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Anemia - symptoms, causes, types, treatment and prevention of anemia

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Anemia is a condition in which a person’s blood levels show a decrease in hemoglobin levels, as well as red blood cells. Hemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen from the lungs to all organs and tissues and simultaneously takes away carbon dioxide from them.

Anemia leads to oxygen starvation of all organs and tissues. Main manifestations:

  • pallor of skin and mucous membranes, yellowness appears over time,
  • fatigue, weakness,
  • shortness of breath, first with physical exertion, then at rest,
  • decrease in appetite, taste preferences change,
  • drowsiness,
  • decrease in pressure, palpitations, tendency to fainting,
  • condition of hair, nails worsens, skin becomes thin and thin-skinned.

Anemia develops for the following reasons:

  • insufficient hemoglobin formation, for example, in case of iron deficiency,
  • acute (simultaneous) or chronic (in small portions) blood loss.

Normal hemoglobin levels in healthy non-pregnant women are at least 120 g / l. Depending on the level of its reduction, the following degrees are distinguished:

The body of a woman with anemia of various origins is in a state of chronic stress.therefore, they often have various deviations in the work of the reproductive system. The reasons for the development of anemia can be many, among the most frequent:

  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: gastritis, colitis, enteritis, tumors,
  • condition after acute blood loss in the postoperative period, after injuries,
  • chronic inflammatory diseases.

In gynecological practice, one has to deal with menstrual disorders in women against the background of anemia, which has arisen due to other diseases. In addition, a number of female diseases can provoke a decrease in hemoglobin levels.

Persistent and significant drop in hemoglobin may be accompanied by:

  • delays of critical days up to several weeks and months
  • scanty character of discharge,
  • the appearance of pain during critical days.

Women with anemia may have problems with conceiving and carrying a pregnancy.. However, the normalization of hemoglobin levels leads to a gradual recovery of the body.

Anemias can occur because of heavy menstrual or malignant tumors, such as ovaries.. The latter is less common and, as a rule, already in the final stages. But abundant periods - the lot of women of all ages.

Abundant menstruation - the risk of anemia. Bleeding can be ascertained if the maxi pads are completely filled every two hours.. In this case, an urgent need to consult a doctor.

Anemia can develop unnoticed, for example, in the following conditions:

  • monthly abundant but small number of days
  • discharge fit into the norm in volume, but very long due to the constant daub,
  • clots come out,
  • regular intermenstrual discharge,
  • monthly normal, but the duration of the cycle is less than 21 days.

The following gynecological diseases can cause anemia:

  • uterine fibroids, especially with submucous growth, large sizes,
  • endometrial polyps and hyperplasia,
  • endometriosis,
  • juvenile bleeding in girls on the background of stress, physical and psycho-emotional experiences,
  • endometrial and cervical cancer.

Abundant menstruation and decrease in hemoglobin levels are manifested by the following symptoms.which intensify during critical days:

  • dizziness, headache,
  • darkening of the eyes
  • pressure drop and increased heart rate,
  • feeling short of breath,
  • chest pains
  • weakness, lethargy, fatigue, drowsiness, apathy.

If a woman notes poor health during menstruation, you should consult a general practitioner or gynecologist.

To establish the diagnosis of anemia, it is enough to pass a complete blood count, there will be a decrease in the level of hemoglobin and, accordingly, red blood cells. You can install and biochemical analysis of blood, which is necessary to determine the following indicators:

  • serum iron levels
  • the level of ferritin - a protein that binds this microcell,
  • the values ​​of transferrin - proteins that carry iron ions,
  • OZHSS - the general iron-binding ability of blood,
  • hematocrit level.

Detection of a tendency to develop anemia (which means that iron reserves are initially small) should stimulate the normalization of nutrition, preventive prescribing drugs.

Basic rules for the treatment of anemia:

  • As far as possible it is necessary to eliminate the cause of anemia. Sometimes it is impossible to do this immediately, for example, if surgical treatment is required (removal of fibroids, etc.).
  • A diet that includes foods high in protein and iron is recommended. These are liver, all other offal, eggs, red meat, sea kale, porcini mushrooms, buckwheat, apples and others.
  • Iron supplements are prescribed for oral administration. The duration of therapy is not less than a month. Drugs are prescribed at the discretion of the doctor, often used "Totem", "Ferrum Lek", "Sorbifer" and others.

  • With a significant decrease in hemoglobin level, a course of injectable iron preparations, for example, Ferrum Lek, can be prescribed. They help boost performance faster. After that, a maintenance dose is recommended.
  • With a decrease in hemoglobin to 70 g / l, severe dyspnea, a decrease in pressure and tachycardia, blood transfusions may be prescribed - red blood cells. After just a couple of hours, the hemoglobin level rises, but the procedure itself is unsafe, there are always risks of complications, including transmission of viral infections (HIV, hepatitis, etc.).

Read in this article.

What is anemia

Anemia is a condition in which a person’s blood levels show a decrease in hemoglobin levels as well as red blood cells. Hemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen from the lungs to all organs and tissues and in parallel takes carbon dioxide from them. It is part of the red blood cell ̶ red blood cells.

Hemoglobin in its structure is represented by a glycoprotein containing the protein part, as well as iron. With a deficiency of the latter, women also have anemia.

Anemia leads to oxygen starvation of all organs and tissues. The main manifestations of the condition are as follows:

  • pallor of skin and mucous membranes, yellowness appears over time,
  • fatigue, weakness,
  • shortness of breath, first with physical exertion, then at rest,
  • decrease in appetite, taste preferences change,
  • drowsiness,
  • decrease in pressure, palpitations, tendency to fainting,
  • condition of hair, nails worsens, skin becomes thin and thin-skinned.

Anemia develops for the following reasons:

  • insufficient hemoglobin formation, for example, in case of iron deficiency,
  • acute (simultaneous) or chronic (in small portions) blood loss.

Yellow mucous membranes with chronic anemia

In gynecological practice, one has to deal with menstrual disorders in women against the background of anemia, which has arisen due to other diseases. In addition, a number of female diseases can provoke a decrease in hemoglobin levels.

Normal hemoglobin levels in healthy non-pregnant women are not less than 120 g / l. Depending on the level of its reduction, the following degrees are distinguished:

  • first: hemoglobin from 90 to 119 g / l,
  • the second: from 70 to 90 g / l,
  • third: less than 70 g / l.

And here is more about how menstruation goes with uterine myoma.

Features of the menstrual cycle in pathology

A woman's body with anemia of various origins is in a state of chronic stress, so they often experience various abnormalities in the functioning of the reproductive system. The reasons for the development of anemia can be many, to identify them you need to undergo a thorough examination. Among the most frequent are the following:

  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: gastritis, colitis, enteritis, as well as tumors,
  • condition after acute blood loss, for example, in the postoperative period, after injuries,
  • chronic inflammatory diseases.

A slight decrease in hemoglobin may not lead to disruptions of the menstrual cycle and disruption of the ovaries. Persistent and significant decline in indicators may be accompanied by the following conditions:

  • the delay of critical days up to several weeks and months
  • their meager character
  • the appearance of pain during menstruation.

Women with anemia may have problems with conceiving and carrying a pregnancy. However, the normalization of hemoglobin levels leads to a gradual restoration of all body functions.

See this video for the causes and symptoms of anemia:

If anemia develops during and after critical days

If we talk about gynecological diseases, anemia can occur due to heavy menstrual or malignant tumors, such as the ovaries. The latter is less common and, as a rule, already in the final stages. But the abundant monthly ̶ lot of women of all ages.

Normally, a girl with menstrual secretions loses no more than 50 ml per day. For all days of monthly ̶ not more than 150 ml. Such a body with good nutrition is still able to restore and the hemoglobin level does not change significantly, its fluctuations occur within the limits of normal values. More heavy periods - the risk of anemia.

Anemia can develop unnoticed, for example, in the following conditions:

  • monthly abundant but small number of days
  • discharge fit normally in volume, but very long, there is a constant daub,
  • clots come out,
  • regular intermenstrual discharge,
  • monthly normal, but the duration of the cycle lasts less than 21 days.

The following gynecological diseases can cause anemia:

  • uterine fibroids, especially with submucous growth, large sizes,
  • endometrial polyps and hyperplasia,
  • endometriosis,
  • juvenile bleeding in girls on the background of stress, physical and psycho-emotional experiences,
  • endometrial and cervical cancer.

Endometriosis

How does a woman feel

Abundant menstruation and decrease in hemoglobin levels are manifested by the following symptoms.which intensify during critical days:

  • dizziness, headaches,
  • darkening of the eyes
  • a drop in pressure and an increase in pulse,
  • lack of air,
  • chest pains,
  • weakness, lethargy, increased fatigue, drowsiness, apathy.

Diagnosis and treatment of the condition

To establish the diagnosis of anemia, it is enough to pass a complete blood count, it will be marked by a decrease in the level of hemoglobin and, accordingly, red blood cells. In addition, it is possible to establish whether there is a predisposition to the development of anemia, by biochemical analysis of blood, in which it is necessary to determine the following indicators:

  • serum iron levels

  • ferritin level ̶ protein, which binds this trace element,
  • the value of transferrin ̶ proteins that carry iron ions,
  • OZHSS ̶ total iron-binding ability of blood,
  • hematocrit level.

The discovery of a tendency to develop anemia (which means that iron reserves are initially small) should be an incentive for the normalization of nutrition and the prophylactic administration of drugs.

Basic rules for the treatment of anemia:

  • As far as possible, it is necessary to eliminate the cause that led to the development of anemia. In some cases, this cannot be done immediately, for example, if surgical treatment is required (removal of fibroids, etc.).
  • A diet that includes foods high in protein and iron is recommended. These are liver, all other offal, eggs, red meat, sea kale, porcini mushrooms, buckwheat, apples and others.
  • Iron supplements are prescribed for oral administration. The duration of therapy is not less than a month, since only during this time it is possible to trace the dynamics of an increase in the level of hemoglobin. Drugs are prescribed at the discretion of the doctor, often used "Totem", "Ferrum Lek", "Sorbifer" and others. They can contain both bivalent and trivalent iron, as well as in addition folic acid, vitamins C, B12, which increases the level of drug absorption.

  • With a significant decrease in hemoglobin level, a course of injectable iron preparations, for example, Ferrum Lek, can be prescribed. They help boost performance faster. After this recommended maintenance dose of drugs for oral administration.
  • With a decrease in hemoglobin to 70 g / l, severe dyspnea, a decrease in pressure and tachycardia, blood transfusions of red blood cell mass can be prescribed. After just a couple of hours, the hemoglobin level rises, but the procedure itself is unsafe, there are always risks of complications, including transmission of viral infections (HIV, hepatitis, etc.).

In addition to therapy to increase hemoglobin levels, drugs are prescribed that reduce blood loss during menstruation. These are “Tranexam”, “Askorutin”, “Vikasol”, “Etamzilat”. Oral contraceptives may also be recommended, when taken, the amount of menstrual flow, as a rule, is significantly reduced.

And here more about how to distinguish uterine bleeding from heavy periods.

Anemia is quite common in gynecological practice, especially in girls when menstrual function becomes established and in women with menopause. The state develops as a result of an increase in blood loss during menstruation (or irregular cyclical secretions) and the inability of the body to independently compensate for such a deficit.

Treatment should be directed to the elimination of the root cause, as well as to increase the level of hemoglobin with the help of iron preparations.

Useful video

See this nutritional video for iron deficiency anemia:

Every woman, having heard about the discovery of nodes in her, wonders if a fibroid can develop into cancer. In general, no, it is a benign tumor. However, it may be hiding sarcoma.

Often the monthly changes in myoma change: they become scarce rarely, but abundant - often. This factor is due to both the action of the tumor itself, and concomitant diseases.

Independently understand that this is abundant menstruation or bleeding, it can be very difficult. However, there are clear signs of menstruation and bleeding, as well as additional symptoms for which it is important to consult a doctor.

Not all tests can be taken during menstruation. For example, total blood smears from the cervix will be uninformative. Ultrasound in the first 5 days is also undesirable.

What is anemia?

Anemia (anemia) - a special condition characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood.

Anemias are predominantly not a disease, but a group of clinical and hematological syndromes associated with various pathological conditions and various independent diseases. The exception is iron deficiency anemia, which is primarily due to the lack of iron in the body.

The most common causes of anemia are bleeding, vitamin B9, B12 deficiency, iron deficiency, increased hemolysis, and bone marrow aplasia. On this basis, it can be noted that anemia is mainly observed in women with heavy menstruation, in people who follow strict diets, as well as people with chronic diseases such as cancer, hemorrhoids, gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Main symptoms of anemia - increased fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath with physical exertion, tachycardia, pallor of the skin and visible mucous membranes.

The essence of the treatment of anemia and its prevention is mainly in the additional intake of substances missing in the body, which are involved in the synthesis of red blood cells and hemoglobin.

Development of anemia

Before considering the main mechanisms for the development of anemia, let's briefly review some terminology associated with this condition.

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) - circulating in the blood, small elastic cells, round, but at the same time biconcave form, the diameter of which is 7-10 microns. The formation of red blood cells occurs in the bone marrow of the spine, skull and ribs, in an amount of about 2.4 million every second. The main function of erythrocytes is gas exchange, which consists in the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to all other tissues of the body, as well as the reverse transport of carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide - CO2).

Hemoglobin - complex iron-containing protein, located in red blood cells. Hemoglobin combines with oxygen, is delivered by red blood cells through the blood from the lungs to all other tissues, organs, systems, and after the transfer of oxygen, hemoglobin is bound to carbon dioxide (CO2), and transports it back to the lungs. Due to the structural features of hemoglobin, the lack of iron in the body directly disrupts the function of the normal supply of the body with oxygen, without which a number of pathological conditions develop.

As you have probably already guessed, dear readers, gas exchange is possible only through the simultaneous use of red blood cells and hemoglobin in this process.

Below are the indicators of normal red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood:

Doctors note the following mechanisms for the development of anemia:

Violation of the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin - develops with a lack of iron in the body, folic acid, vitamin B12, bone marrow diseases, the absence of a part of the stomach, an excess of vitamin C, because ascorbic acid in large doses blocks the action of vitamin B12.

Loss of red blood cells and hemoglobin - occurs due to acute bleeding in injuries and surgeries, heavy menstruation in women, chronic bleeding in certain internal diseases of the digestive organs (ulcers, etc.).

Accelerated destruction of red blood cellswhose life expectancy is normally from 100 to 120 days - occurs when hemolytic poisons, lead, vinegar, some drugs (sulfonamides) are affected by red blood cells, as well as in some diseases (hemoglobinopathy, lymphocytic leukemia, cancer, liver cirrhosis).

Spread of anemia

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), anemia is present in a significant part of the world's population - about 1.8 billion people, most of whom are women, which is due to the peculiarities of the female body during the childbearing period.

Of particular difficulty with the timely diagnosis and differentiation of anemia are a large number of provoking factors and several mechanisms for the development of anemia.

Symptoms of anemia

Symptoms of anemia largely depend on the type of anemia, but the main symptoms are:

  • Fatigue, weakness, increased sleepiness,
  • Decreased mental activity, difficulty concentrating,
  • Headache, dizziness, the appearance of "fly" before the eyes,
  • Noise in ears,
  • Shortness of breath with little physical activity,
  • Attacks of tachycardia, as well as pains in the heart, similar to angina,
  • The presence of functional systolic murmur,
  • Pallor of the skin, visible mucous membranes, nail beds,
  • Loss of appetite, decreased sexual desire,
  • Geophagy - the desire to eat chalk,
  • Heyloz,
  • Irritability.

Next, consider the specific symptoms of anemia, depending on its type:

Iron-deficiency anemia - characterized by inflammation of the tongue, the presence of cracks in the corners of the mouth, a keen desire to eat the ground, ice, paper (parorexia), concave nails (koonychia), dyspeptic manifestations (nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite).

B12 and B9 deficiency anemia - characterized by dyspeptic (loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting), weight loss, tingling in hands and feet, stiffness in gait, dark red color of the tongue with smooth papillae, disturbances in the central nervous system (ataxia, lowering reflexes, paresthesia), deterioration of mental activity, low sense of touch, periodic hallucinations.

Hemolytic anemia - characterized by accelerated destruction of erythrocytes in the bloodstream, which is accompanied by jaundice, reticulocytosis, an enlarged spleen, Markiafav-Micheli's disease, leg ulcers, gallstone disease, urine redness, late development (in children). When lead poisoning, the patient has nausea, severe abdominal pain and dark blue lines on the gums.

Aplastic and hypoplastic anemia - are characterized by lesions of bone marrow sprouts and are accompanied by hemorrhagic syndrome, agranulocytosis.

Sickle cell anemia - characterized by general malaise, weakness, increased fatigue, attacks of pain in the joints and abdominal cavity.

1. Blood loss

The following factors contribute to blood loss:

  • Period of menstruation (in women)
  • Multiple births
  • Injuries
  • Surgical treatment with heavy bleeding,
  • Frequent blood donation
  • The presence of diseases with hemorrhagic syndrome - hemorrhoids, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, cancer,
  • Use in the treatment of drugs from the group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - "Aspirin".

2. Insufficient production of red blood cells or damage

The following factors contribute to the lack of red blood cells in the blood:

  • Malnutrition, strict diets,
  • Irregular food intake,
  • Hypovitaminosis (deficiency of vitamins and trace elements), especially vitamins B12 (cobalamins), B9 (folic acid), iron,
  • Vitamin C hypervitaminosis (ascorbic acid), which, in excess, blocks the action of vitamin B12,
  • The use of certain drugs, food and beverages, for example, caffeine-containing,
  • Endured acute respiratory infections (acute respiratory diseases), childhood infectious diseases,
  • Increased physical stress on the body,
  • Granulomatous disease, gluten-dependent enteropathy and other diseases of the digestive system, HIV infection, hypothyroidism, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, chronic renal failure, lack of part of the stomach or intestines (usually observed during surgical treatment of the gastrointestinal tract),
  • Bad habits - alcohol abuse, smoking,
  • Pregnancy,
  • A hereditary factor, for example, sickle cell anemia, due to a genetic defect in which red blood cells take a sickle shape, which is why they cannot squeeze through thin capillaries, thereby disrupting the delivery of oxygen to the tissues cut off from the normal blood circulation. In places of "blockage" there is pain.
  • Hypoplastic anemia due to the pathology of the spinal cord and stem cells - anemia develops with an insufficient number of stem cells, which are usually helped by replacing them with cancer cells, bone marrow damage, chemotherapy, radiation, and the presence of infectious diseases.
  • Thalassemia is a disease caused by a deletion and point mutation in the hemoglobin genes, which leads to disruption of RNA synthesis and, accordingly, disruption of the synthesis of one of the types of polypeptide chains. The end result is a failure in the normal functioning of red blood cells, as well as their destruction.

3. The destruction of red blood cells

The following factors contribute to the destruction of red blood cells:

  • Poisoning of the body with lead, vinegar, certain medications, poisons when bitten by a snake or spider,
  • Helminthic invasions,
  • Stress,
  • The presence of such diseases and pathological conditions, such as - hemoglobinopathy, lymphocytic leukemia, cancer, liver cirrhosis, liver dysfunction, renal failure, chemical poisoning, severe burns, bleeding disorders, arterial hypertension, enlarged spleen.

In addition, anemia can proceed without any special manifestations, remaining unnoticed for many years, until it is detected during a medical examination and laboratory diagnosis.

Pathogenicity:

  • Iron deficiency anemia - due to a deficiency in the body of iron,
  • B12 and B9-deficient anemia - due to a deficiency in the body of cobalamins and folic acid,
  • Hemolytic anemia - due to increased premature destruction of red blood cells,
  • Post-hemorrhagic anemia - caused by acute or chronic blood loss,
  • Sickle cell anemia - due to the irregular form of red blood cells
  • Dyshemopoietic anemia - due to impaired blood formation in the red bone marrow.

By color:

Color indicator (CP) is an indicator of the degree of saturation of red blood cells with hemoglobin. Normal color is 0.86-1.1. Depending on this magnitude, anemia is divided into:

  • Hypochromic anemia (CP - 1,1): B12-deficient, folic deficient, myelodysplastic syndrome.

By severity

Depending on the low level of hemoglobin in the blood, anemia is divided into severity:

  • Anemia 1 degree (mild) - hemoglobin level is lowered, but not less than 90 g / l,
  • Anemia 2 degrees (moderate) - hemoglobin level is 90-70 g / l,
  • Anemia grade 3 (severe) - hemoglobin level is less than 70 g / l.

According to the bone marrow's ability to regenerate:

A sign of bone marrow regeneration of erythrocytes is an increase in the number of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood (young erythrocytes). The normal rate of 0.5-2%:

  • Aregenerative anemia (aplastic) - characterized by the absence of reticulocytes,
  • Hyporegenerative anemia (iron deficient, B12-deficient, folic deficient) - the number of reticulocytes is less than 0.5%,
  • Regenerative Anemia (post-hemorrhagic) - the number of reticulocytes in the norm - 0.5-2%,
  • Hyperregenerative anemia (hemolytic) - the number of reticulocytes exceeds 2%.

Treatment of anemia

How to treat anemia? Effective treatment of anemia in most cases is impossible without accurate diagnosis and determining the cause of anemia. In general, the treatment of anemia includes the following points:

1. Additional intake of vitamins and microelements.
2. Treatment of individual forms of therapy, depending on the type and pathogenesis.
3. Diet.
4. Treatment of diseases and pathological conditions due to which anemia has developed.

Treatment of anemia is performed mainly in the hospital.

1. Additional intake of vitamins and trace elements

Important! Before using drugs, be sure to consult with your doctor!

As we have repeatedly repeated, the basis for the development of anemia is a reduced number of red blood cells (red blood cells) and hemoglobin. Red blood cells and hemoglobin are involved in the process of delivery of oxygen throughout the body, and the return transport from the body of carbon dioxide (CO2).

The main substances involved in the formation of erythrocytes and hemoglobin are iron, vitamin B12 (cobalamins) and vitamin B9 (folic acid). The lack of these substances is the cause of most types of anemia, so treatment is mainly aimed at replenishing the body with these vitamins and iron.

2. Treatment of individual forms of therapy, depending on the type and pathogenesis

Iron deficiency anemia, as well as acute and chronic blood loss - treatment is based on the additional intake of iron preparations, among which are:

  • For parenteral use - “Ferbitol”, “Ferrum Lek”, “Ectofer”.
  • For internal administration, “Gemostimulin”, “Tardiferon”, “Ferroplex”.

B12 and B9-deficient anemia - It is treated with an additional dose of vitamin B12 and folic acid, sometimes with the addition of adenosinecobalamin (coenzyme).

With effective treatment, there is an increase in reticulocytes at 5-8 days of therapy, by 20-30% (reticulocyte crisis).

Aplastic anemia - treatment includes bone marrow transplantation, blood transfusion, hormone therapy (taking glucocorticoids and anabolic steroids).

With the rapid fall of hemoglobin in the body to 40-50 g / l and below, blood transfusions are used

3. Diet for anemia

Food for anemia should be rich in vitamins of group B, especially folic acid and B12, iron and protein.

What you need to have for anemia: red meat, liver, fish, butter, cream, beets, carrots, tomatoes, potatoes, zucchini, squash, green vegetables (salads, parsley, dill, spinach and other greens), pistachios, hazelnuts, walnuts, lentils, beans, peas , cereal porridge, yeast, corn, sea kale, pomegranate, quince, apricot, grapes, apples, bananas, oranges, cherries, sweet cherries, honey, freshly squeezed fruit juices, mineral iron-sulphate-hydrocarbonate-magnesium waters

What you can not eat with anemia, or limit in quantity: fats, milk, caffeine-containing drinks (coffee, strong tea, Coca-Cola), alcohol, flour products from pastry, food with vinegar, foods high in calcium.

The prognosis for anemia is in most cases favorable.

Serious prognosis for aplastic form of anemia.

Iron supplement, B12 and folic acid is also an excellent preventive method against acute respiratory infections in children.

Anemia prevention

Preventing anemia involves adhering to the following recommendations:

  • Eat foods enriched with vitamins and microelements, focusing on vitamins B9, B12 and iron (the daily ration of iron should be at least 8 mg),
  • Avoid ascorbic acid overdose (vitamin C),
  • Take preventive measures to prevent the presence of worms and other parasites in the body,
  • Try to keep an active lifestyle, go in for physical exercise,
  • Observe the mode of work / rest / sleep, get enough sleep,
  • Avoid stress, or learn how to overcome them,
  • Whenever possible travel, rest in mountains, coniferous woods, seacoast is especially useful
  • Avoid contact with lead, insecticides, various chemical agents, toxic substances, products of the petroleum industry (gasoline and others),
  • In the period of menstruation, acute and chronic bleeding, additionally take iron supplements,
  • In case of injuries with bleeding, try to stop the loss of blood as quickly as possible,
  • Do not leave various diseases to take their course so that they do not go into the chronic stage of the course,
  • Give up alcohol, stop smoking,
  • Take medications only after consulting a doctor.

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Anemia is a condition in which the body is found to have a low content of red blood cells (red blood cells) that carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of organs. With anemia, you always feel tired and weak.

There are many forms of anemia with various causes of pathogenesis. Anemia can be both temporary and long-lasting and vary from mild to severe.

See your doctor if you suspect anemia, because you can avoid developing a dangerous disease.

Treatment for anemia may include medication or medical procedures. You can prevent the development of anemia with a healthy diet and various diets.

Symptoms

Symptoms of anemia vary depending on the causes of development, but may include common ones:

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Pale or yellow skin
  • Arrhythmia
  • Dyspnea
  • Dizziness or faintness
  • Chest pain
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Headache

The first symptoms of anemia are invisible. Degradation of the body can be a symptom of anemia.

When to see a doctor

If you feel tired for unexplained reasons, consult a doctor.

Some anemias, such as iron deficiency and B-12 deficiency, are frequent.

But, fatigue can be caused by other causes besides anemia. Do not think that if you are tired, then you have anemia.

Some people learn about low hemoglobin levels, which is an indicator of anemia when they go to donate blood. If you are told that you cannot donate blood due to the low hemoglobin content, you need to see a doctor.

Specialists: hematologist, therapist.

The reasons

Anemia occurs when there are not enough red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the human body, which may be due to the following reasons:

  • Insufficient red blood cell formation in the body
  • Bleeding that reduces red blood cell count
  • Red blood cells are destroyed in your body.

What do red blood cells do

Three types of blood cells are formed in your body: white cells (lymphocytes) that can fight infection, platelets involved in the formation of blood clots, and red blood bodies (red blood cells) involved in carrying oxygen from the lungs throughout the body.

Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein that betrays their red color. Hemoglobin allows red blood cells to carry oxygen from the lungs throughout the body, and carbon dioxide from all parts of the body to the lungs to exhale it.

Most blood cells, including red blood cells, are formed in the bone marrow, a spongy material found mainly in the large bones. For the formation of hemoglobin and red blood cells (erythrocytes) you need iron, vitamin B-12, folate and other substances entering through food.

Causes of anemia

Anemia is divided into types, based on the reasons for its development:

  • Iron-deficiency anemia. The most common anemia. With this type of anemia, there is a lack of iron in the body, due to which hemoglobin and red blood cells do not form. For the formation of hemoglobin and red blood cells, a sufficient amount of iron is needed. This type of anemia is found in pregnant women. Reducing the amount of blood in this type of anemia may be due to heavy menstrual bleeding, ulcers, cancer, and regular use of painkillers, especially aspirin.
  • Vitamin deficiency anemia. In addition to the gland, your body needs folate, vitamin B-12, to produce enough red blood cells. Foods that are low in folate, vitamin B-12 may cause a reduction in the formation of red blood cells.
  • Pernicious anemia. In some cases, people consume enough vitamin B-12, but their body is unable to absorb it, which leads to vitamin deficiency anemia, which is called pernicious.
  • Anemia, as a result of the presence of chronic diseases. Cancer, HIV infection and AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, Crohn's disease and other chronic inflammatory diseases can suppress the formation of red blood cells.
  • Aplastic anemia. This anemia is a rare, life-threatening form when not enough red blood cells are produced. Данный тип анемии может возникнуть после перенесенных инфекций, воздействия лекарств, химических токсинов и аутоиммунных заболеваний.
  • Anemia associated with bone marrow disease. Leukemia and myelofibrosis can cause anemia. Under these conditions, the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow is impaired. The consequences of these diseases can be life threatening.
  • Hemolytic anemia. A group of anemias, when red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can produce new ones. Certain blood diseases lead to the rapid destruction of red blood cells. You can inherit hemolytic anemia, or it will appear throughout life.
  • Sickle cell anemia. This type of anemia is a hereditary form of hemolytic anemia, which is sometimes life-threatening. The cause of this anemia is the formation of defective hemoglobin, which leads to a change in the shape of red blood cells in the form of a crescent (or sickle). Such abnormal red blood cells die prematurely, leading to anemia.
  • Other anemias. This type includes such anemias as thalassemia and malarial anemia.

Blood disease may be associated with loss of red blood cells (due to bleeding) or hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). Another common cause of anemia is insufficient red blood cell formation in the bone marrow.
The most common cause of anemia is an insufficient amount of iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid. Anemia can also be caused by blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding, which can be associated with a stomach ulcer, a polyp, hemorrhoids, as well as cancer.

Risk factors

These factors increase the risk of anemia.

  • Foods low in vitamins and iron. Eating foods low in iron, vitamin B-12, folate increases the risk of developing anemia.
  • Disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. With Crohn's disease and celiac disease (gluten intolerance), the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine is disturbed, leading to anemia.
  • Menses. Loss of large amounts of blood during menstruation can lead to iron deficiency anemia.
  • Pregnancy. During pregnancy, you need to take a multivitamin with folic acid to reduce the risk of developing anemia.
  • Chronic conditions. In cancer, renal failure and other chronic conditions, the risk of anemia may be increased. These conditions can lead to a deficiency of red blood cells. In the presence of an ulcer, slow bleeding may occur, accompanied by a decrease in the content of iron and red blood cells, which further leads to iron deficiency anemia.
  • Heredity. If your family has cases of a hereditary form of anemia - sickle cell anemia, you may have a predisposition to it and an increased risk of its development.
  • Other factors. Some infections, blood diseases, autoimmune diseases, alcoholism, exposure to toxins, the use of certain drugs can affect the formation of red blood cells and lead to anemia.
  • Age. People over 65 have an increased risk of anemia.

Complications

If untreated, anemia can lead to serious consequences:

  • Very tired With enough serious anemia, you feel tired and you can not do the usual things.
  • Complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women with folate-deficiency anemia may have complications in the form of premature birth.
  • Problems with heart. Anemia can lead to fast and irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). With anemia, the heart must pump more blood to compensate for the lack of oxygen in the blood. These changes can later lead to an increase in heart and heart failure.
  • Death. Some hereditary anemias, such as sickle cell anemia, can lead to dangerous and life-threatening complications. Loss of large amounts of blood in a short period of time leads to severe anemia and can lead to death.

Sign up for a primary appointment with a doctor if you feel chronic fatigue and you are worried about other symptoms. The doctor may recommend a visit to doctors specializing in the treatment of blood diseases (hematologist), heart (cardiologist), digestive system (gastroenterologist).

Diagnostics

To diagnose anemia, your doctor will ask about the symptoms and the presence of anemia among relatives (family history), prescribe the following diagnostic tests:

  • General blood analysis. A general blood test can calculate the number of red blood cells in a blood sample. In the diagnosis of anemia, it is important that the number of erythrocytes (hematocrit) and hemoglobin in the blood. The adult hematocrit is variable, but in general, healthy women have a hematocrit of 35–47%, and 40–52% for men. The hemoglobin value for adult men is 14-18 grams / deciliter, for women 12-16 grams / deciliter.
  • The test to determine the size and shape of red blood cells. Red blood cells can be assessed in size, shape and color.

The doctor may conduct additional diagnostic tests to identify the causes of anemia. For example, iron deficiency anemia can be caused by bleeding in a stomach ulcer, a polyp in the rectum, rectal cancer, other cancers, and impaired kidney function.

Sometimes an analysis of a spinal cord sample is needed to diagnose anemia.

The list of diagnostic methods: blood biochemistry, clinical blood test (general).

Treatment

Treatment of anemia depends on its type and on the cause that caused it.

General recommendations: the correct mode of work and rest, a balanced diet with a high content of protein, vitamins and restriction of fats. The diet should contain fresh vegetables, fruits, berries, fresh greens.

In acute blood loss and severe conditions, blood transfusions or red blood cells are possible.

Treatment of anemia depends on the causes of its development:

  • Iron-deficiency anemia. The treatment of this anemia, as a rule, consists in applying a special diet with a high content of iron and taking iron supplements. If this type of anemia is the result of bleeding, other than menstruation, it is necessary to stop the bleeding, maybe even surgically.
  • Vitamin deficiency anemia. Treatment consists of applying a special diet containing folic acid and vitamin B12 for folic deficiency and B12 deficiency anemia. If the digestive system does not absorb well the vitamin B-12 from food, then you may need an injection of vitamin B12. At first, they should be done every other day, then once a month. The schedule depends on your situation.
  • Anemia, as a result of chronic diseases. There is no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Treatment consists of treating the disease that led to anemia. When symptoms are severe, a blood transfusion or injection of synthetic erythropoietin, a hormone produced by the kidneys, may be required.
  • Aplastic anemia. The treatment consists in blood transfusion, which contributes to an increase in the content of red blood cells. If there is a disease of the bone marrow that is not able to form healthy blood cells, a bone marrow transplant is necessary.
  • Anemia associated with bone marrow disease. Treatment may include medication, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.
  • Hemolytic anemia. The treatment consists in refusing the drug that could cause anemia, getting rid of the infection and taking drugs that will suppress your immune system, which can attack red blood cells. Depending on the severity of the anemia, blood transfusions or plasmapheresis may be indicated. In some cases, it is necessary to remove the spleen.
  • Sickle cell anemia. Treatment consists of prescribing oxygen, pain medication and fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications. Doctors can recommend blood transfusions, folic acid, antibiotics.
    In some cases, bone marrow transplantation is used. Sometimes used drug hydroxyurea.
  • Thalassemia. This type of anemia is treated with blood transfusions, folic acid and other medications, spleen removal (splenectomy), bone marrow stem cells and blood transplantation.

Treatment methods: drug therapy, blood transfusion (blood transfusion), diet, physiotherapy, oxygen therapy.

Prevention

Most types of anemia cannot be prevented. It is possible to prevent the development of iron deficiency and vitamin deficiency anemia, if you use a special diet with a high content of vitamins and the following nutrients:

  • Iron. Foods that contain a lot of iron should consist of meat, beans, lentils, cereals, dark green vegetables, and dried fruits.
  • Folate. This substance or its synthetic form, folic acid, can be found in fruits, dark green lettuce, green peas, beans, peanuts, grains, bread, pasta, rice.
  • Vitamin B-12. This vitamin is found in meat, dairy products, cereals, soy products.
  • Vitamin C. Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits, juices, peppers, broccoli, tomatoes, melons and strawberries. This food helps iron absorption.

If you are concerned about not getting enough vitamins from food, ask your doctor to recommend multivitamins.

If there is a relative with sickle-cell anemia in the family history, it is necessary to consult with a geneticist about the possible risk of developing anemia and the transmission of susceptibility to it by inheritance.

Anemia can be a complication of malaria. Before traveling to areas where there is malaria, take special medications with you and take appropriate measures recommended for preventing malaria (avoiding mosquito bites).

Sokol Larisa Ivanovna

Psychologist, Gestalt therapist. Specialist from the website b17.ru

not something that can, but simply has to start, and maybe even from the pre-natal period, continue to be supported either by blood loss, or by under-fatalization, then by malabsorption.

ok drink, regulon and monthly will be scarce. This is not the case, so that it pours like a bucket.

I used to pour it straight before, I was constantly tired. That hemoglobin is low, the iron is not enough. Then with age, or with the admission of OK, the duration decreased and much less blood. Everything came back to itself very quickly and the iron was fine and there was no fatigue and there was no anemia either.
So yes, it can.

I started gradually. For 10 years from 120 fell to 70 (

In the 4th post I mean hemoglobin. Take the tests, and if there is anemia, be sure to heal, I was lazy, because I did not know the consequences. The causes of heavy periods also need to find out, can endometriosis, etc.

There were abundant menstruation while hemoglobin was high. Repeatedly checked. The breakdown was not there either. And many years later it turned out that I had fibroids.

Related topics

Maybe, but not necessarily, a friend complained to me that her hemoglobin was normal for 7 days. Get tested.

I started gradually. For 10 years from 120 fell to 70 (

This is to the doctor)) Although what the doctor prescribed for us, I did not drink (maltofer syrup), I began to give my own, that I drank myself, hemobin. At first, they also tried dieting, but somehow it did not help, in general, hemoglobin did not increase.

Of course it can, especially if heavy blood loss, anemia is just developing. I also had the symptoms you had, but I began to take dietary supplements - Gemobin, after menstruation there was much more strength, now I do not lie all day.

Interesting, maybe I'll try. And what is this drug all about? Is there an overdose?

The site says The main distinctive feature and advantage of “Hemobin” is its basis - the hemoglobin of animals purified from impurities, which is very similar in structure to human hemoglobin, and the iron-containing part of both molecules - heme - is absolutely the same.
This determines the high (more than 90%) biological digestibility and the absence of side effects, with its long-term consumption.
It is necessary to take as much as the doctor prescribes, and the dosage must be observed.

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