Cryodestruction of cervical erosion, and in simple words - freezing, is a fairly popular treatment for a common female disease, which is cauterization of the affected tissues with liquid nitrogen. This article is designed to help you understand what this method is, and whether it is worth resorting to it if you have been diagnosed with cervical erosion, which requires treatment.
The essence of the procedure
Often the procedure looks like this: a gynecological mirror is inserted into the vagina for a good view, then a cryoprobe is a special device connected to a cylinder with liquid nitrogen. The doctor acts locally with cold (and the temperature of liquid nitrogen is no more than -90 degrees Celsius) on the affected areas of the epithelium and their freezing takes place. The cryoprobe is fairly accurate, and the whole procedure is monitored by a doctor, so the nitrogen in healthy tissues insignificantly affects the quality of the procedure.
Immediately after how cauterization will be carried out, edema will appear in the tissues treated with liquid nitrogen, which persists for a short time. Within about three to six months from how the erosion freeze was carried out, the affected cells die off and are completely replaced with healthy ones. After healing, a decrease in neck elasticity is not observed, therefore cryodestruction is often recommended as an erosion treatment option for non-giving women.
Indications and Contraindications
Like any medical intervention in the body, burning with liquid nitrogen has its own contraindications. It:
- pregnancy - the effect on the cervix of the uterus with liquid nitrogen in this case is absolutely contraindicated, as it is likely to cause a miscarriage,
- bleeding or bleeding of any other nature
- traumatic injuries of the cervix and the presence of healed tissues on it,
- inflammatory processes in any part of the body, especially acute inflammations of the reproductive organs,
- infectious diseases,
- tumors of the uterus and ovaries,
- abnormal development of the cervix (third degree dysplasia),
- too much localization of the affected tissues - in this case a different method is necessary, since exposure to cold over large areas may entail the most dire consequences.
In the absence of each of the above contraindications, cryodestruction can be carried out if, of course, the patient considers such a method of treatment acceptable to herself.
Before the procedure, it is recommended to undergo a general diagnosis of the state of health, as well as contact a gynecologist for detailed advice. You must pass:
- standard gynecological examination, which includes a conversation, examination of the external genital organs, examination of the cervix with a mirror and smear collection on the vaginal microflora,
- swabs for infection
- cervix smear fence,
Burning with liquid nitrogen is recommended in the first half of the menstrual cycle (7-10 days). You need to wait until the menstrual bleeding stops completely (including dark discharge).
It is advisable to have a gasket with you, because the procedure almost immediately entails a watery discharge (hydrorrhea): you need to be ready for this, it is absolutely normal and should not cause concern.
Other advantages of cryodestruction include:
- full safety for women who have not given birth: this procedure, with the exception of very rare cases, does not entail the scarring of the tissues of the cervix uteri, and therefore does not reduce their elasticity: labor after cryodestruction will pass without complications and ruptures,
- with the exception of cases of individual sensitivity, the procedure is completely painless and bloodless: nitrogen cools the blood vessels and after cryodestruction hemorrhage never occurs,
- with proper conduct, relapses are unlikely,
- speed: the procedure takes only a few minutes, after which hospital treatment is not required,
- the price - for example, laser treatment will cost you a lot more money,
Doctors consider one of the main advantages of this treatment method to be minimal traumatization of patient's healthy tissues.
And now about the minuses:
- the healing time of cryodestruction is significantly longer than after laser treatment. Finally, erosion, which has been burned with liquid nitrogen, will heal no earlier than in three months,
- at this time, it is desirable to refuse sexual activity, and during the first month it is completely contraindicated - the probability of infection, the appearance of inflammation and the difficulty of the recovery process is very high,
- if cauterization with liquid nitrogen will not be carried out sufficiently qualified or a preliminary study of the structure of the cervix will not be thorough enough, erosion may reappear, since not all of the affected tissue will be sufficiently processed,
- in some cases, completely normal discharge after the procedure may be accompanied by an unpleasant odor,
- It is forbidden to use tampons during healing.
- very rarely does the process of scarring begin,
- it is impossible to predict an individual response. Some patients experience severe painful cramps during the procedure. The reasons for this are not fully understood.
Although erosion treatment such as cauterization with liquid nitrogen is considered to be a fairly safe procedure, in some cases, most often associated with medical negligence, its consequences can be rather unpleasant. But when referring to the right specialist and thorough preliminary studies, the effectiveness of such treatment is very high.
What is cervical cryodestruction? The essence of the method
Cryodestruction, cryotherapy, cryoablation are the names of the same method of treatment. The main goal of such therapy is to destroy the pathological focus by exposure to very low temperatures. For this procedure, a special apparatus is used - a cryodestructor. Currently, such a technique is in almost every public clinic, not to mention the private medical centers.
Do not confuse the procedure with endometrial cryodestruction. This is a completely different manipulation.
During the procedure, the cryodestructor is cooled to low temperatures - within minus 200 ° C. Cooling is carried out with a special gas, safely hidden in the cylinder. Inside the cylinder gas is in a liquefied state. Turning into a gaseous form, the substance is cooled sharply, which allows it to be used for performing manipulations.
The procedure of cryodestruction is performed using a special apparatus - cryodestruction machine.
During cryoablation of the cervix, a direct effect on the pathological focus occurs. Under the influence of low temperatures, the liquid inside and outside the cells freezes, all biological processes cease. Fabrics die off at the point of contact with the surface of the cryodestructor. A thrombus forms, and the blood flow in this zone stops completely. The epithelium affected by low temperatures is necrotized and is gradually eliminated from the body. This whole process continues for 2-3 months.
Various gases are used for cryocoagulation of cervical erosion:
- Liquid nitrogen (- 196 ° C),
- Nitrous oxide (- 89.5 ° C),
- Carbon dioxide (- 75.8 ° C).
Most often, the apparatus contains nitrous oxide or liquid nitrogen.
The choice of substance will depend on the specific pathology. For example, the depth of tissue freezing when using nitrous oxide is about 5 mm. Necrosis of tissues occurs at a temperature of minus 20 ° C. At greater depths the temperature of exposure will be lower. This depth of penetration is insufficient for severe pathology of the cervix (CIN III), therefore, the scope of cryosurgery is somewhat limited.
In modern gynecology, for the treatment of severe dysplasia and other dangerous conditions, other, more modern and effective methods of treatment are used.
Indications for the use of liquid nitrogen
Freezing with liquid nitrogen in gynecological practice is used in such situations:
- Ectopia (pseudo-erosion) of the cervix,
- Ectropion not larger than 3 cm
- Leukoplakia, which is located only on the vaginal part of the cervix and does not touch its walls,
- CIN I,
- CIN II (under certain conditions),
- Recurrent ectopia after previous electrocoagulation (if there are no stitches and serious organ damage),
- Papillomas and condylomas of the cervix,
- Cysts on the cervix,
- Chronic cervicitis, not amenable to other treatment.
In some cases, extensive lesions in CIN II can be cured by the method of cryotherapy, but more often with this pathology, radio wave cauterization and other modern methods are used.
Accurate indications for cryoablation of the cervix will be detected by a gynecologist after a full examination of the patient.
Contraindications for surgery
Treatment with liquid nitrogen is not carried out in such conditions:
- CIN III,
- Cervical cancer,
- The size of the lesion is more than 3 cm (for any form of pathology),
- The presence of scars on the cervix, ruptures, deformation of the organ - anything that prevents the uniform fit of the tip of the cryodestructor,
- Pregnancy (at any time),
- Lactation period
- An active inflammatory process in the cervix and vagina.
Cryodestruction of cervical erosion is not performed during an acute inflammatory process on the cervix and vagina.
Cryotherapy, or cauterization of erosion by liquid nitrogen, is not carried out during menstruation, as well as in the presence of other bleeding from the genital tract. It is not recommended to do the procedure shortly before the expected menstruation, because the results may be unsatisfactory. For the same reason, destructive treatment is not prescribed for amenorrhea during breastfeeding.
Any methods of influence on the cervix are carried out only in the absence of an active inflammatory process. It is necessary to completely remove the inflammation and only after that burn the affected area with liquid nitrogen. Otherwise, the risk of spreading infection by reducing local immunity is high. An exception is made only in the case when cryodestruction is used directly as a treatment for chronic cervicitis. It is worth noting: in recent years, this tactic is rarely used, and doctors try to do without destructive effects on cervicitis of any origin.
Cryodestruction during pregnancy: what's the problem?
Cauterization of the cervix with liquid nitrogen or any other destructive interventions during pregnancy are not carried out, and the period of gestation does not matter. First, some forms of erosion disappear on their own after childbirth, and treatment is not required. Secondly, the effect on the cervix significantly increases the risk of miscarriage - miscarriage or premature birth. That is why in future mothers only symptomatic therapy (anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial suppositories) is carried out to eliminate the main unpleasant symptoms of the disease.
Pregnancy is a strict contraindication for cryodestruction.
It is not recommended to carry out cryo-freezing of the cervix and immediately before conceiving a child. Restoration of the epithelium occurs within 2-3 months, and during this period the cervix is very sensitive to any changes. Planning to conceive a child is allowed 3 months after the procedure and only after re-examination and control colposcopy.
Preparation for cryocoagulation for cervical pathology
Before the procedure, the doctor should tell the patient how the treatment is going and what the woman will feel at the time of cauterization of erosion. The doctor also gives his recommendations on the immediate preparation for the manipulation.
Advice of the gynecologist, allowing to prepare for cryodestruction of the cervix:
- The procedure is carried out in the first phase of the menstrual cycle. It should be remembered exactly when the last menstruation was in order to choose the optimal day for cryotherapy,
- If there is the slightest suspicion of pregnancy, you should do a test or donate blood for hCG. Waiting for the baby procedure is not carried out,
- Blood pressure should be monitored several days before the procedure. If the pressure rises, you should inform your doctor
- All local medicines (candles, creams) must be canceled 2 weeks before the procedure,
- 48 hours before cryotherapy, it is necessary to abandon sexual intercourse,
- On the eve of the procedure and on the morning of the cautery, you can take sedatives: valerian or motherwort infusion,
- On the day of cryodestruction, you can drink one pill of ibuprofen or another NSAID - this will somewhat reduce the pain during the procedure.
Cryotherapy is carried out only with a confirmed diagnosis, whether it is erosion, ectropion or other cervical pathology. For this, a smear is taken for oncocytology and colposcopy is performed. Without the results of these studies cauterization is not done.
A smear on oncocytology is a procedure that takes cells with a special brush from 3 areas: from the walls of the vagina, the cervical canal, the entrance of the cervix.
Two weeks before the manipulation, the patient must smear on the flora and bacteriological seeding. If there are signs of inflammation in the tests, a mandatory treatment of cervicitis is performed. Cryodestruction can be assigned only after re-examination and in the absence of symptoms of the inflammatory process.
Cryodestruction during erosion or other cervical pathology is performed on the 5-7 day of the menstrual cycle. If the patient has bleeding lasts for more than 5 days, the doctor can undergo the manipulation. At the time of cauterization of bleeding should not be. In menopause, the procedure is performed on any day of the month.
During menstruation, cryotherapy is not conducted due to the high sensitivity of the epithelium, a significant risk of infection, as well as the complexity of visualization of the focus. In addition, the woman herself is not too comfortable to undergo treatment in the presence of bleeding.
Important aspects of therapy
Treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis. Hospitalization can be offered in the presence of comorbidities, as well as at high risk of complications.
Anesthesia is not required. According to reviews, cryodestruction is well tolerated by women. The procedure does not cause significant pain. Some patients report the appearance of such symptoms during cauterization:
- Mild and weak pulling pains in the abdomen,
- Flushed face,
- Feeling hot.
All these symptoms occur immediately upon contact with the apparatus and exposure to liquid nitrogen. Discomfort persists throughout the duration of therapy and lasts another 10-15 minutes after the procedure.
If you experience severe pain, dizziness and other deterioration of well-being, you must immediately inform your doctor!
Cryodestruction technique: phased description
Cauterization of the cervix with nitrogen passes through several stages:
- The patient is conveniently located in a gynecological chair,
- The doctor exposes the cervix in the mirrors and treats its surface with saline, removing secretions and mucus. After that, the mucous membrane is treated with a weak acetic solution. All these manipulations allow you to get full access to the hearth and facilitate its visualization,
- A cryoprobe is supplied to the cervix. The tip is pressed against the hearth so that it completely blocks the erosion. At the same time, the device should not touch the vaginal walls,
- The doctor turns on the equipment and sets the timer. Therapy time is 3-5 minutes. At this moment, a gas comes out of the cryoprobe, which cools the mucous membrane,
- After a set time, the tip thaws, and it is removed. The pathological focus is painted white, which indicates tissue necrosis,
- The doctor examines the cervix. If there are no complications, a regenerating gel is applied to the mucous membrane.
In the process of cryodestruction, the blood ceases to flow to the area treated with nitrogen, the tissues eventually die and are completely removed.
The whole procedure of cryodestruction is carried out no more than 10-15 minutes. After completion of all manipulations, the patient should spend at least 30 minutes under the supervision of a nurse (in the hall or private room). When the deterioration of health should be sure to say this to the doctor. If a woman feels well, in half an hour she can go home.
The literature describes a two-step method of cauterization with nitrogen. After complete thawing, the cryoprobe is again applied to the lesion or is shifted slightly to the side.
Complications after cryoablation
According to numerous reviews of patients, complications after cryotherapy are quite rare, but it is impossible to completely exclude possible risks. As practice shows, undesirable consequences can be associated with non-compliance with the technique of implementation, as well as in the event that a woman does not adhere to the recommendations of the doctor in preparation for the procedure.
Possible complications after cryosurgical treatment:
- Vegetative reactions: fainting, dizziness, headaches, lowering blood pressure, slow pulse.To prevent this condition, patients prone to fainting are advised to take a horizontal position immediately after the procedure,
- Pulling pains in the abdomen, persisting for more than 48 hours. You need to consult a doctor to find the cause of this condition,
- Abundant watery discharge from the vagina, lasting more than 4 weeks. It is possible infection. Consultation with a gynecologist is required,
- Bleeding is an extremely rare complication. Bleeding is performed in a gynecological clinic or in an operating room.
- Infection of the vagina, uterus, appendages. Occurs when conducting cryotherapy on the background of the existing inflammation of the cervix,
- Stenosis of the external osmosis of the cervix. With a pronounced narrowing required bougienage. May cause infertility
- Cryotrauma of the vaginal walls occurs with a gas leak and is noted when using old and faulty devices.
Due to the large number of undesirable consequences and a long period of rehabilitation liquid nitrogen treatment is not recommended when erosion is detected in nulliparous women. In recent years, doctors are moving away from this technique. Other, more effective and safe methods of exposure to cervical erosion have come to replace cryotherapy.
Recovery after the freezing procedure
The rehabilitation period after exposure to liquid nitrogen is 4-6 weeks. At this time, there is a gradual healing of the cervix. The epithelium is renewed, the microflora of the genital tract is restored. During this period it is very important to follow all the recommendations of the doctor to avoid the development of complications.
Photos of the cervix after cryodestruction can be seen below.
Complete healing of the cervix after cryotherapy occurs after 2-3 months.
Features of the postoperative period during cryodestruction:
- Compliance with the rules of intimate hygiene. Rinse should be twice a day. It is best to use for this means intimate hygiene with a neutral pH,
- It is not recommended to wash with soap-containing agents
- If possible, you should avoid stress and feelings.
- It is important to monitor your diet in order to provide the body with essential nutrients and thereby accelerate recovery.
Discharge after cryodestruction can last up to 4 weeks and will be abundant, watery, usually without an unpleasant odor. This phenomenon is called the hydrothera. This is a completely normal discharge that occurs in almost all women after cryodestruction. It is only necessary to change the panty liners more often, and underwear - as needed. No treatment required.
What to do if the discharge does not stop, increases, there are impurities of blood or a sharp unpleasant smell? Such symptoms suggest a possible development of complications. The best option would be to see a doctor as soon as possible.
Monthly after cryodestruction of the cervix are restored after 3-4 weeks. There may be a slight delay in menstruation.
After cryodestruction, the doctor may recommend local therapy: candles, creams and other means. The goal of treatment is to accelerate the healing of the epithelium and reduce the risk of complications. Usually in practice are used such tools:
- Local candles with antibacterial or antifungal effect (the choice will depend on the microbial landscape)
- Candles to stimulate immunity ("Viferon", "Genferon", etc.),
- Means that enhance the regeneration of the epithelium ("Methyluracil", "Depantol", candles with sea buckthorn, etc.).
Candles from the last group should be placed almost immediately, in the first days after the procedure. Interferon preparations can also be recommended shortly after cryotherapy. Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents are usually prescribed after a follow-up examination, if there is evidence for such therapy.
Strict adherence to the recommendations of the doctor will shorten the recovery period after cryodestruction.
What not to do after cryotherapy:
- Having sex: it is recommended to refrain from intimate intimacy for at least 4 weeks,
- Lift weights (more than 7-10 kg)
- Do sport,
- To visit saunas, baths, pools,
- Swim in the open pond or take a bath,
- Overheat and supercool
- Use tampons: there is a risk to damage the cervix and slow down its healing,
- Conduct douching,
- Use any medication, including local action, without a doctor's prescription.
A follow-up examination of the gynecologist is carried out 7 days after treatment and then 4-6 weeks later. After 4-6 months, repeat the smear on cytology and perform colposcopy. In case of recurrence of erosion, the issue of re-burning with other methods is solved.
Childbirth after cryotherapy session
Is it possible to give birth after the treatment itself? Yes, but only if the procedure was performed correctly, and after it there were no complications. If the cervical healing has gone well, without scarring, the woman can conceive, bear and give birth to a child without any problems.
Full recovery after cryodestruction procedure occurs at least 3 months after surgery. After this time, the patient is examined by a gynecologist, who assesses the degree of tissue healing and establishes the presence of complications.
Unfortunately, cryodestruction sometimes gives complications in the form of scarring of the cervical tissue. With complete stenosis of the cervical canal, independent conception becomes impossible. A bougienage is carried out - expansion of the canal under local or general anesthesia. If this does not help, the woman can be referred to IVF.
Moderate narrowing of the external pharynx and cervical canal is not an obstacle to conceiving a child, however, it can create problems when it is being hatched. Often, after destructive procedures, the ICN develops - isthmic-cervical insufficiency. In this pathology, the cervix is revealed early, and miscarriage occurs. Also, this condition threatens preterm labor.
Scars on the cervix can be an obstacle to natural childbirth. In case of marked changes, independent delivery is not possible. Cesarean section is performed in a planned manner.
How is the procedure
The procedure of cryodestruction is performed using an apparatus based on the mechanism of local cryogenic effects on the surface tissues of the body.
Most often it is filled with liquid nitrogen. The tip is connected to the device through which the liquefied gas enters the applicator. After 1 to 2 minutes, the frozen applicator is applied to the affected part of the cervix.
Features of the technique
The method is based on the short-term effects of low temperature on the epithelium of the cervix. The diseased tissue is cauterized and rejected as a scab. At the same time, the blood vessels constrict and then expand and activate the work of the reserve small vessels. With the improvement of capillary blood circulation, the recovery of healthy epithelial cells is accelerated.
Advantages and disadvantages of cauterization with liquid nitrogen
Any external influence on the body causes a reaction. Before you begin treating cervical erosion with nitrogen, you need to think about the merits of this method and consider the possibility of complications.
The method has its advantages:
- the procedure takes place on an outpatient basis
- low temperature affects tissues sparingly (healthy epithelium is not damaged),
- it doesn’t hurt (the nerve endings lose their sensitivity under the action of cold),
- does not bleed (vessels narrow and thrombose),
- healthy tissue is completely restored,
- there are no deformations and scars after healing,
- allowed women who have not given birth,
- the risk of complications is low.
But there are a number of drawbacks, these include:
- the duration of the recovery of the wound surface
- inability to measure the depth of tissue freezing,
- lymphorrhea (a significant increase in the amount of discharge)
- intimate rest 1 - 2 months.
After the procedure, a woman may feel dizzy, nauseous. The discomfort does not last long, passes on its own. This is due to the effect of cold on the body and manifests itself in the form of vascular dystonia.
In which cases they prescribe a cervical cryodestruction and to whom it is contraindicated
The procedure of cryogenic destruction is so good and harmless that it can be prescribed for any pathology of the cervix. The age category of women is not limited. There are no contraindications for women giving birth. But, as with any disease, there are certain indications and contraindications for.
Indications for cryodestruction
The method of treatment with liquid nitrogen is based on the freezing of pathologically changed epithelium (cooling to 90 - 180℃ below zero).
Cryotherapy is recommended for diseases:
- cervical hyperkeratosis,
- eroded neck,
- chronic cervicitis,
- polyposis of the cervix and cervical canal,
- retention cysts on the neck,
- ectopia of the cylindrical epithelium,
- papillomas and condylomas of the cervix,
- I - II degree dysplasia of the cervical epithelium.
As a result of frostbite, destruction of the diseased part of the tissue occurs and its rejection.
Contraindications for cryotherapy of the cervix
The method of treatment with liquid nitrogen is harmless and painless, but is not recommended in the following cases:
- having a pregnancy
- large or too large affected areas
- acute or subacute inflammatory processes,
- uterine fibroids in need of surgical treatment
- scar changes of the neck,
- with grade III cervical dysplasia,
- cervical cancer,
- ovarian tumors,
- infection of the vaginal mucosa.
It is necessary to treat the cervix immediately after the pathological process is detected. In gynecology, there is no disease that can "resolve" independently. Cryogenic therapy is considered a more benign treatment for cervical disease.
The use of cryodestruction during pregnancy
Cryotherapy of the cervix during pregnancy is not safe due to the high risk of its interruption. During this period, all procedures on the cervix are contraindicated. The restriction for cryogenic destruction after childbirth is the lactation period. After cryotherapy, a woman can freely become pregnant.
Cryotherapy during pregnancy is not safe
Cryodestruction and menstrual cycle
Treatment of cervical erosion with nitrogen is a gentle method, but despite this, after cauterization, an inflamed area forms that can easily become infected.
Since blood is a breeding ground for bacteria, treatment is recommended to be carried out in a calm period. It is considered the best time for cryotherapy is the 7 - 10 day of the menstrual cycle. At this time, there is no bleeding, and is unlikely to have a new pregnancy.
How to prepare for cryotherapy of the cervix
Any preparation for surgery begins with a visit to the doctor. At the reception, the doctor collects anamnesis, examines the woman in the mirrors, and assigns an additional examination:
- smear from the vagina and cervical canal on the flora,
- a blood test for syphilis (hard chancre with syphilis is similar in appearance to neck erosion),
- smear for cytological examination (in order to eliminate the malignancy of the process),
- examination for the presence of chlamydia and ureaplasma by PCR or ELISA,
- biopsy of the cervix.
The main thing in the treatment of the patient is the communication of the doctor with the patient. Correctly chosen words are the key to success of the treatment.
Before proceeding with the operation of cervical cryodestruction, it is necessary to sanitize all foci of the disease. It is necessary to carefully prepare for this. Before cauterization, it is necessary to cure all inflammatory processes in the vagina, uterus, uterus. Nothing should hurt.
Before a woman decides to burn erosion, the body's immune system must be in good condition. A certain level of acidity and microflora is provided in the vagina to create a protective plug in the area of the cervical canal.
Two days before cauterization, it is recommended to give up intimate life. The doctor informs the patient about the possible discomfort during the operation and the rules of intimate life after it.
Before use, be sure to follow the recommendations of the doctor
The operation takes no more than 30 minutes. To clearly see the boundaries of the affected part, the doctor treats the area of the cervix with a solution of Lugol or a weak solution of acetic acid. After specifying the size of the affected area, an applicator of the desired diameter is selected. With it, the patient will freeze the epithelium.
The device for cryotherapy is filled with liquid nitrogen. Through the conductor to the applicator liquefied gas enters. The applicator is applied to the affected tissue. Notice the time of the supply of liquid nitrogen. Moxibustion lasts 5 minutes, then the nitrogen supply stops. The applicator is frozen and can be easily removed from the cervix. Frozen epithelium as it turns white becomes red.
Oncologists recommend repeating this procedure after thawing the cervix for another 5 minutes.
For faster thawing, some experts recommend irrigating the applicator with water or an isotonic solution. However, the essence of cauterization is to withstand the time of freezing. The longer the applicator acts on the affected tissue, the deeper the freezing will occur.
If the affected part is larger than the diameter of the applicator, then it can be moved to the sides for full coverage of the diseased epithelium.
After any other method of cauterization of the cervix, a tampon with an antiseptic is inserted into the vagina. Cryodestruction does not need it.
Within an hour, lymphorrhea appears - this is lymph leakage as a result of damage to the lymphatic vessels during surgery. The intensity of imparai depends on the area of the damaged tissue on the neck and the caliber of the lymphatic vessels.
For a better understanding of cervical cryodestruction, we systematize the order of work:
- Cervical treatment with Lugol's solution or acetic acid.
- Freezing with liquid nitrogen (5 min.).
- Defrost the applicator and neck (10min.).
- Repeated freezing of the affected area (5min.)
- Repeated freezing of the applicator and cervix (10 min).
Abdominal pain during cryogenic treatment and immediately after it is associated with hypothermia of the cervix. Its intensity is not strong, the character is aching, pulling. Soreness passes quickly, independently.
Within an hour after the operation, edema appears in the cautery area, excretion intensifies. This is not a complication, but a normal reaction of the body. The greatest intensity of discharge appears on the 7th - 10th day after the procedure and lasts about a month.
In the postoperative period after cryodestruction of the cervix, the wound surface is rejected and new tissue is regenerated, therefore it is very important to observe the following recommendations:
- complete exclusion of sexuality
- rehabilitation of the vagina with anti-inflammatory candles: “Gravagin”, “Revitax”, “Hexicon”, candles with syntomycin, chlorhinaldine,
- use anti-inflammatory drugs for five days after surgery (Paracetamol, Biseptol, Nimesil),
- refuse to visit the pool
- refrain from visiting the bath, sauna.
The postoperative period after cryodestruction of the cervix is usually without complications, but after a month it is advisable to visit a doctor. The doctor will correct the treatment and follow the stage of epithelium recovery after its destruction. By this time, the discharge after cervical cryodestruction decreases.
Full regeneration of the epithelium occurs in 3 to 4 months. Clinical observation lasts 1 year. During this period, the woman monitors the condition of the cervix every 3 months. Colposcopy is performed every 6 months. A decryption of colposcopy should be done by the attending physician.
Cryodestruction is an effective method of treatment, but it cannot be used in the case of advanced forms of diseases and suspected cancer on the cervical epithelium.
Consequences and complications
Typically, the effect of liquid nitrogen on the body does not affect it and passes without consequences. But when non-compliance with the rules of behavior after surgery, complications arise:
- unpleasant odor of discharge,
- lower abdominal pain
- temperature rise.
These signs indicate infection of the wound surface and the appearance of an inflammatory process. In this case, you need qualified medical assistance. If you do not turn in time, then complications may arise that will lead to undesirable consequences, such as:
- menstrual dysfunction,
- difficulties with the onset of pregnancy
- local inflammatory processes, turning into inflammatory diseases of the uterus and its appendages.
Non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, and early violation of sexual prohibition lead to problems, which then have to be treated for years.
For diseases of the cervix, you can use a laser method of treatment or radio wave.
Principles of therapy are similar, the differences are minor. Complications are rare. The indications for the application are the same. Pregnancy and childbirth after surgery to remove abnormal tissue on the cervix proceed without features. Рубцов и деформаций лазер и радиоволны не вызывают.
Cryosurgery using liquefied gases is a good treatment for cervical disease. The procedure does not last long; there are no contraindications for women who do not give birth, it is performed on an outpatient basis. Cryotherapy of the cervix is a quality treatment that, if properly followed certain conditions, does not cause recurrences.
Advantages and disadvantages of surgical intervention
Summing up, we should highlight the pros and cons of such a procedure.
- The possibility of use in various diseases of the cervix,
- Slight risk of bleeding
- During the procedure, no open wounds are formed, and the risk of infection is relatively small,
- There is no need to stitch on the cervix after manipulation,
- The cold acts as an anesthetic, so the patient feels little discomfort,
- The duration of the procedure is not more than 15 minutes
- May be carried out on an outpatient basis.
- Complications on the background of cryotherapy are quite rare.
- The need for direct contact of the device with the cervix,
- There is no possibility to regulate the depth of exposure and temperature during the procedure,
- Not effective in deep and extensive cervical lesions,
- It does not always allow to completely cover the pathological focus, which leads to relapse,
- There is a risk of damage to surrounding tissues,
- Long recovery period
- The appearance of unpleasant vaginal discharge after the procedure,
- It is impossible to take the affected tissue for biopsy (the pathological focus is completely destroyed)
- There is a risk of scarring and cervical stenosis after treatment.
The price of cryotherapy varies in different regions and depends largely on the level of the clinic and the qualifications of the doctor. In the state women's counseling procedure is free of charge. In private medical centers in Moscow, the price for cryodestruction of the cervix is 2,500-4,500 rubles. To find out exactly how much cryotherapy costs for a particular pathology, please contact your doctor.
Diathermocoagulation of the cervix
The operation of electrocoagulation is performed under local anesthesia for the treatment of cervical erosion, and it lasts about half an hour.
The procedure should be carried out by a qualified doctor with experience, since with incorrect or inaccurate actions, serious complications and severe painful sensations may develop.
During the operation, a metal plate is used as a passive electrode, which is placed under the patient's pelvis, and the needle is intended for direct contact with the affected area. As a result of the current distribution between these electrodes, heat is released, which destroys the neoplasm.
This method of treatment is a bit old, but it has some advantages:
- Affordable price.
- The simplicity of the procedure.
However, the disadvantages of diathermocoagulation more:
- The defeat of healthy tissue during surgery.
- Painful sensations.
- This method is contraindicated in those who did not give birth because it involves scarring of the tissues.
- High likelihood of developing endometriosis and other serious pathologies.
- There is a risk of bleeding in the postoperative period.
- Long recovery process of several weeks.
- High risk of recurrence of the disease.
Attention! One of the most dangerous consequences of diathermocoagulation is the formation of deep scars, which can lead to serious complications, including infertility.
Cervical cryodestruction procedure
In the diagnosis of erosion, women are most often prescribed exposure to liquid nitrogen, or cryodestruction.
In order for the patient to have an idea of this procedure, the gynecologist should explain in detail what this is cervical cryodestruction in general, how the treatment is carried out, what complications or consequences can be.
This technique compares favorably with cauterization with the current in that there is no scar left after the operation, the tissues do not lose elasticity.
Colposcopy before cryodestruction procedure
But before its implementation is required to carefully examine the patient:
- General gynecological examination.
- Smear test.
- Blood sampling for general analysis.
- The survey is not subject to the presence of malignant tumors.
- Biopsy and histological examination of affected tissues.
Judging by the reviews of cervical cryodestruction, conclusions can be drawn about the advantages of this therapeutic method:
- No need for anesthesia, as a result of cooling is a violation of the sensitivity of nerve endings.
- Liquid nitrogen acts only on pathological tissues, healthy parts of the mucous are not affected.
- There is no blood excretion.
- The operation lasts no more than 15-20 minutes.
- There is no risk of complications.
- No need for hospitalization.
- Cryodestruction is an excellent therapeutic method for women of all ages, including those who give birth.
- Scar tissue does not occur.
In the postoperative period of cervical cryodestruction, it is necessary to observe sexual rest for a month, take anti-inflammatory drugs, do not lift weights.
Cervical cryodestruction procedure
It is strictly forbidden to go to the pool or in the solarium, in the sauna, to prevent the penetration of infection.
After two months, you should go to the doctor for a checkup. The duration of the recovery period depends on the individual characteristics, and usually lasts from 3 to 6 weeks, during which a clear, odorless liquid can be released from the vagina.
What is erosion
These ulcers make it possible for pathogenic flora to freely penetrate the mucous membrane and to provoke inflammatory and infectious processes both in the cervix itself and in other reproductive organs.
The causes of erosion are many - mechanical, hormonal, infectious, inflammatory, and so on.. In addition, erosion can also be innate.
Only in advanced or complicated stages can a woman observe:
- spotting after intercourse,
- odorless discharge
- change in the menstrual cycle,
- pain sensations.
Diagnosis of erosion is not difficult, and already on examination in the chair the doctor can make this diagnosis, however, to verify and confirm it is recommended to undergo additional examinations - laboratory tests and colposcopy.
It is possible to treat erosive damage with traditional medicine means, conservatively or operatively.
The choice of means depends on:
- woman's age
- implementation of its reproductive function,
- the type of erosion and its size,
- presence of background gynecological diseases.
More often drug treatment assigned to girls who did not give birth, since aggressive therapies may further affect the process of childbearing.
It must be said that traditional medicine can be effective only at the very beginning of the disease, and subsequently it is used only as an additional therapy. Concerning conservative treatmentit often leads to relapse of the disease, which forces doctors to use operational removal method erosion.
Currently, doctors use the following online removal methods erosion:
- cryodestruction - liquid nitrogen is used,
- laser removal - elimination of education using a laser beam,
- diathermocoagulation - the most outdated and traumatic method based on the use of current,
- radio wave removal - a progressive method using radio waves,
- chemical coagulation - cauterization of erosion by medicinal or chemical preparations (for example, Solkovagin),
- Argon plasma ablation - the use of argon, ionized by the high frequency current.
Cryodestruction is one of the most common methods of cauterization of erosion.. The main advantage of this method is the absence of damage to healthy cells during the procedure.
The technique is most often prescribed to women who plan to have children later, since as a result of such medical manipulations, there are no scars that could adversely affect the process of childbearing.
The procedure is to apply liquid nitrogen, which freezes damaged mucous tissue.. The specialist applies nitrogen to areas affected by erosion, resulting in instant cooling of the tissue.
The procedure is performed by a special device called a cryoprobe. This device allows nitrogen to be applied to areas of erosion without affecting healthy tissue..
The procedure itself takes just a few minutes, and the process of full recovery lasts no more than 2 months. During this time, the pathological tissues are completely eliminated, and healthy ones appear in their place.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of this method are many:
- Rapidity. Cryodestruction does not require lengthy preparation, and the freezing process itself takes several minutes. Immediately after the procedure, a woman can return to her business.
- Bloodlessness. Since burning with liquid nitrogen is essentially freezing, there is no impact of sharp surgical instruments on the tissue, which avoids bleeding.
- The absence of scars after the procedure, therefore, this technique is successfully applied tonot giving birth to women.
- Affordable price. This is an important factor that favorably distinguishes cryodestruction from innovative and expensive similar procedures.
As for the cons, you need to say about the following:
- Sufficiently long recovery process - it will take several months for complete tissue regeneration.
- Manipulation is performed without anesthesia, so women with a low pain threshold can feel pain, while somehow it will be impossible to stop it.
- In some cases, it is difficult for a specialist to calculate the depth of tissue damage, and then the destruction of erosion will be incomplete. In such a development, intervention will have to be repeated.
- In extremely rare cases, the location of erosion does not allow to affect only the pathological tissues, and the doctor can affect healthy cells. Such a phenomenon does not exclude the possibility of negative consequences when carrying a child.
Indications for surgery
The main indication for the conduct of cryosurgery is the presence of cervical erosion.. In addition, this procedure is recommended for papillomas, condylomas, ectopia, leukoplakia and ectropion.
Also, such an intervention is carried out in case of dysplasia (grade 1 and 2, cervicitis and retention cystic formation.
However, it should be borne in mind that there are a number of contraindications to cryodestruction:
- bleeding character
- healed tissue on the neck,
- inflammatory processes in the body,
- tumor processes in the uterus and ovaries,
- grade 3 dysplasia
- extensive erosion.
How to freeze
The patient is located in the gynecological chair, and the doctor begins the first stage of the procedure.. It consists in processing the damaged surface.
A cotton swab moistened with saline solution, the specialist treats the neck, and then applies a weakly concentrated solution of acetic acid in order to accurately outperform the affected area.
Then the cryodestructor is used. The tip of the device is inserted into the vagina and the erosion surface is frozen.. After three minutes of exposure is a break for 5 minutes, after which the freezing is repeated.
After that, the doctor examines the treatment area, and puts on it the paste of Monsel.
Immediately after the procedure, a woman can feel:
- fatigue weakness
- headache or dizziness,
- in extremely rare cases, loss of consciousness is possible.
On the first postoperative day, there may be nagging pains that disappear for 2-3 days..
The entire postoperative month is considered a variant of watery vaginal discharge.
In some cases, there may be an admixture of blood in the discharge, a dangerous symptom is not considered as long as such discharge is minor..
If the technique of the procedure is violated, or cryodestruction was carried out during the inflammatory process, the risk of side effects increases.
After freezing is necessary:
- refrain from intimacy for 6-8 weeks,
- do not take baths and swim in public waters,
- do not lift weights and avoid excessive physical exertion.
After two months, the woman must undergo a preventive examination by a gynecologist to conclude on the process of tissue healing..
Nitrogen therapy in some cases is accompanied by syncope, weakening of the pulse or convulsions..
To avoid such phenomena, after the intervention, it is recommended that a woman lies in a prone position for a while, so that the doctor can observe her condition, measure her pulse and blood pressure.
Pulling pains, which are often enough observed after cryodestruction, are well removed by anesthetics, which the doctor should recommend.
A rare, but very serious consequence of this procedure is cervical stenosis.. When this happens, it is narrowed, and sometimes complete fusion, which provokes a violation of the flow of menstrual blood.
This complication requires surgical intervention.
Conclusion and conclusions
Despite the fact that currently there are many different methods that allow you to get rid of erosion, cryodestruction continues to occupy a leading position.
Rare complications, speed of procedure and price make this intervention affordable for most women.
Cryodestruction is not included in the standards of assistance, which is guaranteed by the state, therefore, even in the antenatal clinic (if you have the equipment, of course) you will have to pay for the service provided by yourself.
The average cost in different regions of Russia varies from 1000 to 3000 rubles..
What is cryodestruction
Cryodestruction is an innovative minimally invasive surgical technique, which is based on the impact extremely low temperatures on the surface subjected to pathological changes. In this case, we are talking about liquid nitrogen, which is actively used in cosmetology for removing unwanted moles and papillomas, as well as in gynecology, including in the erosion of the cervix.
How is the procedure performed?
Freezing erosion of the cervix is performed using a special medical device - cryodestructor or cryoprobe. Its tip, which comes into contact directly with the lesion, is cooled with liquid nitrogen to an extremely low temperature - minus 180 degrees. Under the influence of such extreme cold intercellular and intracellular fluid freezing, cell membranes are completely destroyed, all elements of intraepithelial neoplasias die.
A cryonecrotic zone is formed directly at the site of the cryodestructive applicator, while the neighboring completely healthy tissues remain in the hypothermia zone, and their cells are not damaged. At the site of cryonecrosis, capillary thrombosis and a sharp spasm of blood vessels occur, which completely eliminates the likelihood of bleeding.
Since the nerve endings are damaged, an anesthetic effect occurs, so that during the procedure there is no need for additional anesthesia. At the same time in the treatment area there is a sharp jump in the activity of the elements of the immune system, which allows avoid the development of infectious processes in the wound.
It should also be emphasized that cauterization of erosion of the cervix with nitrogen does not leave scars and scars conducive to the narrowing of the uterine canal. This means that this procedure is safe even for non-deliverable women who are still planning to become pregnant in the future.
Thus, you can make a list of important meritswhich cryodestruction possesses in comparison with other radical methods of treatment of cervical erosion:
- cryotherapy on damaged tissue is completely painless, since the nerve endings instantly lose sensitivity when cooled,
- cryodestruction is an absolutely bloodless procedure,
- healthy tissues are not affected, and therefore remain unaffected,
- affected tissues are rather quickly restored after the procedure, since stimulation of the body’s protective functions occurs,
- after cryodestruction, the cervix completely retains its elasticity, which means that there is no negative impact on the future labor activity,
- The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis and has virtually no risk of complications.
The essence and features of the procedure
With cryodestruction cervical erosion affected tissues are treated with liquid nitrogen through a special device called a cryoprobe.
The procedure usually looks like this.: a gynecological mirror is placed in the vagina, which makes it possible to get a good overview, after which a cryoprobe is inserted - a device that is connected to a balloon filled with nitrogen.
The specialist acts cold locally on the affected areas of the epithelium, and because of this they are frozen. The temperature of liquid nitrogen is up to -90 degrees.
Freezing in most cases does not provoke discomfortthat is the advantage of this technique over many others.
In most cases the patient feels only a slight burning and stinging. But sometimes the reactions are more complicated, because you must first carry out a comprehensive diagnosis.
After cauterization, edema occurs on the treated tissue, which soon falls. Approximately within 3-6 months after the procedure, the affected cells are completely measured, and they are replaced by healthy ones.
The elasticity of the cervix is not reduced., therefore, the method of treatment is often recommended to women who have not given birth.
Before the procedure, the patient must visit a gynecologist.. The specialist must perform the following manipulations:
- listen to the complaints of the woman and put them in the medical record (collect history),
- examine the patient in the chair using mirrors,
- take a smear of vaginal secretions on the microflora,
- perform inspection with colposcope.
The patient who agreed to the procedure, the specialist must give all the information about the methodology and features of its implementation, about possible sensations and the recovery period.
The patient for the manipulation is placed on the gynecological chair. The technique involves several stages.
First, the treated area must be cleared.. For this purpose, a tampon soaked in saline solution is inserted into the vagina. A weak solution of acetic acid is applied on the cervix - this makes it possible to accurately determine the affected areas.
At this point, you can feel a slight burning sensation or discomfort. At the end of the manipulation, the uterine region is once again processed with saline.
The next stage - the use of cryodestruction. Its tip is inserted into the vaginal area, the end portion is directed to the affected area. It is important that the doctor act carefully and avoid healthy tissue.
When the probe reaches the desired location, a timer is set and the device is turned on to freeze the erosion of the cervix.
Due to the low temperatures of the gas used, the area of exposure is covered with white bloom, which indicates that the affected areas are frozen.
Processing is carried out within three minutes, after the area of impact it thaws for 4-5 minutes and is frozen again.
At the end, a cervical examination is performed.. If there is no bleeding, the necessary area is treated with a paste of Monsel.
Cryodestruction lasts no more than half an hour. The direct exposure to cold nitrogen lasts for several minutes.
In order to monitor the effectiveness of treatment specialist prescribes an appointment for the patient 14-21 days after the procedure.
Six months after cryodestruction, a cytological examination of the uterus is performed. If necessary, the doctor takes a swab and performs colposcopy.
Features of the rehabilitation period
If the procedure was performed correctly, then for one hundred percent healing of the tissues will take about 28-42 days. By the end of the fourth week, watery discharge should pass.
When this time expires, you need to visit a gynecologist.who will inspect and draw conclusions regarding the healing process and the ability to resume sex.
Within two months you should avoid visiting the pools, baths and saunas. It is also important to eliminate heavy lifting, heavy physical exertion.
This will avoid infection and bleeding and will provide an opportunity to shorten the rehabilitation period.
Myths and facts about moxibustion with liquid nitrogen
Main myth regarding cryodestruction is that it is the most effective method of treating erosion, which is suitable for everyone.
However, from the minuses it is worthwhile to single out a rather large number of contraindications and the need to adhere to the ban on sex, swimming in the sea and the pool and so on for several months.
In many ways, the procedure loses laser surgery., but the decision about which option is appropriate in a particular case should be made by a doctor.
As already said the procedure is contraindicated during menstruation. Although it is relatively painless, exposure still results in wound surfaces on the cervix.
They heal within a certain time, so if you perform cryodestruction during or immediately before menstruation, the risks of inflammation will increase significantly. The best option is to carry out manipulations on the 7-10 day of the cycle.
In general, cervical cryosurgery is an effective and safe procedure to get rid of the disease in a short time.
A small list of contraindications and reduced risk of side effects make it possible to apply it in the case when other methods are contraindicated, for example, if the girl has not yet given birth.
The positive effect of cryotherapy
Cryodestruction of erosion is carried out using liquid nitrogen. This substance has no toxic effects on healthy tissue by selectively freezing parts of the body. Cooling is instantaneous. The temperature of the substance reaches -195 degrees.
Under the influence of low temperatures of liquid nitrogen, the center of cryonecrosis is formed. Cells treated with the substance are dead. The affected area on the cervix disappears, recovery begins.
While burning with liquid nitrogen, only damaged cervical tissue is affected; healthy areas are not affected. This speeds up the rehabilitation process, and the procedure does not cause complications.
Cauterization of cervical erosion with nitrogen is carried out once. To cure, no course is required. Intervention is considered minimally invasive. Held on the 7-10th day of the menstrual cycle. The full recovery period is up to 3 months.
Burning with nitrogen is carried out on an outpatient basis. A woman does not need a hospital and can go home in a few hours. This is one of the most benign methods of treating erosion among all existing in modern medicine.
Before the procedure, the doctor explains the essence of the manipulation and warns of possible sensations. Some women reported flushing, hot flashes, and lower abdominal pain. When accurately performing the freezing of pain and discomfort usually does not occur.
The features of the procedure are as follows:
- local or general anesthesia is not required,
- cryodestruction is carried out in a gynecological chair,
- the procedure lasts from 3 to 5 minutes
- within a month after the intervention should be excluded sex.
A gynecologist uncovers the cervix with vaginal speculum. To accurately determine the location of erosion on the mucous membrane, applied Lugol solution.
A probe is inserted into the vagina, its tip is pressed tightly against the affected tissues. After this starts the process of freezing them. When they thaw, the probe is brought out. If necessary, the mucous membrane can be treated with warm saline.
If the center of cervical erosion is large, cryodestruction is carried out in several stages. Nitrogen is treated area by section to ensure that the freezing is complete and uniform.
Benefits of cauterization with liquid nitrogen
Burning erosion with nitrogen is a time-tested procedure and thousands of women with successful healing stories. The advantages of such therapy include the following factors:
- characterized by optimal cost,
- no pain
- there is no need for anesthesia, which is contraindicated in some,
- does not require a long rehabilitation
- the risk of infection is minimal,
- the procedure is fast;
- the technique is bloodless,
- scar tissue is not formed,
- well tolerated
- there are no complications
- There is no need to go to the hospital, as it is carried out on an outpatient basis.
Cryodestruction is used when the following indications are present:
- cervical dysplasia,
- cervical ectopia
- cervical papilloma,
- cervical pseudo-erosion,
Treatment of erosion with liquid nitrogen is carried out under the condition that the cervical tissue is not deeply affected. When handling is not always easy to determine the depth of freezing, which may affect the effectiveness of the intervention.
Freezing during erosion of the cervix has contraindications. Intervention can not be in the following cases:
- if you suspect cancer,
- bleeding of any etiology,
- erosion, which is more than 3 cm in diameter,
- vaginitis, cervicitis and colpitis,
- chronic infection, which is in the acute stage,
- the presence of scars in the area of the cervical canal.
If cervical cryodestruction is contraindicated, the doctor may select alternative treatment methods. Cryotherapy can be replaced with erosion by laser therapy or radiosurgery.
The negative consequences of cryodestruction
Negative consequences in the treatment of cervical pathologies with cryodestruction occur infrequently. There are cases when the intervention caused a decrease in the pulse rate and even fainting. Occasionally, convulsions occur. In order to minimize the risks, an inspection is carried out before manipulation, the health worker measures the pulse and pressure, and the woman must lie down for a while.
Freezing erosion can cause nagging pain in the lower abdomen. You can eliminate them by using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Usually after two days the discomfort disappears. Some women replace tablets or capsules with vaginal suppositories with the same active ingredient.
After the cryodestruction procedure, hydrous is possible. This is a phenomenon in which watery discharge after cauterization leaves the female genital tract for a month. Bleeding happens extremely rarely, small smearing manifestations are possible.
In a very small number of women, after they have eroded with liquid nitrogen, stenosis of the cervical canal develops. This is a serious pathology requiring surgical intervention. One of the unpleasant phenomena is obstruction of blood discharge during menstruation.
Complete healing of the cervix in most women occurs only after 3 months. You should refrain from sex within 30 days. During this period, you can not use vaginal tampons.
Preparation for cryodestruction
Cauterization of erosion with liquid nitrogen passes without problems if the woman correctly tunes in and prepares. It is important to choose the right day. It is best to perform the intervention as quickly as possible after the completion of the monthly bleeding. The most optimal time is the 7-10th day of the menstrual cycle.
To reduce the discomfort during cryodestruction, a few hours before the procedure can be taken pain reliever. For these purposes Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Indomethacin is used.
After the treatment, women notice the appearance of abundant watery discharge, so it is better to take a sanitary pad. This phenomenon persists for a month.
Do not worry much. Feelings during the procedure largely depend on how the woman is in tune. It is necessary to think about a positive outcome, complete cure and absolute painlessness.
Examination of the cervix on the eve of the intervention eliminates possible contraindications. Cryodestruction is not performed if there has recently been a surgical operation or a cervical injury caused by childbirth.
Preparation for the cautery procedure may include laboratory tests. Your doctor decides which examinations are necessary. A lot depends on the positive attitude of the woman herself.
When is diathermocoagulation indicated and contraindicated?
It is shown that this manipulation in some gynecological diseases. Namely, cryodestruction treatment gives a good effect in the presence of:
- erosion on the cervix,
- false (or papillary) erosion,
- dysplasia 1 and 2 degrees,
- nabot cysts,
- condylomas and papillomas present in the vulva, vagina or in the crotch area,
- granulation tissue in the stump of the vagina (performed after surgical removal of the uterus),
- chronic inflammation in the uterine neck.
Cryotherapy can be carried out as one of the stages of complex treatment of a disease such as Kuraros vulva or leukoplakia. Diathermocoagulation is also prescribed in the situation when it is necessary to eliminate the secondary occurrence of polyps in the cervical canal (after surgical intervention). The procedure can also be used in the treatment of inversion of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal (ectropion). As with any therapeutic method, diathermocoagulation has contraindications for. The direct prohibition of cryodestruction is the presence of an inflammatory process in the vagina, in the uterus and its appendages (fallopian and fallopian tubes, ovaries), as well as diagnosed STIs.
Burning with nitrogen is unacceptable in the situation when a smear on the level of purity of the vaginal flora gives indicators more than the second degree. Nitrogen freezing is not performed when new growths are detected in the ovaries and in the cervix. To eliminate doubts about the presence of these diseases, before going to a cryodestruction, one should undergo appropriate tests. Cold therapy is not used even when the patient has cervical dysplasia of the third stage.
Contraindications are common female diseases such as endometriosis and myomatous nodes, which require surgery. Significant deformation of the cervical scars also serves as a basis for refusing to conduct cryodestruction. As a ban on the procedure are infectious and somatic diseases in women.
How to prepare and survive the period after surgery?
To make sure that nothing interferes with the operation, you should be examined for contraindications.
At the consultation in the gynecological office, the doctor will conduct a survey and a full examination of the patient with the help of mirrors. Will make a collection of smears on infections and microflora. Freezing erosion of the cervix is assigned at weekly intervals from the start of the menstrual cycle. The best option is a day or two after the end of the month.
After exposure to cold on the cervix, it is forbidden to disturb the treated areas for about 2 months. That is, sexual intimacy with a partner and the use of hygienic tampons are a contraindication for this period. This period of complete rest is required so that the epithelium of the uterine cervix is completely restored.
It is not recommended at this time to visit saunas, baths and pools, and at home - take baths. Although you can use the shower without restrictions. It is important to control the lifting of heavy objects.
Methods for cervical cryodestruction
In gynecology, cryodestruction involves the use of low-boiling liquefied gases to influence the affected areas.
As a result of such treatment, the diseased areas are frozen and destroyed.
The essence of the procedure is that liquid nitrogen is delivered to the treatment site through a cryoprobe introduced through the vagina.
Cryoprobe and a tank with liquid nitrogen for cryodestruction of the cervix
When nitrogen escapes through the tip of this device, it expands and enters a state of gas, accompanied by a significant decrease in temperature.
Thus, the pathological tissues die off and are eliminated, and in their place after healing, a normal epithelial layer appears.
The operation is usually performed at 7 or 8 weeks of the monthly cycle, provided there are no contraindications and after a preliminary examination.
Lugol's solution to determine the affected areas during cryodestruction
- Determination of the affected areas with acetic acid or Lugol solution.
- The introduction of the tip of the cryoprobe in such a way that it does not come into contact with the vaginal walls, and was pressed only to the area in need of treatment.
- The activation of the apparatus, as a result of which freezing of the tissues takes place, takes about 5 minutes.
- Branch cryoprobe.
The treated areas become white in color, indicating their dying off.
The disadvantages of cryodestruction
Despite the many positive aspects of this therapeutic method, there are two significant drawbacks.
The first is that the procedure requires direct contact of the apparatus and the diseased organ.
The second disadvantage is the lack of the possibility of histological examination of the affected tissues, since they are completely destroyed.
Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of the presence of atypical cells, cryodestruction is better not to be carried out, so as not to provoke an increase in the growth of cancer cells.
What complications may occur after the procedure?
Upon completion of the manipulation, the woman may experience a slight burning sensation and pain of a pulling character, concentrated mainly in the lower abdomen.
At the end of the diathermocoagulation session, edema appears on the treated tissues for about 30 minutes. After surgery, there may be a strong discharge of clear liquid, which characterizes the healing process of wounds. Stops the release of such a liquid after about 3 weeks.
А своего пика в плане количества выделяемой жидкости ситуация достигает примерно через неделю после прижигания азотом. The epithelium will completely recover after 2 months. Is it possible to get pregnant after cryodestruction? With cryotherapy, the elasticity of the uterus does not undergo any change, since there is no cicatricial deformity. In this connection, this technique is applicable to young women planning to have a child. There are no scars, and there are no problems with the subsequent disclosure of the cervix during childbirth. Therefore, delivery takes place in normal mode.
The optimal time for planning the conception of a child after performing diathermocoagulation is no earlier than one and a half years after the operation.
When the final diagnosis is made - cervical erosion, with a trip to an appointment with a gynecologist it is better not to pull.
So it will be faster to make the necessary examinations and start the treatment of this pathology. Timely treatment will help to avoid adverse effects that can affect not only the health of the woman herself, but also her future baby.