Hypomenorrhea is called a decrease in the number of menstrual flow. When such pathology appears, their volume does not exceed 50 milliliters per cycle. Often with such changes there is a reduction in the duration of the regulation, this phenomenon is called "oligomenorrhea". The consequence of such conditions may be the termination of monthly menstruation - amenorrhea.
Treatment of hypomenorrhea depends on the cause of it. In some cases, therapy is not required.
Hypomenorrhea is a menstrual disorder, characterized by a decrease in the volume of menstrual flow. Simply such a pathology is called scanty monthly. This is a condition associated with the violation of various functions of the systems and organs of the female body.
With the appearance of this pathology, only 25% of women are diagnosed with serious diseases requiring treatment. Basically, such changes are related to causes that do not pose a threat to life and health. Such conditions do not need therapy and pass on their own. In this case, the menstrual cycle is normalized.
Hypomenorrhea is often accompanied by other disorders:
- oligomenorrhea - reducing the duration of menstruation to 3 days or less,
- Opsomenorei - increase cycle. It may exceed 35 days,
- spaniomenorrhea - rare menses, which appear no more than 4 times a year,
- dysmenorrhea - the appearance of menstrual pain, having a different intensity.
Sometimes hypomenorrhea can be the result of pregnancy. In order to recognize the true cause of the development of such a condition, it is necessary to contact a physician.
There are several signs, manifestations of hypomenorrhea. But the main one is considered the nature of menstrual discharge. With this pathology, menstruation takes the form of a few drops of blood. Because of this, women notice only dark or light brown traces on a hygienic or underwear.
Other symptoms of hypomenorrhea include:
- discomfort in the chest area,
- emotional drops,
- spreading pain through the lower abdomen,
- appearance of nausea
- increased appetite
- low libido,
- dysfunction of the digestive tract, stool disorder,
- the appearance of itching and burning in the intimate area,
- reducing the duration of menstruation,
- the appearance of clots in the menstrual flow,
- slight temperature rise
- development of chronic fatigue,
- increased sweating
- increased thirst.
Often, the pathology is almost asymptomatic, with the exception of reducing the amount of blood secreted.
If meager bleeding occurs after 40 years, this may indicate premenopause. This condition of the female body can be recognized by the following symptoms:
- hot flashes
- low libido,
- increased sweating,
- sudden increase in heartbeat,
- the appearance of dizziness, headaches,
- emotional background changes
- sleep disturbance.
If a woman has a concomitant gynecological disease, the corresponding pathology will manifest along with scanty discharge of blood.
There are several causes of hypomenorrhea. Conditionally they are divided into two groups: physiological and pathological. Doctors say that hypomenorrhea is not a pathology, but only a symptom of a developing disease or functional failure in the female body.
Physiological changes may occur during adolescence during the formation of the menstrual cycle. A similar condition can develop at the beginning of menopause, as well as during breastfeeding.
Among the pathological causes are the following diseases:
- tumor development in the pituitary gland,
- the appearance of a tumor in the adrenal glands, which produces male sex hormones,
- pathologies of the thyroid gland, characterized by a decrease or increase in its activity,
- ovarian dysfunction due to polycystic
- tuberculous endometritis.
Also, the cause of hypomenorrhea is premature menopause.
In some cases, pathology may develop:
- because of anorexia nervosa,
- chronic stress
- psychological trauma
- intoxication of a different nature.
Sometimes hypomenorrhea occurs after Duphaston, as well as when using other hormonal drugs with anti-estrogenic effect. Infection of the internal reproductive organs during intrauterine intervention, the formation of adhesions inside the uterus can also provoke scanty periods. This symptom can be observed due to the incorrect selection of hormonal contraceptives.
The above reasons contribute to the occurrence of problems with blood supply to the endometrium, its change during the menstrual cycle. With the appearance of such a symptom, it is necessary to urgently consult a medical professional to diagnose the cause of the disease.
Hypomenorrhea is often accompanied by a lack of estrogen in the body, impaired ovulation. Therefore, the likelihood of pregnancy in the presence of such a symptom decreases, and, the more meager discharge, the less chance of conceiving a child. Sometimes with this pathology there is infertility.
If scanty bleeding occurs during pregnancy, they do not indicate hypomenorrhea, but speak about the likelihood of miscarriage.
Laboratory studies in gynecology can accurately diagnose the cause of hypomenorrhea. A gynecologist will prescribe a woman a checkup that includes:
- history taking,
- gynecological examination,
- delivery of tests for cytology, bakposev, PCR diagnosis of genital infections,
- analysis of the basal temperature index,
- determination of the level of hormones in the blood and urine,
- Ultrasound of the reproductive system,
- endometrial histology,
- biopsy - if necessary.
Only after making an accurate diagnosis, the doctor will be able to prescribe the optimal treatment regimen for the identified pathology.
Treatment of hypomenorrhea depends on the cause, provoking its appearance. If poor monthly periods were caused by unhealthy diet, strong physical exertion, stressful situations, the woman is recommended to change her lifestyle. In this case, the menstrual cycle can recover independently.
In the presence of concomitant pathologies, physicians often prescribe anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hormonal drugs, as well as general medicine, vitamins and minerals. If scanty periods appear while taking oral contraceptives, the doctor recommends that they be canceled. In this case, the menstrual cycle will be restored immediately or after a short time period.
Therapy with folk remedies, methods of traditional treatment are not required if the hypomenorrhea was triggered by conducting diagnostic procedures, childbirth, premenopause, lactation. In these cases, you will need to consult a doctor to exclude the presence of gynecological pathologies and confirm the physiological course of the symptom.
If the hypomenorrhea has a pathological nature, the lack of treatment may lead to the development of some complications. These include:
- the impossibility of becoming pregnant or reducing the likelihood of conceiving a child,
- violation of the cycle until the disappearance of menstruation,
- increase the likelihood of ectopic pregnancy.
To avoid the appearance of these problems, it is necessary to consult a doctor in a timely manner, follow all his recommendations, and eat correctly and fully. You also need to protect yourself from stress, sexually transmitted infections, uncontrolled use of drugs. With all the rules, a woman can completely overcome the disorder and normalize the menstrual cycle.
What is hypomenorrhea
Hypomenorrhea (syn. Poor monthly) - violation of the menstruation cycle, when a small amount of bloody fluid is released from the genital tract (less than 50 milliliters). Pathology can be both primary and secondary.
The causes of the disorder do not always have a pathological basis. The trigger can serve as an excessively strict diet, changing the time zone or climate, overdose of drugs.
Symptomatology is quite specific - menstrual flow has a light or dark brown color. There are headaches, problems with emptying the intestines. Often women complain that they have chest pains and spastic pains in the abdomen.
Diagnostics is aimed at identifying a predisposing factor — a wide range of laboratory studies and instrumental procedures may be needed.
Treatment of hypomenorrhea is made individually for each patient - tactics dictated by the root cause. Often, clinicians turn to conservative methods.
Causes of Hypomenorrhea
To date, specialists in the field of gynecology, there are a large number of sources that provoke the occurrence of such problems as very scanty periods. It is noted that not all factors are pathological in nature, but often the trigger is a disease.
Pathological causes of hypomenorrhea in this category:
- tuberculosis of the female reproductive system,
- chronic endometritis,
- the formation of adhesions in the uterus - there are scanty periods after curettage of the uterus or numerous abortions,
- chronic adnexitis,
- STDs, in particular chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and cytomegalovirus infection,
- genital infantilism,
- endometrial hyperplasia,
- uterine fibroids,
- metabolic disease,
- injury or previous urinary tract surgery,
- some diagnostic procedures - weak monthly periods after laparoscopy often occur,
- pathologies of the endocrine system,
- neuropsychiatric ailments
- severe intoxication of the body,
- autoimmune processes
- anorexia nervosa
- problems with blood clotting,
- effects on the body of radioactive radiation or the penetration of chemicals.
Poor monthly brown color may appear due to factors that are not associated with the course of the pathological process. Among the harmless sources stand out:
- excessive physical activity
- abrupt change of time zone or climate
- prolonged influence of stressful situations
- adherence to strict diets
- breastfeeding period,
- insufficient intake of vitamins in the body,
- inadequate use of oral contraceptives - poor monthly periods occur after canceling OK,
- the woman has excess body weight.
Such a disorder during the first menstruation in adolescent girls throughout the year and in the premenopausal period, which in most situations begins after 45 years, is considered quite normal.
Not uncommonly scanty periods during early pregnancy - can be both a natural phenomenon and the first sign of a miscarriage. It is better to consult a specialist.
It is worth taking into account scanty periods after a delay - in a woman of childbearing age, this may indicate pregnancy or ectopic conception. In the postmenopausal period scanty monthly - the norm.
The effect of medications on the hormonal system can trigger a problem like hypomenorrhea. Practically in all situations scanty monthly periods appear when taking OK, but other medicinal substances can also affect this:
- anabolic drugs - there is a change in the background in the direction of increasing male hormones, muscle mass increases, which can lead to the complete disappearance of critical days in women of childbearing age,
- hormonal drugs - with prolonged use, there will be a decrease in menstrual flow, if canceled, the process will return to normal.
Only in some cases for a short period of time will there remain scant monthly periods after Duphaston.
Hypomenorrhea in women is:
- Primary. Scanty menstruation was always present, and heavy discharge was practically not observed. The main reason is congenital anomalies of the structure or development of the organs of the reproductive system. Such a variant of the pathology is indicated when the menstruation immediately after the first bleeding remains scarce for about 1 year in young girls.
- Secondary - if the menstruation was always normal, and scanty for the first time.
Symptoms of hypomenorrhea
The main clinical manifestation is the specific appearance of the menstrual discharge in the form of dark or light brown marks or drops of blood.
The symptoms of hypomenorrhea are as follows:
- reducing the duration of critical days,
- headaches of varying severity,
- chest discomfort,
- emotional instability
- pain in the lower abdomen with a spread to the lower back,
- nausea and heartburn
- increased appetite
- decreased libido
- upset stools - constipation
- itching and burning of the genitals,
- menstruation with blood clots
- a slight increase in temperature,
- chronic fatigue,
- excessive sweating
- strong thirst
- depressed state.
The disease can sometimes be completely asymptomatic and imperceptible for women. It is necessary to undergo a thorough and comprehensive examination if dark and scanty menses began.
After 40 years, the main source of the problem is the premenopause. In addition to having poor brown discharge, such manifestations may develop:
- hot flashes
- decrease in sexual desire
- profuse sweating,
- bouts of sudden increase in heart rate,
- weakness and lethargy
- apathy and frequent mood swings,
- sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia.
Many women are interested in the question: is it possible to get pregnant during scanty periods? In such a situation it is difficult to conceive and bear a child.
When the anomaly appears in the background of another disease, the clinic will be complemented by symptoms of a provocative disease.
Prevention and prognosis
To avoid the occurrence of menstrual disorders, you should follow the general preventive recommendations:
- proper and complete nutrition,
- engaging in protected sex only - to prevent STDs and unwanted pregnancies, since scanty periods after an abortion often appear,
- adequate use of medications, strictly prescribed by a clinician,
- avoiding injury to the pelvic organs,
- normalization of body weight
- prevention of long-term effects of radiation and toxic substances on the body,
- minimizing the effects of stressful situations,
- the fulfillment of all the rules prescribed by the doctor after undergoing gynecological procedures - this will help avoid the occurrence of such pathology as scanty periods after hysteroscopy,
- maintaining a moderately active lifestyle
- regular visits to the gynecologist.
Hypomenorrhea often has a favorable prognosis. Long and complete treatment allows you to completely get rid of the disorder.
If you think you have Hypomenorrhea and symptoms characteristic of this disease, a gynecologist can help you.
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