Hypothyroidism and menses, their relationship and interaction were investigated by scientists of the 19th century. They proved the necessity of changes in the flow of menstruation in the diagnosis of thyroid pathologies.
Hypothyroidism and menses are two interdependent processes. Any deterioration of the organs of the endocrine system leads to changes in the performance of their tasks by the reproductive systems.
Signs of hypothyroidism
Reduced functioning of the gland, inactive hormones in the body lead to hypothyroidism. Deficiency of hormones disrupts thyroid function, reduces the production of thyroxin T3 and triiodothyronine T4, affects menstrual cycles.
Hormonal trace elements perform important duties:
- Fill the ovaries with the right hormone nutrition.
- Control the cyclicality (repeatability) of processes.
- Regulate all metabolic processes between cells.
Hormones are involved in the blood production process. It is blood that is an integral and main part of menstrual cycles. Blood passes through a permanent replacement, leaving the body and the production of new.
A sufficient amount of hormones contributes to the renewal of tissues and organs of the reproductive system. In the body of a woman matures cell. The normal duration of the cycle is a recurrence of blood release after 21-35 days If hormonal disruption occurs, cyclic jumps occur. The top coat of the mucous walls of the uterus is updated more slowly or with delay.
Problems with the work of the glands cause delayed onset of menses. There are no exact quantified figures calculated in days. It all depends on the condition and stage of hypothyroidism. In some patients it is 23 days, in others the delay reaches 6-12 months.
In case of thyroid disease, the work of the ovaries slows down, therefore the whole process of interrelation of hypothyroidism and monthly cycles can be explained by the following changes:
- the lack and inactivity of the gland leads to a slow functioning of the ovaries,
- follicle is made with big problems and obstacles,
- the growth of genital cell formations becomes slow or, in general, does not occur.
The right amount of hormones T3 and T4, produced by the thyroid gland, is required to produce active components by the ovaries. The deficiency leads to changes in the endometrium of the uterus. The consequence of this is the delay of menstruation, their scarcity and, most unpleasantly, the loss of the cycle.
Types of deviations from the norm of monthly cycles
The inactivity of the thyroid gland can affect changes in the quality of the menstrual cycles.
There are several changes in the course:
- increasing the amount of blood released
- increase in duration
- weakening in the allocation of blood (hypomenstrual),
- hypomenorrhea. Decreasing the amount of outgoing blood
- oligomenorrhea. Monthly duration is reduced to 1 day,
- Oppenmenorrhea. The increase in the time interval between the beginning of the month to 9 weeks. Spaniomenorrhea. Cycles are observed only 2-5 times per year
- amenorrhea. Complete cessation of the menstrual cycle
- severe bleeding. The rarest deviation.
Doctors describe cases from practice when all types of deviations are combined. Mixed forms appear combining the signs of several deviations from the norms.
The menstrual cycle passes without ovulation. This pathology leads to infertility. Fertilization becomes impossible.
Hypothyroidism and the monthly cycle during puberty
Endocrinologists pay attention to the problems of the thyroid gland in the formation of reproductive organs. In girls at puberty, hypothyroidism can cause uterine bleeding.
The physiological imperfection of the internal organs leads to various pathologies of adult life:
- lack of ovulation processes
- poor readiness to conceive and bear a fetus,
When diagnosing problems and diseases of the thyroid gland:
- The monthly cycle becomes irregular.
- After the first monthly for a long time there is no cyclicity, recurrence. Permanent failures occur.
- Monthly pass with pain.
- The uterus is located incorrectly.
- Often there are inflammation of the ovaries.
- The nervous system is excitable and poorly controlled.
Doctors recommend that in the period of puberty, in case of any deviations in the functioning of the thyroid, to undergo a complete examination of the health of the reproductive systems. Diagnosis will allow you to find the causes of improper course of monthly cycles.
There are several pathologies with similar symptoms:
- Pain in the lower abdomen.
- Omission of the kidneys.
- Anemia and low blood hemoglobin.
Disorders in the endocrine system is one of the pathologies characterized by similar symptoms. Timely diagnosis will help to avoid the consequences that in adulthood will already be impossible to correct.
Communication thyroid and reproductive system of the female body
The organ for the production of hormones in the female body produces substances such as thyroxin and triiodothyronine. These substances perform the following tasks:
- ensure proper functioning of the ovaries,
- create a cycle of all processes in the body,
- are involved in the regulation of all metabolic processes in the body.
In addition to the above factors, these substances are involved in the production of blood in the body. And blood is a constant thing during menstruation, so it requires constant replacement.
If these hormones are in the female body in sufficient quantities, then there is a regular update of the reproductive system. This contributes to the fact that after 21–35 days the egg cell in the woman’s body matures and the upper level of the uterine mucosa is replaced. If there are not enough hormones, cycle jumps can occur.
The effect of thyroid hormones on the length of the menstrual cycle
If there are any problems with thyroid, then menstruation occurs with a significant delay. There are no established rules regarding the delay; for some, it may be several days, while others reach a period of six months, a year.
Due to the inability of the thyroid gland to produce the required amount of hormones, the ovaries slow down. The follicle begins to stand out with great difficulty, and the growth of the germ cell slows down, and in some cycles it is absent.
Since iron does not produce the right amount of hormones, the ovaries are simply not able to create the required number of active ingredients. For these reasons, the endometrium of the uterus does not develop, and this is characterized by the absence or scarcity of menstruation.
In addition, an insufficient amount of hormones in the body increases the pain of menstruation and increases the symptoms of PMS.
Thyroid disorders have a negative effect on ovarian function.
What diseases of the thyroid gland can lead to a delay of the monthly cycle
There are several diseases of the thyroid gland in which the probability of a cycle delay increases:
- Hypothyroidism. This disease occurs due to insufficient functioning of the gland, the lack of the necessary amount of hormones. With this disease, there are cycle delays and an increase in its period, the discharge becomes rather scarce. If you do not seek help from a professional, then the discharge may stop, and this will lead to a lack of opportunities to get pregnant and have a baby. The discharge is very painful, ovulation is absent.
- Thyroiditis. This is an inflammatory process in the thyroid gland that can turn into hypothyroidism. The disease manifests itself in cycle delays, as well as non-menstrual bleeding.
- Tumors. This disease is characterized by the formation of atypical cells in the gland, which, when distributed, interfere with its normal functioning. Manifested by a decrease in the number of hormones in the body, and as a consequence of the deterioration of the ovaries. With this disease, the discharge stops almost completely or the cycle increases significantly and can be about 90 days.
- Diffuse toxic goiter. This disease is characterized by an excessive amount of hormones secreted. The woman is constantly under stress, excessive vulnerability, delay.
- Hyperthyroidism. This disease is characterized by an excess amount of hormones secreted, which leads to a reduction in the cycle.
Each of these diseases is serious enough and requires immediate medical attention. Otherwise, further problems may arise with the conception of a child.
Any suspicion of malfunction of the gland is the reason for the visit to the doctor
How to understand that there are disorders in the thyroid gland
Without the intervention of medicine to identify violations in the body that forms hormones is unrealistic.
If there are any changes in the cycle, then it is necessary to consult a doctor. They immediately send women to take tests for the hormone TSH. This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland, but it is the thyroid that regulates its amount in the body. If analyzes have shown that the hormone TSH is exceeded, then this is a sign of problems with this gland.
It should be noted that it is possible to take this analysis, regardless of the period of development of the egg (it is allowed to take an analysis with monthly excretions).
Restoration of the menstrual cycle after treatment of the thyroid gland
It is worth noting that the normalization of all processes in the body after drug treatment is quite a long process and you should not expect a momentary recovery. Since the body undergoes a shake-up due to the improper functioning of the body that secretes hormones, the monthly discharge after a few months of treatment will be characterized as follows:
- Irregular discharge. These can be both delays and premature onset of discharge.
- Small volumes and short period. Allocations can last only one or two days, besides they are very scarce.
- Lack of ovulation. This problem most often occurs after the treatment of diseases associated with a deficiency in the body of certain hormones.
If you follow all the advice and prescriptions of the attending physician, then all processes are normalized within two weeks, maximum of a month. But if the recommendations of the doctor are not followed, normalization of the processes may take up to six months.
After recovery, it will be several weeks before your period becomes regular.
Because of that, after the removal of the thyroid gland, the menstrual cycle is stopped.
Late access to a doctor with the problems of malfunctioning of the thyroid gland or the formation of malignant tumors in it can lead to its complete removal. And as a result of this and the termination of the monthly discharge.
Due to the fact that the body is not able to naturally engage in the production of hormones, various gynecological diseases can appear. Most of these diseases are also characterized by delayed secretions.
Most often, after surgical removal of an organ that produces hormones, drugs are prescribed that should replace hormones missing in the body. If the use of these hormones is not observed normalization of secretions, then the wrong dosage was prescribed, and you need to go to the doctor again to change it.
As you can see, the body that produces hormones and monthly discharge is directly related and if the former is violated, there are problems with the latter. In order not to bring into your life a chain of various diseases, you need to carefully monitor the manifestations of various diseases. If you timely replace the manifestation of diseases, they can be cured very quickly and easily. It is important not to bring the body to a state where it is simply impossible to do without surgical intervention.
You should not disregard your health, because it is fraught with irreparable consequences - infertility.
Types of hypothyroidism
Doctors distinguish two types of the disease: primary and secondary hypothyroidism. In the first case, the reason for the decline in the synthesis of hormones is due to damage to the thyroid gland, which can be acquired and congenital. To acquired include:
- suffered injuries
- thyroid surgery,
- radiation therapy,
- infectious diseases
- inflammatory diseases,
Doctors distinguish two types of the disease: primary and secondary hypothyroidism.
An inherited defect of enzymes that are involved in the production of thyroid hormones, leading to a violation of iodine absorption, can be observed.
The primary type is the most common, accounting for ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. A disorder of the second type is caused by a lesion of the pituitary gland (a gland that produces thyroid stimulating hormone) or of the hypothalamus (a segment of the diencephalon that controls the functioning of the thyroid gland and the pituitary gland).
In case of congenital disease, insufficient or complete absence of hormones due to the fact that the thyroid gland is absent or underdeveloped. Read more about congenital hypothyroidism >>
It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that even in the first type, menstruation disorder occurs in almost 80% of patients, and many complain of unstable menstrual periods or amenorrhea (their complete absence). It is worth noting that the ability to reproduce comes to frustration even with a regular cycle.
Symptoms of the disease
Due to the fact that the signs of hypothyroidism are common to many diseases, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is very difficult. Usually, doctors blame everything on mental or physical fatigue, on somatic illness or pregnancy, and do not give direction to a blood test to determine the content of thyroid-stimulating hormones in it. Patients usually complain of the following symptoms:
- lethargy, drowsiness, sluggishness,
- fast fatiguability,
- memory impairment and performance
- skin condition change (dryness),
- swelling on the face and limbs,
- voice hardening
- hearing impairment
- fading and enhanced hair loss
- brittle nails,
- yellow complexion
- constant feeling of cold
- increased nervous irritability.
Hypothyroidism often causes irritability and unstable mood.
After 45 years, visiting an endocrinologist is recommended for both women and men.
Alarms are the symptoms listed above and the abrupt appearance of excess weight, which is difficult to get rid of even with the help of sports and diets.
An additional concern may be the presence of iron deficiency anemia, detected after blood donation for analysis. Suspicion suggests the appearance of anemia in patients who eat properly, do not overwork and are in a state of menopause.
The disease can affect the cardiovascular system. The most commonly observed are bradycardia, insufficient blood circulation and tachycardia, low blood pressure.
Diseases of the thyroid gland can lead to a delay in the monthly cycle.
Studies conducted by doctors have shown that the vast majority of women whose thyroid is not active enough suffer from changes in the menstrual cycle. They have some deviations from the norm:
- increasing the amount of outgoing blood and the duration of the cycle,
- weakening of menstruation (hypomenstrual syndrome),
- decrease in total blood excretion during menstruation (hypomenorrhea)
- reducing the duration of the menstrual cycle to one day (oligomenarea),
- an increase in the interval between cycles to seven - nine weeks (Opsmenorrhea),
- menstruation occurs from two to five times a year (Spaniomenorrhea).
It is not uncommon when there is a combination of several forms of deviations from the norms of the cycle. It is noticed that in half of the cases, the weakening of menstruation leads to their complete cessation - amenorrhea, while severe bleeding happens much less frequently.
The consequences of disorders in the thyroid gland often lead to the anovulatory nature of the cycle. This deviation in the reproduction system is characterized by the presence of menstruation in the absence of ovulation, which makes fertilization impossible. It can be concluded that if the thyroid gland is susceptible to a disease, then this can lead to hormonal disturbances and female infertility.
A lack of thyroid hormones sometimes leads to breast cancer. Women who have reached the age of forty need to undergo a breast mammogram every year. The pictures are made in two projections to facilitate the diagnosis of the disease. After 50 years, mammography should be performed twice a year, even in the absence of symptoms.
Hypothyroidism and puberty
Doctors are concerned that the problems of the functioning of the thyroid gland affect the mechanism of regulation of the reproductive system during its formation and maturation. In girls at maturity, this can be expressed in uterine bleeding, which indicates physiological immaturity.
In 15% of girls in puberty with thyroid problems, the regular cycle is not established after three years after the first menstruation.
Недостаточный синтез тиреоидных гормонов приводит к нарушениям в половом созревании девочек, которые в дальнейшем могут привести к аменорее, отсутствию овуляции, невозможности выносить ребенка и бесплодию. This is due to inhibition of metabolic processes in the body caused by hypothyroidism.
In 15% of girls in puberty with thyroid problems, the regular cycle is not established after three years after the first menstruation. In 40% of the girls, painful menstrual cycles were observed, due to the immaturity of development, the incorrect location of the uterus, inflammation of the ovaries and with a high excitability of the nervous system. The lack of thyroid hormones leads to a decrease in the sensitivity of the ovaries to human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG).
During puberty, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the forming organism. This is due to the fact that in the absence of most of the symptoms, diagnosis will reveal several pathological processes occurring simultaneously: pain in the lower abdomen during menstruation, kidney prolapse, anemia, and endocrine system disorders.
Treatment and Prevention
Treatment consists of replacement therapy. For this purpose, synthetic thyroid hormones are used. Unfortunately, this therapy lasts a lifetime. Already in the twentieth century, in addition to iodine-containing drugs, artificial hormones similar in composition to thyroids were used to treat hypothyroidism.
The appointment of a diet is essential for the body due to altered metabolism.
Previously, due to the impossibility of the exact dosage of the alcoholic iodine solution for treatment, overdose occurred, leading to iodine intoxication. Today they use exactly dosed drugs that exclude overdose. Created drugs that contain both iodine and thyroid hormones.
The doctor selects the desired dose of medication, depending on the severity and duration of the disease, the presence of other diseases and the age of the patient. Modern medicines have a minimum of side effects. They are easy to take, once a day is enough.
To observe the treatment in dynamics, a visit to an endocrinologist is required once a year.
We should not forget about the simple prevention of the disease. To do this, you must eat foods rich in iodine. These include a variety of seafood. You also need to include in the diet iodized food: salt, bread, pastries. Follow a diet that excludes different fats. It is necessary to refuse intake of sleeping pills, alcohol and smoking.
Sick women may be born children with a predisposition to hypothyroidism. Therefore, prevention for the child must begin from birth.
Symptoms of thyroid disease in thyrotoxicosis
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So, to suspect thyroid disease associated with thyrotoxicosis (increased work of the gland) and you can start the examination in the following cases, when there are:
- Heart palpitations and high blood pressure.
- The appearance of various types of cardiac arrhythmias, especially attacks of atrial fibrillation.
- Sharp weight loss with increased appetite.
- Feeling of constant heat in the body, preference for a cool room.
- Shivering first in the arms, and then in the whole body.
- Characteristic changes in the eye (puzyaglazie).
- Mental disorders (anxiety, irascibility, irritability, tearfulness).
To find out if there is actually a fast heartbeat or an increase in blood pressure, you need to measure the pulse and pressure at rest. The ideal is when you measure immediately after waking up, without getting out of bed. Normally, heart rate is 60-80 beats per minute, and blood pressure is not higher than 120/80 mm Hg. Art. If in the morning the pressure is normal and the heartbeat is not increased, and in the afternoon there is a deviation from the norm, then most often the cause is not associated with a thyroid disease, but is a sign of another disease.
Interruptions in the work of the heart are felt differently. Most often it is the feeling of a temporary cardiac arrest or interruption of the heart rhythm (alternation of frequent and rare heartbeat). Interruptions in the work of the heart can be identified independently. To do this, find a place on the wrist, where the pulse is felt, and monitor the pulse waves for 1 minute. If the pulse is uneven, irregular, then there may be a rhythm disturbance, which requires an ECG and a consultation with a cardiologist.
A person with thyrotoxicosis has a very good appetite, it can be disturbed only in very severe forms. But at the same time a person loses progressively, no matter how much he ate. This is due to accelerated metabolism at elevated levels of thyroid hormones. But in very rare cases there is, on the contrary, an increase in body weight. Such a sign of thyroid disease was called fatty bazedov, when there is overweight for all other obvious signs of thyrotoxicosis.
A patient with thyrotoxicosis is always hot and stuffy, he tends to colder rooms. The temperature of the room, comfortable for a person with thyrotoxicosis, for a healthy person will be low. This is also associated with rapid exchange, as a result of which a lot of thermal energy is released, which must be removed from the body, creating the corresponding environmental conditions.
Shivering in the body is also one of the frequent signs of thyrotoxicosis. At first it is not noticeable, although there is already a violation of the letter and the curvature of handwriting. Further, with the progression of the disease, tremors can spread to the whole body. The patient becomes like an aspen leaf, trembling in the wind.
Damage to the eyes does not always accompany thyrotoxicosis, it all depends on the cause of thyrotoxicosis. I wrote about this in my previous articles. This symptom is often found in diffuse toxic goiter and is called "endocrine ophthalmopathy." This is an independent autoimmune disease of the fatty tissue of the orbit of the eye, which requires separate additional treatment. The main signs can be considered wide open eye slits, which even gives the impression of glazing, there is also tearing, “the feeling of sand in the eyes.”
A person with thyrotoxicosis changes not only externally but also psychologically. He is more irritable, changeable in mood, tearful, angry, anxious, fussy. There is a sleep disorder.
Symptoms of thyroid disease in hypothyroidism
Diseases of the thyroid gland characterized by hypothyroidism (decreased glandular function) are often manifested by the following symptoms:
- Characteristic changes in skin, hair and nails.
- Puffiness, up to anasarca.
- Increased body weight.
- Rare pulse and low blood pressure, but in 30% of cases there may be an increase in pressure.
- Slowness of speech and movements in general.
- Decreased memory and intelligence.
- Hoarseness and hoarseness.
- Persistent constipation.
- Drowsiness in the afternoon.
Skin with hypothyroidism has a characteristic appearance. Unlike thyrotoxicosis, with hypothyroidism, the skin is dry, flakes, has a pale gray tint, reduced elasticity, the skin seems to hang down. Particularly pronounced dryness on the elbows, knees, face. This is associated with a decrease in hypothyroidism of collagen synthesis, which performs the function of the skin framework. It is noted that hypothyroidism is characterized by loss of eyebrow hair at the outer edge of the eye. Nails exfoliate, and hair dull and brittle.
Due to a decrease in the rate of metabolism in the body, little heat energy is produced, and this causes a constant feeling of cold and chilliness.
Puffiness in hypothyroidism can vary from light edema under the eyes to widespread edema of the whole body, including accumulation of fluid in the cavities (pleurisy, for example). Mainly due to excess fluid and increasing weight. Edema associated with impaired protein metabolism in hypothyroidism. Edematous and large tongue can cause speech difficulties. Speech becomes slow and slurred.
An increase in body weight is connected, as I have already said, with an excess volume of fluid and a slow metabolism, in connection with which all the energy consumed accumulates in the fat depots. It is possible to cope with obesity only by normalizing the level of thyroid hormones. But in rare cases with hypothyroidism, obesity may not be, the weight remains the same or even becomes lower.
Often, patients with hypothyroidism have a rare pulse (below 60 beats per minute) and low pressure (below 110/70 mm Hg), but as it turned out, 30% have a pulse and pressure, on the contrary, are elevated.
Since the general metabolism is slowed down during hypothyroidism, the nerve impulses pass more slowly. Therefore, there is a slowness of speech, thinking, reactions and accuracy in movements. Such patients move very slowly. As a result, intellectual abilities and memory are reduced. It is noted that hypothyroidism has pathological drowsiness, especially during the day. But, fortunately, after correcting this condition, these signs of thyroid disease disappear without harm.
Hoarseness and hoarseness are also common symptoms of hypothyroidism. This is due to swelling and swelling of the vocal cords.
A very common sign of hypothyroidism is constipation. Since all processes in the body are slowed down, the intestinal activity is also no exception. For years, patients may suffer from constipation, be treated for dysbiosis, and hypothyroidism may be the true cause. Upon detection and removal of the underlying cause of intestinal motility, it is restored.
Symptoms of thyroid disease in normal function
For diseases that are characterized by a normal hormonal background, include:
- Autoimmune thyroiditis without hypothyroidism.
- Nodal and multinodular colloid goiter.
- Endemic goiter without hypothyroidism.
- Oncological diseases.
- Thyroid cysts.
- Zagrudinny goiter.
But, despite the normal levels of hormones, these diseases may have other signs that are not associated with the activity of hormones.
For example, in autoimmune thyroiditis, the thyroid gland can be significantly enlarged, so that it is visible to the eye, but there is no hypothyroidism at the initial stage, and therefore this can be only a single symptom.
In case of a nodal or multinodal colloid goiter, tumor protrusions on the neck in the projection of the thyroid gland, a feeling of squeezing, a violation of swallowing and breathing with very large sizes, which is associated with compression of the trachea and esophagus, can be seen.
In endemic goiter, a uniform enlargement of the thyroid gland may also be observed, and if the deficiency is not expressed, then hypothyroidism may never occur, but the size of the gland will progressively increase.
Cancers are accompanied by pain in the thyroid gland, the appearance of hoarseness, indicating germination beyond the gland.
Cysts, like colloid goiter, can deliver only visual discomfort and sometimes impaired passage of food and breathing.
Zagrudinny goiter is usually not visible from the outside, because it is located behind the sternum, but at large sizes it can squeeze nearby organs and cause a lot of symptoms that are not related to the thyroid gland.
And on this I have everything. I hope that you have not found a single sign of thyroid disease, mentioned in this article. And if found, remember that the diagnosis is never made on one basis, and if you still doubt, contact a specialist to dispel their fears. Subscribe to blog updates to receive new articles directly to your email.
With warmth and care, endocrinologist Dilyara Lebedeva
Choking attack in pathologies of the thyroid gland
The feeling of suffocation, the feeling of a coma in the throat with thyroid pathologies is determined by the set of symptoms and factors:
- an attack of excitement
- active work
- exposure to chemicals:
- food additives.
The onset is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pressure in the throat when swallowing,
- dryness, burning in the mouth,
- sore throat, cough,
- slight suffocation with lack of air
- weakness arises, sweat appears.
To determine the cause of the feeling of a lump in the throat, it is necessary to exclude the pathologies of the organs that are accompanied by this symptom:
- 1. Edema Quincke. This manifestation of allergy often causes the feeling of a foreign body entering the larynx, difficulty in breathing. A history of rash confirms the tendency to allergies. An urgent need to take a large dose of antihistamine medication, call an ambulance.
- 2. Feeling of coma in the throat can cause vascular dystonia. Attacks are triggered by nervous experiences, weather changes. This disease is confirmed by the presence of the following symptoms: nausea, dizziness, apathy. Attacks are triggered by nervous experiences, weather changes.
- 3. Discomfort in the form of a burning sensation can be heartburn, caused by the reflux of gastric juice through the esophagus into the lower part of the pharynx. Frequent heartburn confirms increased acidity and gastritis. In this case, it is possible to alleviate the condition by reducing the amount of salty, sweet, fried food consumed.
- 4. The state of lack of air accompanies attacks of diseases such as asthma, SARS, pharyngitis and causes discomfort in the larynx.
Pathology is easily determined by visual inspection due to a significant increase in thyroid volume.
The body is located close to the skin of the anterior region of the neck, so its growth is imperceptible only with excessive deposition of fat in the neck.
The following symptoms are associated with diffuse goiter:
- discomfort while eating,
- bouts of dry cough,
- discomfort if clothes are pressing on the throat.
In this disease, the entire tissue of the organ is affected, which leads to disruption of the synthesis of hormones. Reduction of thyroid hormones in venous blood leads to hypothyroidism, manifested by:
- weight gain
- swelling of tissues
- shortness of breath
- loss of eyelashes and eyebrows
- pale and dry skin.
An excess of thyroid hormones is accompanied by thyrotoxicosis, which causes:
- weight loss
- sleep disorders
- skin moisture
- hand tremor.
This pathology leads to partial damage to the thyroid tissue, causing the formation of nodes.
The node is an increase in the structural unit of the body - the follicle.
By the number of nodules, this pathology is divided into types:
- 1. Multinodular goiter - two or more nodulation.
- 2. Solitary node - the expansion of a single follicle.
- 3. Tumor node - in case of rebirth of the follicle substance into oncological formation.
- 4. Follicular cyst - a large number of modified follicles (adenoma).
In the initial stages of the disease, the nodes do not cause anxiety. The feeling of coma in the throat causes a significant increase in the size of the formation and is constantly present, unlike periodically occurring with diffuse goiter. At the same time join:
- difficulty and pain of swallowing,
- excessive sweating
- rapid pulse,
- weight loss,
- violations of the digestive tract.
The increase in the number of nodes and their size leads to disruption of the functioning of the thyroid gland, causes a failure of hormone production. Manifestations of hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis are added, as in the case of diffuse goiter.
Any inflammatory process in the thyroid gland, regardless of the nature of its occurrence, is called thyroiditis.
Inflammation of the thyroid gland rarely causes a feeling of a coma in the throat, due to its location well above the esophagus. If for any reason the location of the organ is lower than the generally accepted one, this causes difficulty in swallowing.
Thyroiditis is classified according to the following types:
Acute and subacute forms of thyroiditis cause complicated infectious diseases, which are characterized by:
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- general weakness
- neck pain.
Autoimmune and chronic thyroiditis causes a deviation in the immune system, which is hereditary. Immunity produces antibodies to the cells of the thyroid gland. The result is a chronic inflammation of the tissues of the body, causing a violation of its functioning. The development of pathology is gradual, manifested by a small weakness.
Treatment of thyroid abnormalities
If it is possible to seek help from a specialist in time and confirm that a lump in the throat and suffocation causes the thyroid gland to be pathological, then the prognosis of the condition is favorable.
In hyperthyroidism, thyreostatics are prescribed to reduce the secretion of hormones caused by hyperactivity of the thyroid gland and prevent iodine accumulation in the body. The patient is recommended a diet with a high content of proteins and carbohydrates.
For immunostimulation apply multivitamin complexes containing a small amount of iodine.
Treatment of thyroiditis is aimed at suppressing progressive infectious inflammation, elimination of hormonal imbalance with a course of hormonal drugs.
The diet includes iodine-containing foods: lean meat, algae, fish, fresh fruits and vegetables. To remove the swelling effectively wrapping honey, crushing compress. Multivitamin iodine-containing complexes increase their performance.
Infectious inflammation may be accompanied by the release of pus into the cavity of the thyroid gland. To prevent sepsis, pus is pumped through a small puncture.If the feeling of squeezing does not pass, resort to radical measures - excision of the affected part. Refusal of the operation may result in asphyxiation (suffocation) due to partial closure of the airways.
Removing a part of the thyroid gland or the entire organ entails permanent restrictions in a person’s life:
- 1. Observance of an individual diet.
- 2. Periodic monitoring of thyroid hormone production.
- 3. Systematic use of synthetic hormone replacement drugs.
- 4. Complete refusal of alcohol, smoking.
- 5. The ban on hard physical work.
Removing asthma attack at home
A slight symptom of suffocation, a coma in the throat will help to withdraw physical therapy techniques that can be performed at home:
- 1. Warming up of feet and hands, immersion in hot water.
- 2. Soothing massage the back of the neck (you can do self-massage).
Enhancing the therapeutic effect is achieved by conducting a course of procedures.
The use of folk remedies for the feeling of coma in the throat and asthma attacks is used as a prophylaxis between courses of medical therapy. Tea from soothing herbal preparations containing valerian, motherwort, and St. John's wort will have a sedative effect on the nervous system, depleted by hormonal disturbances, but only a comprehensive treatment aimed at all manifestations of the underlying disease can provide complete recovery.
The causes of menstrual irregularities, except for gynecological, may be disruptions in the endocrine system. It is proved that hypothyroidism and menstruation are inextricably linked. This connection was discovered in the late nineteenth century. When the thyroid gland is impaired, the woman's body lacks the hormones it produces. This disease is called hypothyroidism. The term hypothyroidism first appeared in 1873.
Women are prone to hypothyroidism much more often than men. There are nineteen women in twenty cases and only one representative of the stronger sex. Despite the fact that the disease is well studied, it is difficult to diagnose it because of the smooth, slow and gradual development.
What caused the influence of the thyroid gland on the reproductive system?
The largest hormone-producing organ produces substances called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). How the thyroid affects menstruation is determined by their tasks. These components are:
- Provide the ovaries for the production of FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, as well as the cyclical processes in the organs,
- They regulate lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and mineral metabolic processes, which also support the production of sex hormones.
The influence of the thyroid gland on the female reproductive system
Thyroid hormones and menses are also related to the fact that these substances are involved in the production of blood by the body. But it is a significant part of the menstrual flow, because of which the body needs its mandatory replacement.
The result of the formation of a sufficient amount of thyroid hormones is the regular renewal of the reproductive system, the maturation of the egg every 21-35 days and the replacement of the upper level of the uterine lining.
Thyroid hormones and cycle length
The noticeable change that the unhealthy thyroid gland brings to the reproductive system is the delayed menstruation. Violations of her work may have a different character.
If the body is not able to produce the required amount of active substances, it inhibits the work of the ovaries. The follicle secretion becomes difficult, then the maturation of the female germ cell slows down, and in some cycles it does not occur at all.
The hormonal imbalance caused by the insufficiency of the thyroid functions is aggravated by the fact that the ovaries produce less active ingredients. All this hinders the development of the endometrium of the uterus. Menstrual mucus as a result becomes noticeably poorer.
Hormonal disturbances also respond to well-being before critical days, as well as on sensations during them. Menstruation becomes painful, many other signs of PMS get worse.
We recommend reading the article about the peculiarities of menstruation while taking birth control pills. You will learn about the principle of action of contraceptives, the nature of menstruation in their use, as well as drugs prescribed by doctors.
What diagnosis is more likely to delay?
What diseases of the thyroid gland cause delayed menstruation:
Delayed menstruation with hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism. Actually, this is its lack of function. In addition to a long waiting for menstruation, a woman discovers a decrease in the volume of discharge and its duration, but an increase in the time intervals between critical days. The development of the disease can lead to the cessation of menstruation. And if they go, then rarely, with variable ("a lot yesterday, today a little") secretions, pain, but they are not preceded by ovulation,
How to detect problems with thyroid?
If a woman has lost a cycle due to unexplained at first glance reasons, the doctor will recommend her to check the thyroid gland. Efficiency and violations of its work are found, in particular, by analysis of the hormone TSH. It is produced by the pituitary gland, but the amount of the substance depends on the thyroid function. Increasing TSH means a mess in her work.
It is also necessary to check the volume of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the blood. The first question for women is: when to do it? Thyroid hormone tests during monthly periods can be done without fear of getting incorrect results. In addition to T4 and T3, studies on antibodies to thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and the TSH receptor are likely to be needed. They also spend on any segment of the cycle.
Menstruation after treatment
Immediate recovery of the menstrual function after thyroid surgery is not worth waiting for. In addition to hormonal shocks, the body also suffered a nervous one, and the state of the central nervous system in the cycle also has not the last meaning. And because monthly after removal of the thyroid gland may have the following features:
- Irregularity Most often this is expressed in delays, but it is also likely that premature arrival of critical days
- The scarcity and short duration of discharge. Endometrium due to the lack of hormones at the highest point of development thickens to a minimum. Accordingly, by the time of rejection, its width is small, so 2-3 days may be enough for updating,
- Absence in a number of ovulation cycles. This symptom is caused by a deficiency of T4 and T3, which means a lack of the number of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
We advise you to read the article about the causes of frequent menstruation. You will learn about the possible hormonal failure in the body, the effects on the menstrual cycle of foreign bodies, tumors and other gynecological diseases.
Why there is no menstruation after removal of thyroid gland
In some diseases, the thyroid gland is removed completely. The most common cause is a malignant tumor or another malaise threatening to cause it. Often there is a consequence of this method of treatment, as the removal of the thyroid gland, no monthly.
Depriving the body of the ability to naturally obtain the necessary hormones can lead to gynecological diseases. Many of them are also characterized by delays, so you need to look for the cause in the reproductive sphere.
After surgery, as a rule, prescribe drugs designed to replace the missing T4 and T3. Lack of menstruation may be caused by improperly selected dosage. The doctor should correct it.
Violation of the menstrual function can sometimes be not associated with the malaise of the organs directly involved in the process. But this is certainly an abnormal situation that can help detect problems of an endocrine nature, if you don’t give up on it and go to the doctor right away.
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Thyroxine and menses: can there be a delay, how are they going. . Thyroid and menstruation. Please note: if you have a question for an obstetrician-gynecologist, ask him in the consultation section with a doctor.
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As a result, not only the reproductive system, but also the thyroid gland, the central nervous system, is disturbed in the body. . If you have anemia on the background of blood loss from heavy periods, then iron containing drugs you only.
How are sex and thyroid hormones related
The endocrine gland is a large body that is responsible for controlling the entire system of the female body. In addition, there is its direct impact on the work of the reproductive organs.
Hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxin perform the following functions:
- participate in the process of controlling protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism,
- play a direct role in the conception and normal development of the fetus in the womb,
- ensure the smooth functioning of the ovaries, as well as the formation of LH and FSH.
If the work of the gonads and the thyroid system is balanced, then the endometrium of the uterus will be updated regularly. In this case, the egg matures every 21-35 days, which also creates favorable conditions for conception. When pathological processes in the endocrine organ in particular, the importance of the influence of the thyroid gland on menstruation is noted.
In addition to the negative impact on metabolic processes and the functioning of internal organs, with the development of pathological conditions can:
- be delayed by menstruation,
- change the amount of secreted blood fluid.
In addition, the activity of the ovaries is often disrupted.
The effect of thyroid on the cycle duration
If the thyroid gland undergoes any pathological processes, then menstruation usually occurs with a certain delay. As for this state, there are no established norms. In some cases, periods may be delayed by several days, and in others, by 6 months or more.
Due to the fact that the thyroid cannot produce a certain amount of hormones, ovaries begin to function more slowly. Selection of the follicle is difficult, germ cells grow longer. In some cycles, the egg can be completely absent.
Since there is no production of the required number of hormones, there is a shortage of active ingredients produced by the ovaries. As a result, diagnosed abnormal development of the endometrium of the uterusaccompanied by scanty discharge or their complete absence.
Also, with a lack of hormones in the female body, menstruation is accompanied by severe pain and pronounced symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
Changes in the nature of menstruation in thyroid pathology
The active components in the ovary begin to be produced in a reduced amount if there is a deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones in the composition of the blood fluid.
- endometrium develops less
- the production of uterine mucus is reduced.
In the case when menstruation is scanty, and their duration is a maximum of two days, the cause of this condition most often becomes a disruption of the thyroid gland. In the period of menstruation, as a rule, the inner mucous layer, necessary for conception, is produced in smaller quantities.
Restoration of the menstrual cycle after the treatment of thyroid disease
As a rule, after carrying out therapeutic measures, the normalization of the cycle does not occur immediately. A woman's body needs a certain amount of time to fully recover.
Even if the test results are normal, then for a certain period a woman may experience symptoms such as:
- irregular periods (delayed or early onset of critical days),
- short duration of menstrual bleeding and their scarce nature,
- periodic absence of ovulation processes.
In general, the woman's menstrual cycle after treatment of the endocrine organ is restored within 2-6 months.
Does the menstrual cycle affect thyroid screening results?
In the case when there are regular problems affecting the organs of the reproductive system and occurring against the background of a disruption of the endocrine organ, the physiological fluctuations of sex hormones that occur every month may distort the results of the diagnostic examination of the thyroid gland.
Sex hormones have a certain effect on the functioning of the endocrine organ. However, this effect is insignificant and does not go beyond the physiological norm. That is why there are no obstacles to testing for TSH, T3 and T4 before the onset of menstruation, during it, or after critical days.
To make the result as accurate as possible, you must adhere to some of the recommendations of specialists:
- test to do in the morning on an empty stomach,
- not to drink alcohol, fatty and fried foods a couple of days before the procedure,
- half an hour before the study did not smoke,
- Do not expose the body to emotional stress.
Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that there is no connection between the menstrual cycle and test results. If the production of thyroid hormones deviates from normal values, then this is the first sign of the development of the pathological process.
The thyroid and menstrual cycle interact closely with each other in the female body. Improper production of thyroid hormones over time will lead to impaired menstruation, and diseases affecting the reproductive organs will also affect the state of the thyroid gland.
If you suspect any violation, you should seek medical help as soon as possible. Only due to complex diagnostics there is an opportunity to make an accurate diagnosis and to assign the most effective treatment.
Thyroid gland and its functions
In the neck area is an organ hidden by cartilage and consisting of two lobes and an isthmus. This is the thyroid gland. Its shape is similar to the letter H, its weight in an adult reaches 25 g, length - up to 4 cm, width - up to 2 cm, thickness - up to 1.5 cm.
The main functions of the thyroid gland are the storage of iodine and the synthesis of two iodine-containing hormones - triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyrocalcitonin.
Each of these hormones plays an important role in a woman’s body.
Thyroxin affects the following processes:
- speeds up the metabolism
- normalizes the heart,
- stabilizes thermodynamic systems
- affects the formation and operation of the central nervous system,
- affects the thickness of the genital mucosa.
Normally, from 9 to 19 pmol / l is found in the free state in the blood.
This biologically active substance is involved in the metabolism of calcium-phosphorus metabolism and is not directly related to the menstrual cycle. A change in its content is, among other things, a symptom of cancer.
Thyroid and monthly
Many thyroid diseases are associated with pathological changes in hormone levels. Therefore, thyroid and ovaries are interrelated. Special attention is paid to the following diseases:
- Hypothyroidismis associated with insufficient hormones. There is a primary disorder associated with a malfunction of the thyroid gland, and secondary, which resulted in injuries, infections and inflammation. At primary, a decrease in thyroxin and triiodothyronine is observed. The content of thyroid-stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland is increased. A secondary disorder is characterized by a decrease in triiodothyronine.
- Hyperthyroidismor thyrotoxicosis is characterized by increased hormone production. Заболевание сопровождается увеличенным содержанием тироксина и трийодтиронина. Под действием гормонов происходит ускорение обменных процессов.The primary form associated with the thyroid lesion, secondary, characterized by impaired pituitary, and tertiary, caused by the pathology of the hypothalamus. The disease manifests itself clearly, hidden, in conjunction with renal, cardiovascular pathologies.
- Thyroiditis. Pathology of the inflammatory nature. Is acute, subacute, chronic. Thyroiditis leads to an increase in the size of the thyroid gland, its reduction or does not lead to its change. Patients complain of shortness of breath. Suspected thyroiditis causes pallor, slowness of movement, deterioration of hair.
- Crayfish. The first sign of a disease may be the appearance of a small seal. The most common form is called papillary cancer, it is found in 80% of cases. Follicular is observed in 10% of patients, can give metastases. The most dangerous form is called the medullary, it appears from the cells that produce thyrocalcitonin.
- Diffuse toxic goiter. A number of factors lead to the disease: traumatic brain injuries, psychological trauma, infections. Goiter, feeling of a lump in the throat, shortness of breath, swelling of the legs, trembling of the limbs, tachycardia appear. In the development of the disease there are three degrees. At the same time there is a loss of weight, disturbances in the liver, heart, in some cases, vision is lost.
The disease affects all systems of the human body, including the sexual system. Menstrual flow is accompanied by severe pain, scarce. In this case, the woman is experiencing weakness, severe pain in the head. Sometimes there is a risk of loss of consciousness.
Hyperthyroidism severely leads to the disappearance of bleeding.
This pathology is characterized by a delay in the onset of bleeding for up to several weeks. There is a scarcity of discharge.
In severe forms, there may be bleeding in the uterus. Violations of menstruation at the later stages turn into their complete absence and, as a result, sterility.
Diagnosis and treatment
To confirm the pathology is usually carried out ultrasound of the thyroid gland, tests for hormones. If there are suspicions of malignant tumors, a CT scan is performed.
Scintigraphy of the thyroid is prescribed using radioactive iodine. The study allows to clarify the functions and structure.
Therapy depends on the type of disease. The use of iodine-containing products is shown, hormone therapy is carried out. For tumors, diffuse goiter, surgery is performed.
Monthly after treatment
You should not expect that immediately after the operation or upon completion of drug treatment and removal of the main symptoms, the menstrual cycle will be restored.
It is noted that in many cases of bleeding have features:
- short duration
- lack of ovulation.
The work of many organs is seriously affected by the thyroid gland, and menstruation is no exception. An important role is played by thyroid hormones thyroxin and triiodothyronine.
With a violation of the content of these substances monthly become scarce, rare, painful. The manifestation of these symptoms requires timely treatment.