Fear, joy, confusion, embarrassment - these feelings are experienced by all girls entering puberty. The first menstruation for them becomes a desirable and at the same time unknown phenomenon, which is best prepared in advance. What are the symptoms of the first menstrual periods in girls? How are the first periods for girls?
The first menstruation gynecologists call menarche, which translated from Greek means "the beginning of the month." In modern girls for the first time menstruation occurs at 11-14 years. If they appeared earlier or later, then this does not mean pathology. Each organism is individual and the menstrual flow occurs only at the moment when the genitals are sufficiently formed and the necessary concentration of hormones in the blood has accumulated.
The following factors can affect the onset of menstruation in adolescent girls:
- genetic predisposition
- body mass,
- features of the constitution,
- day regimen and nutrition (lack of vitamins, lack of sleep),
- general health (heart disease, diabetes,
- bronchial asthma),
- emotional background
- thyroid disease.
Consultation with a gynecologist and an endocrinologist is required if the first months of the girl came before 10 years or did not appear at all by the age of 17. Such deviations indicate a violation of hormonal levels in the children's body. The doctor will order an examination, identify the causes of the failure, and treat it in order to avoid subsequent problems in adult life.
The first bells that signal the imminent onset of the first menstruation are external changes of the girl. Her figure is rounded, her hips are wider, her breasts and external genitals are enlarged. The skin in the intimate area acquires a dark shade, and hair is formed on the pubis and armpits.
The sebaceous glands work in a heightened mode, which is why the girl is worried about the first acne on her face, back and chest. A whitish, jelly-like secretion is released from the vagina, which moisturizes and cleanses the internal genital organs.
The girl begins to notice in her oily hair, unreasonable pain in the lower abdomen, frequent mood swings, rapid fatigue. Some have a severe lack of appetite, nausea in the morning, tearfulness and apathy, these are all signs of PMS.
Allocation before the first menstruation in girls should not be abundant and smell unpleasant. Such symptoms may indicate the development of gynecological diseases, for example, colpitis.
What are the first monthly in girls? The presence of light brown or bright scarlet spots on underwear indicates the arrival of the first menstruation. The color and volume of discharge for each girl is individual. Most often they are not abundant - up to 30-50 ml, while most of the menstrual blood is released on the 2-3 day of the cycle.
In girls, menstruation may be accompanied by a slight rise in body temperature (up to 37 ° C) and moderate pain associated with a contraction of the uterus. Sickness, headache and nausea are normal on the first day of menstruation. After these symptoms should go away on their own.
How many days go monthly for the first time? The first time periods for girls last from 3 to 7 days. At first they are abundant, after scanty, resembling a brown daub. Lightening discharge should not be longer than 5-7 days. Otherwise, the girl should see a gynecologist to exclude pathology.
The monthly cycle is set for 1-1.5 years and is extremely unstable. If adult women break between menstruation from 24 to 35 days, then in girls they can be from several weeks to 2-3 months.
Such drops are considered the norm, due to hormonal changes in the body. Doctors note that a regular menstrual cycle is quickly established in physically developed adolescents who do not have chronic common diseases. Immunocompromised girls, often ill, suffer from an unstable cycle.
If the menstrual cycle has not improved after 2 years after the onset of the first menstrual period, then you should visit the gynecologist and undergo a comprehensive examination.
For the first month the girl should be prepared morally. Both mom and elder sister or grandmother can have an informative conversation. The girl should be told about personal hygiene on “critical” days, about the necessity of wearing feminine hygiene products in her purse. It is important that the child understands that from now on she is able to become pregnant, even with an incompletely formed organism.
Further preparation is as follows:
- buy pads for the first menstruation (2 drops),
- start a calendar to mark “critical” days,
- wear daily thin pads to avoid confusion.
Can I use tampons? Modern manufacturers of hygiene products produce a specialized product line for adolescents, but gynecologists do not recommend their use. Tampon can accidentally damage the hymen, and if you enter it with dirty hands, an infection will occur.
The girl's first menstruation is associated with the onset of a new life phase - full maturity. At this moment, there should be close people with her to support her, conduct a confidential conversation and help her adapt to new sensations.
The child is also shown complete emotional calm, balanced nutrition, age regimen of the day. During the period of menstrual flow, you should avoid strong physical exertion, active sports and visits to the bath (sauna).
When do menstruations begin?
The first time periods come at the age of 11-14 years. It is impossible to establish and predict exactly when menstruation will occur, since a huge number of different factors affect this process:
- physical development,
- childhood illnesses
- emotional background
- experiencing stressful situations
- playing sports
- the presence or absence of surgery,
- infectious diseases,
- inflammatory processes.
In most cases, periods begin in the period from 11 to 14 years. But there are exceptions. In some, menstruation may begin 2 years earlier than the accepted norm, in others, later. This may be due to the following reasons:
- endocrine disorders
- hereditary diseases
- hormonal disbalance,
- trauma, operations,
- strong emotional turmoil.
If menstruation occurs much earlier or later than the due date - this is a reason to consult with experts. You can contact both the gynecologist and the endocrinologist, who will help determine the causes and, if necessary, prescribe the appropriate treatment. Early treatment and the implementation of all the recommendations of the doctors will ensure the proper functioning of the reproductive system and will help to avoid many gynecological problems.
The main signs of the onset of menstruation
Monthly for each girl begins in different ways. This is a purely individual process, depending on a large number of factors. Nevertheless, the main signs of an approaching menstruation are distinguished. These features usually include:
- pulling or aching pain in the lower abdomen,
- frequent mood swings
- bouts of sadness, depression, despondency.
In some cases, the onset of menstruation can occur without any previous signs and symptoms. However, there are still some signs by which it can be determined that in a short time the girl will begin her period:
- A rounded shape starts to look more feminine.
- The circumference of the hips increases and becomes noticeable.
- Starts rapid growth of the mammary glands.
- Darkening and increase in nipples
- External genitals also increase in size
- Approximately 1 year before the onset of menstruation, whitish vaginal discharge appears to cleanse and moisturize.
- Intensive functioning of the sebaceous glands begins, with the result that acne, acne, skin irritation of the face, back, shoulders and chest can appear.
- The work of the sweat glands is activated.
These and other signs may indirectly indicate the onset of menstruation.
How is the first menstruation
For the first time, the monthly for each girl is irregular and unstable. On the 1st day of the onset of menstruation, there are few, at least, spotting secretions. And only for 2-3 days can be noted characteristic for menstruation discharge. However, this is not all. The majority of the first menstruation is characterized only by spotting a dark red or brownish color. Soreness is usually marked on the first day of menstruation.
The average duration of the first period ranges from 3 to 5 days. And the period before the next menstruation is 27-30 days. It is worth noting that in most cases the menstrual cycle is established within six months. During this period, there are irregular periods with different duration. Menstruation at this stage may not be every month. But if the monthly during the year come irregularly, linger for 3-4 months, then you need to consult with the gynecologist and endocrinologist. As in accordance with the norm, the menstrual cycle should stabilize within 3-6 months from the onset of menstruation. Should see a doctor in the following cases:
- if abundant discharge is noted,
- if the periods are very painful,
- if the duration of menstruation is different every month.
The emotional state of the girl in critical days
Before the arrival of menstruation, there are changes in the emotional state. Girls become touchy, irritable, aggressive. There is a gratuitous change of mood. Emotional reactions to the events become turbulent and sometimes unexpected.
Therefore, at this stage it is important to psychologically support the girl. Emotional background in the family should be calm. We must try to protect the girl from stress, excessive anxiety and nervous tension.
Hygiene girls during menstruation
It is necessary to acquaint the girl with the rules of personal hygiene on critical days even before the onset of menstruation.
Hygiene procedures consist in frequent leaching, timely replacement of hygiene products (gaskets). Doctors recommend replacing the gasket every 2-3 hours. But experts do not advise using tampons due to the incomplete formation of the genital organs, a high probability of traumatization and infection.
In addition, the girl should take a shower at least once a day.
Take a bath during menstruation is absolutely impossible!
Eating girls on critical days
It is also worth taking care of proper nutrition of the girl during her period. For the period of menstruation it is recommended to refrain from the consumption of spicy, salted, smoked products. It should limit the intake of sweets and carbonated drinks. This is justified by the fact that these products can cause additional cramps and soreness in the gastrointestinal tract. Some foods may thin the blood, resulting in heavy discharge.
It is advisable to consume cereals, potatoes, fish, chicken breast, fresh vegetables and fruits on critical days. You need to eat fully and regularly during your period. Starvation and dieting are unacceptable these days.
Since during menstruation the body is deficient in protein, iron, calcium and other trace elements, it is advisable to take vitamin-mineral complexes.
What else is important to know about the first menstruation
- With the onset of menstruation, the girl must start a calendar of menstruation, in which menstrual days are celebrated monthly. Such a calendar will allow you to visually monitor the menstrual cycle.
- During menstruation, it is advisable to refrain from playing sports, active games, long walks. It is important to limit physical activity in general. In 1 day of menstruation, it is recommended even to observe bed rest, especially in cases where critical days are accompanied by abundant secretions and severe pain.
- On critical days, you should avoid taking medications. Experts do not advise taking aspirin and drugs based on it during menstruation, as they contribute to blood thinning, which can lead to an increase in secretions and the duration of menstruation.
- During the period of menstruation should not swim and sunbathe. This is due to the fact that in the menstrual days the uterus is most vulnerable to the penetration of various kinds of infections.
- Hypothermia should be avoided, as this can result in not only increased discharge during menstruation and their soreness, but also inflammatory processes of the uterus.
Even our grandmothers or even moms had puberty by about 18 years. Now everything has changed. And already between 11 and 16 years old, girls may experience changes in their body and body. Someone first menstruation begins earlier, someone later. Factors that may affect this:
- illnesses that the child has had
- physical development
- If the first menstruation, at one time, went to the mother at an early age, then it is obvious that the same fate awaits the daughter.
- Also, if the girl has very active physical development, then the monthly will go earlier.
- If the child is noticeably weaker in hormonal and physical terms, then the period of menstruation will come later.
- In the absence of proper nutrition and vitamins for a growing body, puberty will occur a little later.
Medicine has a history of the onset of the first menstruation in girls between the ages of 8–9 years and even by 6 years. Such earlier puberty could be due to hormonal disruption or unmeasured exertion.
On the other hand, if the monthly does not begin by the age of 17-18 years, then there is a need to consult a gynecologist. Reasonsmay serve:
- ovarian abnormalities
- frequent stress
- nervous tension
- hormonal disbalance
- unmeasured exercise
- bad ecology
- eating disorder
Signs preceding the first monthly
Every mother caring for her daughter will easily notice the changes in her body and body, which indicate the approach of the first menstruation. This serves as the first bell, after which it is time to start preparing the child for the upcoming stage of her life.
For several years before the onset of the first menses, the chest begins to grow, the hips are slightly widening. Manicured hair in the armpits and pubis. The onset of menstruation is also characterized by acne.
Already for a couple of months before the onset of the first menstruation, there may be a discharge of white color remaining on the laundry, which has not previously been observed. Secretions of this nature have no odor, and they are white, yellowish or transparent.
Such a phenomenon is considered absolutely natural and does not indicate any unpleasant ailments. Only with the manifestation of itching, unpleasant odor discharge should consult a gynecologist.
And just before the first menstruation, for a couple of days, the child may manifest premenstrual syndrome characteristic of adult women:
- changeable mood
- bouts of apathy or aggressiveness
- pain in the head
- lower abdominal pain
Features of the menstrual cycle
In the growing body of a teenager, the duration of the menstrual cycle can vary greatly. That is, counting from the first day of one menstruation, it takes about 21 to 35 days before the next one begins. Within a few years, the menstrual cycle can settle and become more permanent. However, for some women, it fluctuates all the time.
For example, once the cycle lasts 24 days, and the other has 31 days. Such a difference in terms is not considered a deviation and does not at all indicate any pathologies and illnesses. If there are any warnings, you should go to an appointment with a gynecologist.
You also need to take into account that the intervals between menstruation can greatly increase. Sometimes this period can take a month or even half a year. Therefore, if a young girl has a short break or delay, then there is no reason for panic. The young organism is formed and grows. But when there is a big pause after the first menstruation, you need to consult a doctor to rule out serious disruptions in the body.
As soon as the girl began the first critical days, her mother should be shown and explained how to mark them in the calendar.
This very convenient and necessary habit will help to notice exactly how the cycle has changed over the course of a year, because in the first years the teenage menstrual cycle is rather irregular. Also such a device is useful during a visit to the gynecologist. In case of any violations, it will be possible to easily explain to a specialist how the cycle has hesitated recently.
Hygiene and diet during menstruation
It is very important to follow the rules of hygiene during the period of menstruation. Moms and must necessarily familiarize their daughters with this issue.When menstruation occurs, all the fair sex use pads and tampons.
Girls better use padsthey are considered more convenient. It is preferable to give your choice to products having a cotton cover. Such pads are less allergenic and will not irritate delicate skin.
It is important to note that Regular replacement of gaskets should be done, no more than 3 hours.. With a longer wearing one pads, the bacteria multiply rapidly and can harm the body, and also cause serious diseases.
Important pointswhich should be considered during menstruation:
- Before replacing the gasket wash your hands wellso that bacteria and microbes cannot get on a clean gasket.
- Do not use gaskets that have the expiration date has expired.
- It is better do not use scented padsThey are saturated with chemical components, which in turn can cause allergies and irritation.
- Do not use questionable or too cheap hygiene products.Such gaskets can be made of poor-quality material and harm the health of the child.
- Gaskets should not be stored in areas where the air is very humid. Excessive air humidity is an ideal environment for the development of bacteria.
- Particular attention should be paid to underwear. Best fit natural fabric panties. It is worth mentioning that now it is very fashionable and beautiful to wear a thong, all the girls want to wear such panties. However, this type of laundry is unhygienic. The narrow back of the panties allows microorganisms from the anus to enter the vagina, which can lead to inflammatory diseases.
- When menstruation occurs in girls it is not advisable to bathe in the bathroom. Best to use daily shower. Laundry should be done several times a day.
- It is recommended to replace ordinary soap with special gels for intimate hygieneThey contain lactic acid, which maintains a normal microflora environment.
- You need to try not to overload the child during menstruation, reduce physical exertion. Physical education lessons should be missed. It is also necessary to provide psychological peace.
- There are also recommendations regarding nutrition, one of which is dieting. But it's not about losing weight, but about the right diet, eliminating spicy dishes. Eating such foods can increase uterine bleeding. Also, do not drink alcohol.
The need to visit a gynecologist
When the first menstruation of the girl does not immediately run to the doctor, without the need. If there are no signs such as: discharge with an unpleasant smell, itching and irregular menstruation. The first examination at the gynecologist girls pass at the age of 15 years. Such a technique is considered planned to ensure the correct development of the child and the absence of any ailments.
What is it monthly
Monthly - because every month. This is understandable, but what is this physiological process that is accompanied by bleeding? Menstruation - this is nothing like the phase of the menstrual cycle in women. At the same time, a woman has a number of complex processes in the body: in the uterus there is a separation of the surface layer - it is called the endometrium, which is accompanied by bleeding from the vagina. Someone is abundant discharge, and someone scanty, but they are absolutely all women, except those who are under the heart of the child.
During menstruation, a woman's body prepares itself for conception, pregnancy and childbearing. During the “critical days,” the uterus blood supply improves and the endometrial thickness increases. All this will help the ovum - it can attach stronger to the wall of the uterus.
The first months of the girl - this is not a sign that her body is ready for conception and pregnancy, not at all. This message, which can be interpreted as “from now on, pregnancy is possible” - but no more.
When the first menstruation comes
Today, the first periods in girls can occur much earlier than this happened with our grandmothers. Moreover, the fact that the age of the first menstruation is "younger" is noted by many experts. Previously it was considered the norm when menstruation came with the age of majority - from 18 years. But today, the “critical days” will not surprise anyone a girl of 12 years old.
Another important factor for the onset of menstruation is where you live. In women of eastern nations, menstruation often occurs at 10 years.
The period of the first menstruation in girls is considered normal, if they fall on the age of 11 years (minimum) - 16 years (maximum). If the period came to 9 years, then it means that the girl has all the signs of very early sexual development. But if menstruation has not come to 17 years, then this indicates that the girl has a lag in sexual development.
What determines the timing of the first monthly
From physical development.
From the hereditary factor.
From the diet.
From the place of residence.
From diseases that were carried in childhood.
If the menstruation began in a girl under 11 years old, then this may be due to the fact that the child's hormonal metabolism is disturbed, he has a poor diet, or he gets too much physical exercise.
If menstruation began at the age of 16-20 years, then this may be due to hormonal metabolism problems, ovarian insufficiency, pituitary disorders, or neuropsychiatric disorders.
First menstruation: signs of approaching
About a year or even two before her period begins, the girl's body, emotional state and behavior begin to change.
First of all, the figure begins to lose angularity and acquires feminine roundness. At this time, hair appears - under the arms and on the pubis. Slightly increased external genitals. These are visual manifestations, but even more work on the restructuring of the body goes on a hormonal level. Due to the fact that the sweat and sebaceous glands strengthen their work, girls may have acne - a rash on the face, back, chest, shoulders, dandruff, and the skin and hair roots become much faster fat.
As for the later signs, in about three to four months the girl begins discharge from the vagina - it is whiter. They can be both completely white and completely transparent, but without unpleasant smell and itching in the perineum. The consistency of whiter can be any - whether it is a liquid discharge, or more viscous.
Immediately before the most menstrual periods, the girl may have such purely subjective feelings:
- Lower abdominal pain. These can be quite insignificant unpleasant feelings of a pulling character or, on the contrary, very severe cramping pains.
- Headache. Often, immediately before the menstrual period, girls have frequent attacks resembling a migraine.
- Emotional instability. Most often, girls are accompanied by signs of emotional lability: they are whiny, capricious, touchy.
- Apathy. Detachment from the world, lack of interest in studies and studies, which previously pleased and enjoyed.
- Aggression. Immediately before the “critical days”, girls may experience aggression for no particular reason: they can disrupt the anger at their close ones, and this is completely groundless.
Menstruation Hygiene Products
It is very important for the girl to tell, explain and show how to protect herself and her clothes from the flow of menstrual blood during the “critical days”. It used to be, our grandmothers had many problems during their periods, and today there is a huge amount of intimate hygiene products - gaskets and tampons.
It is very important that a mother or other close person tells the girl how to properly use the pads and tampons. The gasket should be changed every 4-5 hours, and tampons, as blood is absorbed, approximately every 2-4 hours. This must be strictly followed, since microbes multiply very quickly in these hygiene products, which can lead to inflammation or disease of the genital and pelvic organs.
Do not forget that during menstruation it is necessary to wash as often as possible - at least 2 times a day, but if possible, of course, more often. It is desirable to change the pants during each change of gasket, but not less than once or twice a day.
Gaskets have their own labeling - from one to 5-6 drops, as well as "night". Droplets show what the intensity of absorption of one or another means of intimate hygiene. "Night" pads are wider and longer, they have more absorbable gel, they are used during sleep.
As for tampons, they can even be used by virgins (earlier there were disputes about it - whether a tampon can break a hymen or not, but today experts say it’s not real, a virgin will remain a virgin, no matter how much she uses the tampon). During “critical days, the diameter of the hymen increases on average to 2.5 cm, while the already used tampon does not exceed 1.5 cm.
Properly selected and high-quality intimate hygiene products are the comfort and well-being of a girl, do not forget about it!