle, then it is necessary to take 1 day of the beginning of the previous menstruation as a point of reference. It is possible to carry out the analysis on pregnancy in 4-5 weeks.
The time of analysis with an irregular cycle
The principle of operation of all systems is based on determining the indicator of pregnancy hormone - hCG. After fixing the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus, the woman's body begins to form the future placenta. This process is accompanied by an increase in hCG in the blood, urine. And in the urine, it increases somewhat later. At the time of the fixation of the egg, the level of hCG is 2 mIU / ml. Each subsequent day of the cycle, it is increased by 2 times. In urine, the level of pregnancy hormone increases with a delay of 2-3 days. The sensitivity threshold of the system is approximately 25 mIU / ml. From this it follows that doing the test before 2 weeks after the intended ovulation is impractical. The result will be false.
When the menstrual cycle in 28-30 days ovulation occurs on the 14-16 day. If fertilization occurs, implantation of the egg cell will take place after 7 days. And a week later you can do the analysis. With the menstrual irregular cycle, the timing of ovulation changes. After her menstruation should begin in 14-16 days. If a woman with an irregular cycle can determine the date of ovulation, you need to do a test 2 weeks after it.
Rules for the irregular cycle
All women are familiar with the phrase: “It is necessary to do a test in the morning.” Manufacturers write about this on the packaging system. Why is that? Will the system show a true result at a different time of day? The approval is based on the amount of hCG. Its highest level is observed in the morning after sleep. With each portion of urine in the daytime concentration decreases. Consequently, in the evening the amount of HCG will be much less than in the morning urine.
With a short period of pregnancy, analysis should be carried out, really, only in the morning. With an increase in the duration of pregnancy, the concentration of hCG increases every day by 2 times. This means that in the daytime or in the evening in the urine this indicator will remain high enough to determine the true result. Since, with an irregular cycle with the term of the intended fertilization, it is difficult to determine, it is necessary to do the analysis only in the morning hours. It is no secret that a woman can not cope with her patience in such a situation, wants to know the result instantly. It is recommended to carry out one test in the afternoon or in the evening, the second in the morning. If at least one of them shows 2 bars, the result is positive. The interval between urination must be at least 4 hours.
Urinalysis with an irregular cycle can be performed 4 weeks after the start of the previous menstruation. If the result is in doubt, you need to hold it again after a week. In addition, to obtain reliable results, you should take tests from different manufacturers. In one portion of urine, you can omit 2 systems. The monthly cycle varies for different reasons, but the test for the presence of conception is mandatory in any case.
When is the best time to do a test?
A pregnancy test is best done in the morning if you want to get the most accurate result. If at this time it is impossible to perform the study, do not worry. It can be done at any time of the day. The only condition - before you conduct it, try not to go to the toilet for 3-4 hours. It is also not recommended to use at this time a large amount of fluid, an enlarged bladder will make analysis more difficult.
So, when to do a pregnancy test? The hormone hCG begins to be produced a week after the moment of fertilization. But a certain concentration of it must be present in the urine, otherwise the test will not be able to determine the fact of the pregnancy itself. Therefore, it is better to use the test during the alleged onset of menstruation. A pregnancy test can be done before the expected delay in menstruation, if you buy hypersensitive tests that show the result a few days before the start of the next cycle.
How to conduct a test?
In order to answer the question about the research process itself, it is necessary to figure out which types of pregnancy tests exist. After all, a woman may be a little confused by the variety of tests offered by numerous manufacturers.
- The most common option is the "test strips". As a rule, they are also the cheapest. The strips are impregnated with a special reactive substance that reacts to the presence of the hormone hCG. To do a pregnancy test should be as follows: it is necessary to collect a portion of urine and lower the strip there for 30 seconds. Then evaluate the result by the number of colored strips. Due to its simplicity and low cost, the test can be repeated many times.
- Tablet test is considered more reliable than the "test strips", but it is based on the same principle. There are two openings in this test, one of which holds a small amount of urine. The liquid gradually begins to interact with the reactive substance, and after some time a result appears in the second window.
- Inkjet test has the greatest accuracy due to the use of special particles that are attached to hCG and give it a blue tint. It is convenient because it does not require a container for urine, as it is substituted for the stream.
How should the results be understood?
The time of appearance of the correct result depends on the design and brand of the test, and should be indicated in the instructions.
Usually the stripes are clearly visible 2-5 minutes after the test comes in contact with urine. The maximum time that you can wait is no more than 10 minutes. Subsequent test results cannot be interpreted as correct if more than 10 minutes have passed.
The bulk of pregnancy tests are based on the principle of two strips.
One strip, which is closer to the place of contact with urine, is considered a test. It should always appear, even in the absence of pregnancy. If, in the end, no strip appears, it means that the test cannot be trusted because it is flawed.
The second bar - an indication of the presence of pregnancy. It manifests itself in the presence of a sufficiently high concentration of hCG in a woman’s urine, which is characteristic of pregnancy.
Often there are cases when the second strip turns pale, fuzzy and slightly colored. This result should be attributed to the positive, but you should not rely on it too much. In this case, you should repeat the test again after a while.
Can tests be wrong?
In fact, home tests are not always reliable. As a rule, the reason is the poor quality of the test, failure to comply with the instructions during the test, or too early to perform the study. There are a number of reasons why a test can give out two strips in the absence of pregnancy. These include some malignant gynecological diseases, as well as medications that contain hCG.
Many women are interested in the question - after how much to do a pregnancy test again. If you have any signs of pregnancy or are still late monthly, repeat the test after a few days.
What happens in the first days after conception?
Usually in clinics considered the beginning of pregnancy The first day of menstruation, preceding conception. This is not entirely correct, so we will argue from the point of view of the true term, that is, from the moment of the actual fertilization of the egg.
During ovulation she comes out of the ovaryand moves through the fallopian tubes. The task is to meet with the sperm. If this happens, the conception has come true. After that, a zygote is formed, a kind of "union" of the egg with the male seed.
During the week it moves to the wall of the uteruswhere will be fixed and will begin to develop. At the same time, the first signs of pregnancy appear: the basal temperature rises slightly (by about 0.4 degrees), problems arise with the gastrointestinal tract.
it very risky period, because before the future embryo is fixed and the placenta forms, the female body perceives the fetus as a foreign object and may try to reject it.
How does he determine the result?
Practically all pregnancy tests respond to hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which was mentioned above.
His blood concentration starts to increase after fixing the embryo on the wall of the uterus, that is, 5-8 days after conception, and it reaches its maximum concentration by 6-8 weeks of gestation, after which it begins to slowly decline.
Almost all the "models" of pregnancy tests have an absorbent layer. It contains a chemical that reacts with the active elements of hCG. To obtain the result you need to soak this layer with urine or, less commonly, with blood.
After a short time there will be a reaction that will show whether the conception was, or the alarm was false.
In this case, the results can be as many as three.
- There was one strip. The test is successful, HCG will not find or has a minimum concentration, there is no pregnancy.
- There are two strips. The test took place, HCG is available, the woman is pregnant.
- No stripes. The test is considered unsuccessful, for some reason the reaction did not occur.
The last scenario is possible in the situation when woman breaks technology use test. In other cases, there is a defective product.
The fact is that the first bar always appears after use, as it contains a substance that stains upon contact with any liquid. She was created in order to assess the "health" of the acquired pregnancy test.
With a regular cycle
How to calculate this day, especially if lately there have been several sexual contacts that can lead to pregnancy? In this case, it is recommended to wait for the expected onset of menstruation.
On average, monthly repeat every 28-32 days, it depends on the natural cycle. But to focus on these averages are not worth it, since the body of each woman is individual, and general indicators can not be found.
For example, they are known for the case when the cycle is only 21 days, and sometimes it happens that ovulation occurs as much as two times per cycle. In other words, to calculate the terms of the pregnancy test, you need to make your individual calendar of the menstrual cycle, and wait 1 (maybe 2) days from the moment of the delay.
With irregular cycle
Here the calendar system will not work, since there is no clear cycle, it is not always possible to calculate the delay time. Relying in this situation is worth having occurred sex.
- From the moment of the alleged conception we count 8-12 days. This is more than is required to attach the embryo to the uterus, but it will be more reliable.
- Remember what other unprotected contacts lately could theoretically lead to pregnancy. If there were several of them, then remember the approximate date of each, and every 5-7 days do the test. There should be as many of them as there were contacts.
With an irregular cycle, false results are obtained quite often. If you have a problem with this case, then it will not be superfluous to pass the analysis for hCG in a clinical setting, and at the same time examine the urogenital system.
How to use?
We will look at the features of different types of tests a bit lower, the principle of operation is the same for everyone, so for now we’ll restrict ourselves to general recommendations. Remember an important moment - as a biomaterial, you must use the morning urine.
It is at this time of day. it contains the most natural concentration of hormones, including hCG. In this case, before conducting the test, you need to thoroughly wash and dry off.
Admixture of foreign matter almost guaranteed to lead to a false result, determine pregnancy under these conditions is almost impossible.
After preparation you need to collect urine in a pipette or a special container (if you decide to use the jet test, then you need to urinate directly on it).
The biomaterial is placed on the absorbent layer. It remains to wait a little result. As mentioned above, if two strips are congratulated on conception, one stripe is not pregnant, not a single stripe buy another test.
How to choose the most accurate?
The principle of operation of all tests is the same.they "look for" in the hCG biomaterial. Only the level of accuracy and usability is different.
By the way, these parameters are interrelated - if the test is inconvenient, then urine contamination with external impurities is not excluded, this significantly reduces the effectiveness of the home examination.
Great value is the price accessory. If it is too cheap, then the production uses the most cost-effective reagents, their sensitivity leaves much to be desired.
Also note to the level of sensitivity indicated on the package. Manufacturers call the most effective products that have a value of 10 mIU / ml.
A questionable statement, as it is difficult to prove the real degree of sensitivity of such “mega-tests”. In reality, even those accessories that have a label of 25 mIU / ml show very good results.
Features and Chinese know-how
Any Chinese know-howthat promise an instant, accurate expiration result - a duck, there are no such tests. There are only four main types of products.
- Test strip The most popular type, which is inexpensive, and the results show quite accurate. To use you need to urinate in a jar, and then dip the test into it. Accuracy approaches 99%.
- Inkjet test It is not very convenient to use it, but accuracy at height - it is almost impossible to contaminate urine with foreign impurities. It is necessary to urinate on the selected sector of the product, then wait for the result. The disadvantage, however, it has a significant - high price.
- Tablet tests. Are expensive, uncomfortable to use. Of the advantages, it is usually noted that the possibility of using is not after the first delay, but immediately after conception. For analysis, you need to collect urine in a pipette, and drop it in a special hole. In everyday life, few are used because of the high cost, mainly found in hospitals.
- System with tank. The most accurate, but also the most expensive option. Differs in the big sizes that does not allow to use an accessory far from the house. Urine is placed in a special reservoir, after which the result is displayed on the screen.
When choosing a test pay attention to customer feedbackand, of course, cost. It is not worth spending a lot of money on a one-time accessory, but do not buy too cheap tests, they have low accuracy.
Всегда ли показывает правдивый результат?
Unfortunately, даже самые дорогие и проверенные тысячами потребительниц тесты могут показывать ложные результаты. Причина не в качестве изделия, а в состоянии организма женщины.
Стоит отметить, что неправильный результат бывает лишь в пяти процентах случаев, and some of them appear when using the stitched test. But in other cases there is a reason to think about your health or, at least, about the observance of the rules of personal hygiene.
If a woman has poorly washed away before using the test, the urine can become dirty. As a result, the result will be incorrect. In addition, hCG is not always produced only in cases where pregnancy is relevant.
If a girl recently suffered a miscarriage or an abortion, the hormones could not yet “get up” in the usual direction, respectively, the result will be false. The same applies to situations where the patient takes hormonal drugs, including contraceptives (paradox - drinking pills from pregnancy, and the test result is positive).
When to go to the doctor?
Some terrible diseases strongly affect the hormones, including increase in the concentration of hCG. These pathologies include a variety of cysts and cancers. Moreover, they usually are not benign, although exceptions are found.
Cancer does not necessarily affect the urogenital system, cancer, in any case, affects hormones, so that a doctor's examination should be comprehensive.
Different situationwhich is somewhat softer is a cyst of the stomach or ovaries. In both cases, you need a detailed examination and treatment.
The pregnancy test has long become a wand for those women who want to quickly and accurately learn about the fact of their pregnancy, or vice versa - to refute the assumptions.
The main varieties provide very high accuracy, they are convenient to use, but can sometimes give a false result. In some cases, this is a sign of a dangerous disease, so if you are definitely not pregnant, but the test showed two strips, then immediately go to the doctor!
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Pregnancy test with irregular cycle
To decide for yourself when it is best to do a pregnancy test with irregular periods, one can take into account two factors:
- you know exactly when you had sexual intercourse, for the purpose of conception, then you can count two weeks from this date and carry out testing. In the presence of pregnancy, the result will be positive.
- you feel secondary signs of pregnancy (nausea, vomiting, pulling sensations in the lower abdomen), plus the extended cycle period is added to this.
You should always remember that a pregnancy test can also give a positive result for other diseases when you have an irregular monthly cycle. Therefore, immediately after testing at home, it is best to consult a gynecologist and pass the necessary tests to confirm the results of the pregnancy test.
What you need to know about the cycle and tests
Regular menstrual cycle - makes a minimum of 21, a maximum of 35 days. The irregular cycle behaves completely unpredictable. It may be less than 3 weeks, and more than 35 days, and to infinity. Such a serious violation of the schedule of menstruation is a symptom of violations in the body, you should consult a doctor to find out their cause.
The principle of the pregnancy test
All test systems work according to the same principle - determination of the level of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). This chemical compound belongs to the class of hormones, and begins to be produced by the woman’s placenta at 6–8 days after fertilization. Every 2 days the hormone level doubles. Maximum rates are observed at 7–12 weeks of gestation.
If there is a suspicion that the pregnancy took place, then you can take a blood test for hCG. This will give the exact answer: yes, yes, we are waiting for the baby or, no, we are waiting for menstruation. But it is expensive, it takes 2 days, and you will not be able to run every cycle to the doctor for directions. It is much easier to buy a test system in the nearest pharmacy.
Additional verification methods
If you can not buy a test system, you can try to use indirect signs of the definition of pregnancy.
These are classic symptoms:
- nausea and vomiting in the morning
- deviation of taste and smell - after a sweet urgently want salty or borscht stinks of herring,
- mood swings
- fast fatiguability,
- aching sensations in the abdomen,
- heaviness in the mammary glands and darkening of the areola around the nipple.
Important to remember! These signs begin to be felt later. The test can still determine pregnancy at an earlier date.
Irregular cycle - when to use the test?
Even with an irregular cycle, women, as a rule, know at what time menstruation can come and when the delay begins.
The main criterion for buying a pregnancy test for girls with irregular periods is sexual intercourse!
The action algorithm will be as follows:
- Remember the last time you had
there was unprotected sex,
- Count down the required 10–12 days for embryo implantation and placenta formation,
- Buy a test and perform the necessary manipulations. Carefully read the instructions for the test. It indicates what time of day it is best to conduct research.
- If there were several such contacts during the menstrual cycle, it is advisable to wait and do a test every 4–5 days.
It is important to remember that with an irregular loop you can often get a false positive result.
If menstruation behaves in the most ugly way and their schedule is impossible to predict at all, then it is better to be examined by a doctor.
Irregular cycle is not normal. Even irregular menses should have a certain cyclical nature. For example, one menstrual bleeding in 1.5–2 months.
- If the cycle of menstruation does not obey any laws of logic, then you need to contact a gynecologist-endocrinologist. Be sure to examine the gynecological organs, the thyroid gland, the area of the brain called the "Turkish saddle", the adrenal glands. It is important to find out the cause of the pathology.
- Sometimes you just need to do your own weight and health. Often enough to remove 2 or 3 kg and the menstrual cycle is normalized.
- If children are not included in the plans yet, be sure to protect yourself. What to use - decide for yourself: condoms or hormonal contraceptives. This will save money on tests for pregnancy.
Use these simple rules and you will not suffer - to run after the test to the pharmacy or not. And healthy nerves are the best way to normalize the female reproductive system.