Women’s menstrual cycles are the result of complex reproductive hormone interactions, whose levels rise and fall in different periods of a cycle that lasts for about one lunar month (28 days). Many women live cycle by cycle, unaware of these hormonal processes (not counting several days of bleeding). However, about a third of all women suffer from unpleasant symptoms associated with fluctuating hormone levels, especially during the last 7-14 days of the cycle. About one in ten of these women — these symptoms — called premenstrual syndrome (PMS) — appear almost every month, others only occasionally. What is premenstrual syndrome?
The syndrome occurs in several forms: mental disorders - anxiety, irritability, insomnia, depression, impaired memory, confusion and apathy, desire for sweets, increased appetite, sugar reaction (headache, cardiac arrhythmia, fatigue, fainting), weight gain, swelling arms and legs, swelling and tenderness of the mammary glands, abdominal distension. Some women suffer from all of these symptoms, others have only a few forms. If you have premenstrual syndrome, can proper nutrition help? Let's get a look.
What helps with premenstrual syndrome?
Properly formulated diets have a beneficial effect on overall health and alleviate symptoms. Recommendations: create a diet that will provide you with a daily intake of 100 grams of lean protein (lean meat, poultry, fish, and egg white) to support the activity of muscles and internal organs. Proteins should account for about 30% of the calories you consume, if you are not overweight. Another 40% of calories must be obtained from vegetables and fruits with low starch content, and the remaining 30% from vegetable and animal fats. By following these guidelines, you can stabilize body fluids, prevent sudden fluctuations in blood sugar levels, and maintain normal amounts of cholesterol.
Essential fatty acids (Omega 3) are precursors of prostaglandins formed in the body. Prostaglandins play an important role in eliminating the symptoms observed in women with PMS: accumulation of body fluids, weight gain, headache, emotional instability, etc. Recommendations: to achieve better results when consuming essential fatty acids, start with the main set of macro-components and this basis, add linoleic acid and fish oil in the ratio of 1: 4. This supplement should be taken one to three times a day. A good substitute is such a combination: 500 mg of evening primrose oil (source of linoleic acid in capsules), 1000 mg of fish oil, 200 IU of vitamin E one to three times a day. (Caution for diabetics: sometimes fish oil causes fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Watch this indicator carefully when eating fish oil and stop taking it if blood sugar levels are difficult to control.)
Some studies have shown that large doses of vitamin A relieve PMS symptoms. However, with intensive consumption (about 300,000 IU per day), since the body stores vitamin A, side effects may occur. To avoid them and at the same time get the beneficial effect of high doses of vitamin A, you can take beta-carotene, which turns into vitamin A in your body. Recommendations: Take 50,000 IU of beta-carotene per day for two menstrual cycles. If you feel the symptoms subside, take further from 25,000 to 50,000 ME. The only side effect of beta-carotene is the yellowing of the palms and soles. If this happens, reduce the dose.
As it turned out as a result of research, vitamin B6 also helps with PMS. Recommendations: take 50-100 mg of vitamin B6 daily. Caution: do not increase the dose of vitamin B6, since with daily intake of 250 mg for several years, nervous disorders occur.
In women who have had PMS, with the additional intake of vitamin E, relief of symptoms such as fluid accumulation, painful sensitivity of the mammary glands, emotional instability, fatigue and desire for sweets were observed. Recommendations: take vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol succinate) at a dose of 400-600 IU daily. Caution: Vitamin E causes an increase in pressure in some people. Read the description of this vitamin and, following the above recommendations, gradually increase the dose.
Magnesium deficiency can lead to a significant decrease in the level of certain substances in the brain. This deficiency contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder in PMS. Recommendations: Take 250-500 mg of magnesium aspartate daily (see below for dairy products and calcium).
Zinc deficiency in certain phases of the menstrual cycle reduces the synthesis and release of progesterone, one of the main female reproductive hormones. Recommendations: consumption of zinc in the ionic form can lead to a deficiency of other trace elements, such as copper, due to competitive absorption in the intestine. The use of complex compounds prevents such competition and ensures complete absorption of all trace elements.
Avoid simple carbohydrates and sugars that quickly increase insulin levels. Insulin signals the kidneys to retain more sodium, and as a result, fluid accumulates in the body. Insulin also contributes to the storage of fat in adipose tissue, which leads to an increase in body weight. And finally, with a high content of insulin, more “bad” prostaglandins are formed, which increase pain and inflammation, increase blood pressure, cause discomfort in the pelvic region, uterine spasms. Recommendations: if you have PMS symptoms regularly, stop or drastically reduce the consumption of sugar, corn syrup, high fructose syrup, molasses and all products made from them. It is especially important to observe such restrictions in the second half of the menstrual cycle.
Women who drink caffeine-containing beverages four times a day (coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate) are more likely to suffer from PMS. Recommendations: reduce caffeine intake. Drink coffee and other caffeinated beverages no more than three times a day. Three days before the usual onset of symptoms, reduce your caffeine intake even more (drink caffeine containing drinks no more than twice a day).
Excessive intake of calcium or dairy products, apparently, can be the cause of mental disorders in PMS, as it violates the ratio of calcium and magnesium, which usually acts together with it. Recommendations: if you take calcium supplements, be sure to also take half the amount of magnesium. Limit intake of dairy products about a week before the onset of symptoms.
Causes of the syndrome
During the menstrual cycle, the egg leaves the follicle. In the process of release, the follicle bursts and a yellow body appears. This little body has a great hormonal activity. Parts of the brain that are responsible for mood, metabolism, and vascular manifestations react to this activity. Usually the syndrome is inherited.
Previously, experts argued that the syndrome manifests itself in women who have failed hormone system. But today, doctors say that patients have a systematic ovulatory cycle, and they are completely healthy.
During premenstrual syndrome, there is a significant increase in estrogen and a decrease in gestagens. Estrogens are responsible for fluid retention in humans and sodium. Because of this, swelling, headaches, heaviness in the chest. As a result of fluid retention, intestinal edema occurs. Nausea, constipation, and heaviness in the abdomen. Estrogens have a strong effect on the part of the brain that is responsible for the limbic system (the formation of emotions). When PMS is a decrease in glucose and potassium, which leads to weakness of the body and a decrease in activity. The number of gestagens in the body determines the time of onset of the syndrome, as well as its duration period.
Also, the appearance of PMS contributes to an insufficient amount of vitamins and saturated acids. This leads to a change in mood, fever, problems with the intestines.
There are three main types of symptoms that determine the complexity in a woman's condition:
- Nervous breakdown. Manifested as irritability, depression, depression, mood changes.
- Vegetative-vascular disorders. They cause heart pain, nausea, fever, headaches.
- Change in metabolism. It is characterized by edema, an increase in the mammary glands, shortness of breath, thirst, chills.
If a woman gets depressed during PMS, then other pain and discomfort will be felt more strongly. Often depression goes into a migraine, which is difficult to cure.
There are various methods that contribute to improving the general condition of women.
- The use of drugs and alternative medicine.
One of the effective means of PMS is psychotherapy. Using this method allows you to get rid of depression, mood swings, excessive aggressiveness. To obtain the result, special relaxation techniques are applied. Often this technique is carried out in the family circle, so that relatives can understand the complexity of the woman’s condition.
To improve the condition of PMS, it is necessary to consume foods that contain plant fiber. Cellulose promotes the removal of fluid from the body, respectively, swelling will decrease. Every day, you need to eat 70% of complex carbohydrates, 20% of proteins and 10% of fats. The amount of fat intake must be reduced, since the liver will take part in the exchange of estrogen. Also at the time it is necessary to abandon beef. Since it usually contains artificial hormones.
No need to eat sweet and salty foods. It is also worth refusing from drinks that contain caffeine. Caffeine leads to sleep disturbances, nervous disorders, and irritability.
If a woman has many signs of PMS, you should seek help from a specialist. He will be able to advise on the use of drugs. There are several types of funds from the ICP. The choice of means depends on the cause of the syndrome. Therefore it is necessary to take seriously the choice of the drug.
Treatment of the syndrome is often made with the help of hormonal agents. The use of hormones is the most effective, since PMS is associated with excessive ovarian activity. Hormone drugs include: progestogens, contraceptives, androgens, agonists. These drugs are prescribed only by a doctor. Independent use of hormonal drugs can lead to complications.
Most women try to avoid treatment with hormones. In this case, non-hormonal products from PMS may come to the rescue. These include vitamins and minerals, herbal medicines, vasoactive drugs, diuretics, drugs with a metabolic effect, psychotropic substances, non-steroid drugs. The course of treatment with non-hormonal agents is usually six to seven months. After stopping the medication, the effect lasts about four to five months. After this period of time, it is necessary to repeat the course of treatment.
"Aminalon" or "Nootropil"
"Aminalon" and "Nootropil" are used in violation of the mental state of a woman. These drugs are effective means for PMS. The medicine is prescribed by a doctor; it is forbidden to acquire and use it yourself without consulting a specialist. They need to be drunk for fourteen days from the first day of menstruation. Moreover, to obtain the effect, it is necessary to repeat the course of treatment for three months.
This remedy for PMS is prescribed if there is an increase in the amount of prolactin. You need to drink the medicine for two weeks, while you need to start two days before the syndrome.
Diuretics are used with the appearance of strong edema. They need to drink four days before the ICP. You can stop taking the first day of menstruation. But if the edematous state is accompanied by severe headaches and vision problems, then “Diacarb” is prescribed.
If premenstrual syndrome is characterized by persistent severe pain, then experts usually prescribe the drug Diclofenac. Treatment occurs within three months. Then you should stop taking the medication. Usually, three months after taking the remedy, the symptoms of the syndrome reappear, but they become less pronounced. Many experts consider the best remedy for PIC "Diclofenac", as it eliminates many symptoms and eliminates the syndrome for six months.
Afobazol and other antidepressants are prescribed by a psychiatrist. Afobazol is a remedy for PMS, for mood swings and for neuroses. The drug is daily, because it does not affect daily activity. To get the effect you need to drink it for six months.
Vitamins of group A and E have a positive effect on the female body. Vitamins can be drunk or administered intramuscularly. The course of treatment is thirty days. If there is no effect on vitamins, then you need to start drinking vitamins B6 and magnesium next month.
Treatment of PMS folk remedies
The use of alternative medicine is caused by the unique properties of herbal preparations, which can eliminate pain, normalize the functioning of the intestines, and calm the nervous system. In order to get the result from the application, it is necessary to constantly use herbs and treatment should begin a few days before the appearance of the premenstrual syndrome. The result will not take long to wait if a woman uses herbs monthly.
Peppermint is a sedative for PMS. In order to prepare a remedy, you need two tablespoons of leaves, pour boiling water (500 ml) and let it brew for two hours. Then you need to strain the infusion, divided into four parts and drink throughout the day.
Nettle helps get rid of edema and relieve tension and irritability. Nettle is also considered a sedative for PMS. The broth is prepared as follows: one large spoonful of nettle is poured with two cups of strained boiling water and boiled for half an hour. It is necessary to drink broth in the morning and in the evening before meal.
Getting rid of the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome will help infusion of elder flowers. To do this, you need two large spoons of flowers to fill with two glasses of boiling water. Then you need to leave the infusion for an hour. An hour later, you can drink the medicine one hundred grams before meals. Usually the taste of the infusion is bitter, so it can be consumed with a dessert spoon of honey.
One of the best sedatives for PMS, according to most women, is raspberry. Raspberry prevents depression, reduces pain. To prepare the broth you need to take two large spoons of crushed leaves and pour one liter of boiling water. The resulting mixture should be brought to a boil, strain and cover with a lid. The broth should be consumed three times a day before meals.
The causes of PMS are different. In order for the treatment to be successful, the help of a specialist is necessary. One of the best means of PMS, according to women, are hormonal agents. Hormones help in a short time to get rid of the disease. But these drugs have their negative sides. If used improperly, complications can follow.
Non-hormonal drugs are also effective. But in order to get the result of treatment, you need regular use of drugs.
Most women also choose traditional medicine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. The positive side of this type of treatment is the absence of adverse reactions to the woman's body. But in order to completely avoid the symptoms of PMS, you must constantly drink decoctions.
WHAT VITAMINS NEED DURING A PREMONSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME?
- Vitamins of group B
B vitamins are synthesized by intestinal bacteria and help to metabolize glucose. This prevents an excessive rise in insulin, which can make a woman irritable during PMS.
Especially important during this period is vitamin B6, which helps convert food into energy and is involved in the creation of red blood cells. Vitamin B6 also helps reduce the symptoms of PMS, including such a frequent symptom as moodiness. This is due to the fact that pyridoxine plays an important role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters that regulate mood. One study, in which 150 women participated, showed that, compared with placebo and magnesium, magnesium supplementation in combination with vitamin B6 was most effective for reducing PMS symptoms.
This vitamin-like substance is most often prescribed to women with polycystic ovaries. Однако как минимум два исследования показали, что применение мио-инозитола также снижает дисфорические и депрессивные симптомы во время ПМС.
В сочетании с кальцием витамин D способен не только защитить здоровье костей, но и помочь уменьшить симптомы ПМС. Vitamin Sun can play a crucial role in preventing mood instability in some women. Several studies have shown a link between low vitamin D levels and an increased risk of four different mood disorders, including premenstrual syndrome.
Some doctors recommend that women take vitamin E as protection against PMS. Due to its well-known anti-inflammatory effect, tocopherol helps relieve unpleasant symptoms associated with pain and swelling of the chest. Vitamin E can also be effective in reducing anxiety and depression in some women suffering from PMS. Another study involving 120 women, which lasted 6 months, showed that drugs that combine various essential fatty acids with vitamin E, really weaken the symptoms of PMS.
In most cases, you can get the necessary nutrients from healthy, natural foods. Thus, B6 is found in starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, as well as in fish and fruits, cereals, beef, and poultry. Fatty fish such as tuna and salmon, as well as eggs, cheese, milk, yogurt and, of course, stay in the sunshine will help to stock up on vitamin D. The best sources of vitamin E are wheat germ oil, sunflower seeds, almonds, sunflower oil and safflower, hazelnuts and peanuts. Inositol is sold in supplements and is also found in legumes, citrus fruits and grains.
VEGETABLE MEANS TO REDUCE ICP SYMPTOMS
Vitex, or Prutniak, is called a reference herbal preparation for reducing PMS symptoms. Approximately 50% of women experience a halving of signs of premenstrual syndrome when taking Vitex for three or more consecutive cycles.
At least 2 studies have shown a reduction in PMS symptoms with ginkgo. The signs of premenstrual syndrome in women have decreased by almost 25%.
This powerful adaptogen reduces stress in the body and at the same time adds energy. Strong stress or excessively high cortisol (the “stress hormone” produced by the adrenal glands) causes the body to actually “steal” pregnenolone (the precursor of sex hormones) to produce more cortisol, depleting the natural production of sex hormones and creating an imbalance in the body. Rhodiola reduces stress and helps balance hormones in a natural way.
PMS and its symptoms (breast sensitivity, stress and irritability) may also decrease when taking krill oil (it is similar to fish oil, but is harvested from small crustaceans).
ADDITIONAL WAYS TO FIGHT ICP IN GIRLS AND WOMEN
- Watch for sugar
Try to avoid excessive sugar intake during periods when the mood is particularly unstable. Its excess can increase the temperature and level of inflammation in the body, as well as lead to a decline in mood. During PMS, sugar can actually upset the insulin balance in the body. When a woman consumes sugar, insulin levels can increase, which affects the amount of estrogen and testosterone that the body produces.
If you have pain and bad mood, you do not always want to go in for sports. But physical activity, including yoga, helps release endorphins, dopamine and serotonin, which prevent moodiness and help a woman to feel relaxed and satisfied.
Premenstrual syndrome is expressed by unpleasant symptoms on average one and a half weeks before menstruation. Symptoms can be different - from physical to mental:
- headache, stomach ache
- weight increases and swollen limbs,
- chest pain,
- deterioration or increase in appetite,
- mood swings
- apathy or irritability.
Symptoms appear due to fluctuations in the level of hormones, they not only regulate the cycle, but also “beat” the body. Symptoms for PMS are purely individual: they can manifest in mild or severe form, PMS affects someone emotionally, muscular pain lurks on someone along with sudden mood swings.
Researchers believe proper nutrition can help alleviate the symptoms of the syndrome.
Vitamins should be used, based on the symptoms. It should be remembered that excessive consumption of vitamins will not bring health benefits.
Provitamin A (carotene) facilitates the course of PMS, if taken in large doses. To vitamins went in store, beta-carotene comes to the rescue. Beta-carotene should be taken at 50,000 IU every day for two cycles. If PMS is weakened or side effects occur (skin on the palms and soles has turned yellow), the dose should be halved. Daily intake - 5 mg.
Products that contain carotene: carrots, sea buckthorn, sorrel, green parsley, rosehip, spinach and celery.
B vitamins digest glucose and prevent insulin rises. Insulin can make a woman irritable, cause swelling of the extremities and spasms of the uterus. Vitamins of group B struggle with irritation and aggressiveness, being responsible for the processes in the nervous system.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) reduces pain during menstruation, maintains good mood and plays a balance of sex hormones. To increase efficiency, it is worth taking B6 along with magnesium. The need for pyridoxine is 2 mg per day, with PMS you should take 50100 mg daily. Foods high in pyridoxine include pistachios, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, garlic, beans, walnuts, salmon and mackerel.
Vitamin B8 (inositol) copes with depression and dysphoric symptoms. A person needs 1.5 g B8 per day. Products containing inositol: wheat germ, rice bran, barley, oatmeal, orange.
Vitamin D (calciferol) to cope with mood swings in women. Its lack provokes four mood disorders. Adults need 15 micrograms per day. Foods high in calciferol: fish oil, mackerel, salmon, tuna, egg yolk, red and black caviar.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) has an anti-inflammatory effect, which means it will reduce breast pain and swelling. Also, the action of tocopherol will reduce anxiety and manifestations of depression, relieve fatigue and the desire for sweets. Especially effective in combination with essential fatty acids. The daily vitamin requirement for women from 19 years old is 15 mg. With PMS take 400,600 IU per day. Foods with a high content of tocopherol: wheat germ oil, sunflower and almond oil, sunflower seeds, almonds and hazelnuts.
Biologically active substances
Essential fatty acids eliminate the accumulation of fluid in the body, struggling with emotional instability and headache with premenstrual syndrome. Eating fish oil reduces menstrual cramps, significantly reducing the number of menstrual cramps. Enotera oil (500 mg), fish oil (1000 mg) and vitamin E (200 ME) up to 3 times a day will give a good result.
Micro and macro elements
Magnesium supports fluid metabolism and sodium-potassium balance. In combination with B vitamins, it supports normal appetite and sugar balance. Good results will be given when used with vitamin E.
Magnesium also prevents the development of mental disorders in PMS. You should take up to 500 mg daily.
Calcium can reduce seizures, but it can increase other unpleasant symptoms. For balance, you should take such supplements, where calcium is two times more than magnesium. In combination with vitamin D, calcium will strengthen the bones and reduce migraine attacks.
Some herbal remedies can also reduce the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome:
- vitex (when taken for three or more cycles),
- ginkgo biloba,
- Rhodiola (reduces stress, supports hormones),
- krill oil (reduces stress, reduces chest pain).
Harmful eating habits not only harm the body as a whole, but also can worsen the course of PMS. It is possible to relieve or even get rid of PMS without the use of vitamin complexes - just follow your diet at least a week and a half before the menstrual cycle:
- do not drink alcohol
- do not drink a lot of fluids, especially tea or coffee,
- limit the use of sugar, salt and spices,
- avoid products with artificial additives and flavors,
- limit animal fats,
- eat more fruits and vegetables.
Normalizing food, you can easily get almost all the necessary vitamins and nutrients from products.
Premenstrual syndrome can be defeated with proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle. Food rich in vitamins and physical exertion will ease the course of PMS, and a woman can feel serene and contented.
1. The main methods of treatment
Modern methods of therapy are able to correct all existing manifestations of premenstrual syndrome due to a wide choice of groups of drugs.
- 1 Non-drug therapy (diet, psychotherapy, lifestyle correction, exercise, vitamin intake, and other methods).
- 2 Pathogenetic therapy includes the following groups of drugs for PMS:
- GnRH agonists,
- antigonadotropic drugs,
- monophasic combined oral contraceptives,
- 3 Symptomatic therapy is provided by the following groups of drugs:
- psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants),
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),
- herbal and homeopathic medicines,
2. Non-drug correction
It is this type of therapy that should be considered the first step to successfully overcoming the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
Its integral part is psychotherapy, aimed at the patient's acceptance of herself and the cyclical changes occurring with her, enhancing self-control.
This is especially true for women with psycho-vegetative and critical forms of the syndrome. Their possession of the situation, their own emotions directly depends on the severity of the symptoms, therefore the patient’s complete overcoming of panic attacks and crises is likely.
In this case, the observance of the daily regimen, a good sleep and rest are extremely important. An important aspect is the inclusion in the mode of the day exercise - charging in the morning and evening for 30 minutes in the fresh air.
Another type of non-pharmacological therapy is diet. It is necessary to eliminate or significantly reduce the amount of consumed carbohydrates and sugar, coffee and alcohol, salt, tea, animal fats, milk, especially paying attention to it during the second half of the menstrual cycle.
It is advisable to enter into the diet more fruits and vegetables. Physiotherapy has a positive effect, especially electrosleep and massage (general, cervical-collar area).
Non-drug correction is not ideal and is not able to fully eliminate the occurrence of premenstrual tension syndrome, although it finds a response abroad.
Here the difference in the mentality of women in Russia and, for example, in Europe plays its role. As you know, European women are sensitive to their mental health, therefore, such recommendations they are fully implemented.
For Russian women, however, this approach does not cause a serious attitude, unfortunately. The overwhelming majority of patients do not have the desire to radically change their lifestyle, because it requires a lot of effort.
3. Vitamins for PMS
For the normal functioning of the sexual and endocrine systems, a woman needs a sufficient intake of fat-soluble vitamins (Aevit, 1 capsule once a day, or taking multivitamins, or diet correction). Should consider such an important trace element as magnesium.
A lot of work has been written about its positive effect on the course of cyclic syndrome, a sufficient number of studies have been conducted so that preparations based on it are widely used in the gynecologist’s practice. True, all existing studies were conducted in Russia, which somewhat reduces the optimism of a sensible person.
It should be borne in mind that we are talking about organic salts of this substance, such as citrate, lactate, orotate, pidolat. Inorganic salts (magnesium sulfate) are used in obstetric-gynecological practice for the treatment of preeclampsia and eclampsia, correction of blood pressure.
Magnesium citrate in combination with vitamin B6 has the highest digestibility. These requirements are fully met by the drug "Magne B6 Forte" manufactured by Sanofi (France).
Figure 1 - Magne B6 forte (magnesium citrate + pyridoxine hydrochloride)
4.1. GnRH agonists and antigonadotropic drugs
GnRH agonists and antigonadotropic drugs are used exclusively for severe menstrual syndrome, or if no other type of therapy is possible.
Their use is limited to significant side effects, such as the development of osteoporosis, the shutdown of ovarian function, although it gives definitely visible results in their application.
With the inevitability of the use of this group of drugs is possible the so-called "reflexive" therapy with estrogen.
Treatment regimens can be as follows:
- 1 Buserelin 150 mg in the form of a nasal spray from the second day of the cycle, the duration of treatment is 6 months,
- 2 Goserelin in solution subcutaneously, 0.36 g once in 28 days, the duration of therapy is 6 months,
- 3 Leuprorelin in a solution of 0.375 g once in 28 days 6 months,
- 4 Triptorelin intramuscularly 0.375 g once in 28 days.
4.3. Monophasic COCKI
Monophasic combined oral contraceptives are the most popular and modern method of treating premenstrual syndrome both in Russia and abroad.
The negative impact on the body of this group of drugs is minimized, they are regularly improved, which expands the possibility of using oral contraceptives among the female population.
The use of this group of drugs is pathogenetically justified, since oral contraceptives should stabilize the estrogen / gestagen ratio, the imbalance of which is most often observed at the base of the premenstrual syndrome.
However, previously used classic progestogens (such as levonorgestrel, norgestimate, norethisterone) not only did not suppress the symptoms, but sometimes aggravated them, increasing their aggressiveness and irritability, and contributed to their weight gain, which was due to their lack of anti-mineralcorticoid activity.
Nowadays, innovative gestagen, drospirenone, which recently has been introduced into clinical practice, is actively used and shows excellent results. It has pronounced anti-mineralocorticoid activity. Due to this, drospirenone eliminates primarily symptoms such as puffiness, mastodynia, mastalgia.
Drospirenone is a synthetic substance, a derivative of spironolactone, which provides it with pronounced antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity.
Figure 2 - Angelique (Drospirenonum + Oestradiolum (genus. Drospirenoni + Oestradioli)
Its use allows you to eliminate all estrogen-dependent manifestations of premenstrual tension syndrome by blocking androgen receptors.
Therefore, when it is used, no increase in body weight is observed, nervousness, irritability, aggressiveness, mood swings, headaches, edema, acne and seborrhea disappear.
In the treatment of cyclic syndrome recommended mode of 24 + 4. This rhythm provides the most stable concentration of hormones, therefore, and a more pronounced positive effect.
The following regimens of monophasic oral contraceptives (tablets for PMS) are also possible:
- 1 Ethinyl estradiol / gestoden orally 0.3 mg / 0.75 mg 1 time per day, a pre-selected time from the first to the 21st day of the cycle with a pass for 7 days,
- 2 Ethinyl estradiol / dezogestrel orally 0.3 mg / 0.15 mg 1 time per day, a pre-selected time from the first to the 21st day of the cycle with a pass for 7 days,
- 3 Ethinyl estradiol / dienogest oral 0.3 mg / 2 mg 1 time per day in one, pre-selected time from the first to the 21st days of the monthly cycle with a pass for 7 days,
- 4 Ethinyl estradiol / tsiproteron inside of 0,35 mg / 2 mg once a day in the same, pre-selected, time from the first to the 21st day of the cycle with a pass for 7 days,
- 5 Ethinyl estradiol / drospirenone orally in the form of tablets of 0.3 mg / 3 mg once a day in one, pre-selected time from the first to the 21st day of the cycle with a pass for 7 days.
For all of the listed combinations, the duration of therapy is generally accepted from 3 months to six months, followed by control of effectiveness.
Progestins are used with insufficient function of the corpus luteum, especially in severe cases, the combination of premenstrual tension syndrome and endometrial hyperplastic processes.
As mentioned above, the use of exclusively gestagens is currently significantly reduced due to the creation of new drugs with more pronounced positive activity for the relief of PMS symptoms.
Gestagen treatment schemes are as follows:
- 1 Дидрогестерон по 20 мг с 16го дня ежемесячного цикла в течение 10 дней, - медроксипрогестеронаацетат по 150 мг внутримышечно раз в 9 дней,
- 2 Левоноргестрел, внутриматочная система, вводится в полость матки на 4-6-й день ежемесячного цикла однократно.
The intrauterine system is a T-shaped rod with a special drive that contains 52 mg of levonorgestrel. The hormone drive is covered with a special membrane that controls the flow of levonorgestrel into the uterus and keeps it at a level of 20 micrograms.
Figure 3 - Mirena - intrauterine system (Levonorgestrel * (Levonorgoestrelum))
The next, and often the only possible stage of treatment for premenstrual syndrome, is symptomatic. In this case, only symptoms that disrupt the patient's life are veiled with the help of not only medicinal, but also homeopathic, herbal remedies.
5. Symptomatic treatment
Psychotropic drugs such as anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics require serious justification for their purpose. In this case, these drugs are prescribed jointly by a gynecologist and a neurologist, or a psychiatrist / psychotherapist, in order to eliminate all possible side effects characteristic of this group of drugs.
5.1. Anxiolytics and Neuroleptics
Anxiolytics (or anti-anxiety drugs) are prescribed for neuropsychiatric disorders of varying severity.
They are effective in such manifestations of premenstrual tension syndrome, such as anxiety, irritability, anxiety, aggression, mood lability.
For monotherapy of depression or depression with increased anxiety, this group of drugs is not preferred.
Standard treatment regimens for anxiolytics are as follows:
- 1 Alprazolam 0.1 g, duration of therapy 3 months,
- 2 Diazepam orally 5-15 mg per day up to 3 times a day,
- 3 clonazepam inside 0.5 mg once daily,
- 4 mebicar inside 0.3-0.6 mg 3 times a day,
- 5 Medazepam inside 10 mg once a day.
From neuroleptics, the drug thioridazine is used orally in doses of 10-25 mg.
Antidepressants have firmly occupied their niche in the life of a modern person and are currently used not only for the correction of mental disorders, but also in the treatment of psychosomatic diseases, with neuropsychiatric manifestations, which include cyclic disease.
Especially antidepressant treatment, as well as oral contraceptives, is popular in Europe and the USA. The population of these countries has long discovered the positive impact of drugs of these groups and is not as wary as, say, a resident of Russia.
For the treatment of premenstrual syndrome of antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine) are used.
This group of drugs has a rather mild Timoanaleptic effect, relieves anxiety, tension, improves the general psycho-emotional background and is characterized by good tolerance.
But with their appointment should be considered and the characteristics of each drug. Despite the fact that they belong to the same group, fluoxetine and sertraline are more characteristic of the so-called stimulating "secondary" effect, whereas paroxetine and fluvoskamine, on the contrary, are sedative.
Also very important is the correct selection of the dose and treatment regimen. Begin therapy with 1/4 dose in the morning (for drugs with a stimulating effect) or in the evening (for agents with a sedative effect).
After 7 days, the dose is increased to ½ and so on up to 1-2 tablets, until the patient notes the expected effect.
Usually, 1 tablet per day becomes a sufficient dose, considering that some cyclicity should be observed: as a rule, a reduction in the dose of the drug in the first half of the cycle and its gradual increase by the time of the greatest manifestation of premenstrual syndrome.
A positive effect of treatment with this group of drugs should be expected after 60-90 days, the duration of therapy is 6-9 months, but if indicated, it can be extended up to 12 months.
Standard treatment regimens with antidepressants:
- 1 Sertralin inside 0.50 g once a day,
- 2 Tianeptin orally 0.125 g,
- 3 fluoxetine oral 20-40 mgv morning hours,
- 4 Citalopram orally 10–20 mg in the morning.
5.3. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets are prescribed mainly in the cephalgic form of PMS.
Here, the antiprostaglandin effect inherent in this group of drugs plays an important role, since the role of prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of premenstrual tension syndrome is known. Apply:
- 1 Ibuprofen inside 0.2-0.4 g,
- 2 Indomethacin 25-50 mg,
- 3 Naproxen inside 250 mg.
Diuretic means - aldosterone antagonists are used, providing potassium-sparing, hypotensive and diuretic actions. Diuretics are indicated for edematous manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.
Apply the drug spironolactone (Veroshpiron) at a dose of 25 mg for 3-4 days before the onset of the expected symptoms. The course of treatment is 1 month.
Dopaminomimetics are used in the presence of an increase in prolactin. The drugs of this group began to be used among the first to treat the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
They, first of all, eliminate such symptoms as mastodynia and mastalgia.
Common drugs and treatment regimens are as follows:
- 1 Bromocriptine orally 1.25-2.5 mg for 3 months,
- 2 Cabergoline 0,25-0,5 mg 2 times a week,
- 3 Hinagolide 75-150 mg.
It should be remembered that this group of drugs is prescribed from the 14th to the 16th day of the monthly cycle, when the highest concentrations of prolactin are observed.
5.6. Herbal preparations and homeopathy
Herbal and homeopathic remedies are quite popular in Russia and are widely used to relieve some of the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
A lot of research has been done on the effect of such dietary supplements on the body as a whole and the elimination of the necessary symptoms in particular.
Each doctor has his own opinion and attitude to this group of drugs, but sometimes, with intolerance to synthetic drugs, it is the substances of this group that come to the rescue.
For example, the drug Cyclodinone is used as an alternative to bromocriptine. There are studies of this drug, which indicate even its effectiveness in severe and moderate manifestations of cyclic syndrome, have a dopaminergic effect and reduce the level of prolactin. The drug Mastodinon has a similar effect.
It is also biologically active substances that increase the ability of the body to resist the adverse factors of the external and internal environment and to ensure homeostasis in changing environmental conditions.
The purpose of the use of this group of drugs is to create increased body resistance. They are more effective in complex therapy, and not as the only possible means.
Since this group, akin to homeopathic remedies, does not always resonate with doctors, it is rarely prescribed, and often patients begin to take them on their own.
When using adaptogens, strict adherence to daily biorhythms is necessary, since they have the ability to increase the level of catecholamines in the blood.
Preferably their use in the morning. The expected effect when taking adaptogens is achieved only with a long systematic reception (at least 6 months).
By origin, adaptogens are divided into several groups:
- 1 Vegetable origin (ginseng, Eleutherococcus, Chinese lemongrass, Manchurian aralia, zamaniha, etc.),
- 2 Minerals of plant origin (humic substances),
- 3 Analogues of natural human hormones (melatonin),
- 4 Synthetic (ethylthiobenzimidazole hydrobromide monohydrate).
5.8. How to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment?
For more successful treatment, it is necessary for a woman to keep a diary, where she should note the severity of symptoms in points:
- 1 0 points - no symptoms,
- 2 1 point - disturb weakly,
- 3 2 points - disturb in an average degree, but do not change the quality of life,
- 4 3 points - severe symptoms that violate the quality of life of a woman.
In this case, with the joint work of the woman herself and her attending physician, the most effective results will be achieved.
There are also data on the surgical method of treating cyclic syndrome - oophorectomy for severe forms that are not amenable to conservative treatment. Also, such an operation may be quite appropriate in women after 35 years of age with realized reproductive function.
This will ensure not only the effect of eliminating the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, but also a reliable contraceptive. The lack of estrogen in this case is corrected by the appointment of hormone replacement therapy.
Experts say: premenstrual syndrome can ease vitamins. Why? And what nuances should be considered here?
The doctor of the highest category obstetrician-gynecologist, candidate of medical sciences Olga Kusmartseva advises.
- Why does premenstrual syndrome occur and how is it most often manifested?
- There are a huge number of hypotheses and theories of the appearance of PMC. However, the main reason for changes in well-being before the start of menstruation is cyclical changes in hormone levels. It is hormonal disorders that cause mood changes and unpleasant sensations appear.
With the onset of monthly well-being comes back to normal, and in the new cycle, the situation repeats. This is the main difference between PMS and the usual deterioration of health and mood, which a woman can periodically experience.
There are a lot of reasons for hormonal imbalance. It is noted that premenstrual syndrome is more common in women aged 30 years and older. As well as those who experience emotional and mental stress, engaged in mental work and spends many hours at the computer. In addition, smoking and overweight often influence the onset of PMS.
Some researchers associate PMS with a lack of vitamins B6 and A, as well as magnesium and calcium minerals in the second half of the menstrual cycle. In this case, the body becomes more vulnerable and the manifestations of premenstrual syndrome are multiplied.
- How often do modern women suffer from a deficiency of these vitamins?
- Unfortunately, more and more. The main reasons are the modern lifestyle, frequent stresses, poor nutrition. The diet is increasingly becoming unhealthy and moving away from the needs of nature.
To restore the reserves of vitamins and minerals, you need to carefully think over your food, regularly include natural vegetable products in the menu. Unfortunately, not everybody does this.
Excessive desire for women to lose weight can also cause a deficiency of vitamins and minerals. Hard diets, the use of laxatives and diuretics often become the cause of the lack of vital substances.
Unfortunately, today it is impossible to adequately meet all the needs of the female body only through traditional nutrition.
- So, the elimination of deficiencies of vitamins and minerals helps to alleviate premenstrual syndrome?
- Acceptance of vitamin-mineral complexes is an important part of the integrated treatment of PMS. Scientific studies have proven the effectiveness of this technique.
At the same time, the maximum effect is achieved under one important condition - the combination of vitamins, minerals with natural plant components, which normalize the hormonal balance, have a calming and antispasmodic effect. All these points were taken into account when creating the Lady’s formula “PMS premenstrual syndrome”, which has been familiar to Russian women for more than 15 years.
It contains magnesium, calcium, vitamin B6, “the queen of women's herbs” - dong-qui, which helps normalize hormonal balance, evening primrose oil, which has a calming and analgesic effect, and a number of other herbal ingredients.
After a course of taking vitamins and minerals in women, irritability, aggressiveness, soreness and engorgement of the mammary glands are reduced. They are less concerned about the feeling of fatigue, swelling, nervousness, mood changes, increased appetite, they do not add weight.
- Will these vitamins be enough or do you need some other medicines?
- Usually balanced vitamin-mineral complexes with a natural plant component help to normalize the hormonal balance and bring the nervous system in order. However, the effect will be even more noticeable if you follow some recommendations.
Women suffering from premenstrual syndrome, it is desirable to adhere to a clear daily regimen, lead a measured lifestyle, eat right. In the days before menstruation, you should try to reduce the mental load, especially hard work at the computer. Before “critical days” it is better to reduce physical exertion. You should not plan for this period of important meetings and negotiations. Healthy and prolonged sleep, a normal psychological situation in the family and at work alleviate the manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.
- What if all these measures are ineffective?
- In these cases, a medical examination and consultation is required. The choice of treatment will depend on the results of the examination.
What vitamins will help
Alleviate the symptoms, to have a beneficial effect on health can properly formulated diet. You need to make a diet that is able to provide daily intake of one hundred grams of lean protein products (poultry, lean meat, egg white, fish). This is necessary in order to support the activity of the internal organs and muscles. About a third of the calories consumed should fall on proteins, if you do not have excess weight. Another forty percent of the calories need to be obtained from fruits and vegetables with low starch content, and the remaining third from animal and vegetable fats.
Vitamin A will help
Vitamin A in high doses will ease the symptoms of PMS. But in case of intensive consumption (about three hundred thousand IU per day) side effects may appear. To avoid them and at the same time get the beneficial effect of high doses of vitamin A, take beta-carotene, which in the body turns into vitamin A.
Vitamin E will help
In women with PMS, in the case of supplemental intake of vitamin E, relief of symptoms such as painful sensitivity of the mammary glands, fluid accumulation, emotional instability, desire for sweets, fatigue were observed. You should take vitamin E in a dose of four to six hundred ME every day. But keep in mind that vitamin E in some people can cause an increase in pressure.
What vitamins to take with PMS
Complexes of vitamin supplements in premenstrual syndrome usually include:
- B vitamins,
- Vitamins D,
- Vitamins of group E,
- Herbal supplements (Vitex, Rhodiola, Krill Oil, etc.).
For girls suffering from premenstrual syndrome, inositol use plays a good role, i.e. vitamin b8. This substance helps women cope with depressed mood and depressive symptoms.
Determining which vitamins should be drunk with PMS should be based on the symptoms that have appeared. For a complex effect on the syndrome preceding the menstrual cycle, about a hundred grams of foods containing protein, fruits and vegetables, in which the minimum amount of starch, and animal and vegetable fats should be introduced into the diet.
Receiving vitamin B is aimed at suppressing aggressiveness and irritability during PMS. Substances from the presented group are synthesized by intestinal bacteria and contribute to a better metabolism of glucose monosaccharide. Taking D-vitamin is also important, because it can stabilize the mood of women undergoing premenstrual syndrome. Vitamin E is recommended to be taken during critical days and on the threshold of this. Tocopherol produces a powerful anti-inflammatory effect, reducing pain in the chest and its swelling.
Useful tips for ICP
Most girls consider physical education during critical days extremely unproductive and even harmful. This is an unfounded stereotype. On the contrary, regular exercise has beneficial and healing properties, helping to get rid of PMS. Preference should be given to such types of physical activities as running, aerobics, yoga. The performance and mood of a woman will increase even after a simple walk, if you do it for 15-20 minutes during the menstrual cycle.
However, simply saturating the body with endorphins does not always help to completely get rid of PMS. A study conducted with the participation of women of different ages showed that lovers of beverages containing a shock amount of caffeine (coffee, tea, hot chocolate) are more likely to experience discomfort during menstruation. In this regard, you should limit the reception of such products. All of the above drinks (as well as a number of soft drinks) can be consumed no more than three times a day. Directly during PMS, their consumption should be reduced to a minimum. Подобная ситуация разыгрывается и вокруг углеводов и сахара, увеличивающих содержание инсулина в организме.
Некоторые врачи рекомендуют женщинам, испытывающим при критических днях психологические расстройства, сократить употребление молочных продуктов. Повышая содержание в организме кальция, важно следить за балансом его с действующим с ним магнием. Gynecologists recommend limiting intake of dairy products about a week before the premenstrual cycle.
For the purpose of treatment and prevention of PMS, it is also advised to pay attention to various integrative approaches - massage, acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal supplements. Herbal supplement from the berries, as well as hop formulas, lemon balm tea are very popular. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine or sertraline, can also help normalize anxiety.
Severe PMS, how to treat?
Manifestations of premenstrual syndrome
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects most women to some extent, at some point during the entire reproductive age. If there is a very strong PMS, then, of course, there are proven and effective ways to reduce PMS.
What are the symptoms before PMS? While most people immediately think of PMS as soon as something causes a change in mood, however, symptoms can vary from mental to physical change. Common symptoms of PMS include mood changes, depression, irritability, strange behavior, cravings for food, bloating, chest pain, fatigue, cramps, acne, and headaches.
How to reduce PMS symptoms
Reducing the effects of PMS depends on what symptoms you have. If you have problems of the period, then you, of course, are not alone. Women often experience a range of menstrual disorders. Period problems can range from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) to premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and to have severe pain and menstrual cramps in the absence of menstruation.
Preparations from PMS
If your symptoms are purely physical - abdominal distension, breast tenderness, fatigue, then medications that take into account the mental health symptoms of PMS are unlikely to help. If you experience physical and mental symptoms, you can target and treat each symptom separately or try a treatment that can help alleviate the various symptoms.
Treatment of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoria) and PMS (premenstrual syndrome) associated with mood changes
Some people have a more severe form of premenstrual syndrome, known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
PMDD can cause very serious changes in mood, which can make normal functioning difficult in the days preceding menstruation. Physical symptoms, like those that come in PMS, but can be much stronger and be accompanied by severe mood changes and pain.
PMS - drugs
Over-the-counter treatments that may help include ibuprofen, naproxen, and other drugs specifically made to relieve premenstrual symptoms. Aspirin is not the best choice because it has the potential to increase the length and severity of menstrual bleeding.
Ibuprofen is often effective in reducing menstrual cramps and various pains in the premenstrual period. In addition, ibuprofen offers another advantage for women experiencing heavy menstrual flow, it can help reduce the amount of blood loss that occurs during menstruation.
Other NSAIDs or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as naproxen, also provide effective relief of menstrual cramps.
Vitamins with PMS
Women who crave sugar as a symptom of PMS can find relief by supplementing their diet with 300 to 500 mg of magnesium. Magnesium can also help reduce pain in the chest. Some women experience a reduction in symptoms, taking between 50 and 300 mg of vitamin B6 per day.
Make sure you take the right dosage, too much vitamin B6 can cause numbness and other negative side effects. Women who experience premenstrual chest pain can reduce this symptom by taking 600 IU of vitamin E per day.
Herbs with PMS
Other treatments that may be helpful include taking about 1500 mg of primrose oil daily, or using natural progesterone cream.
While some women claim to have relieved PMS symptoms with herbal supplements and natural hormones, such as evening primrose oil or natural progesterone, most modern scientific data do not confirm the use of any of these most commonly used herbs.
Means for PMS (premenstrual syndrome)
Menstrual cramps, also known as dysmenorrhea, are usually felt as dull pain in the lower abdomen before or during menstrual periods. Sometimes the pain radiates to the lower back or thigh area. Other symptoms may include nausea, loose stools, sweating, and dizziness.
There are two types of menstrual cramps: primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea, which usually begins several years after the first menstruation, does not cause physical abnormalities.
Hormonal substances called prostaglandins, which are produced naturally in the body, are believed to cause these menstrual cramps and are responsible for pain and inflammation.
On the other hand, secondary dysmenorrhea has a major physical cause, such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, uterine myoma, or uterine polyps.
As hormones rise and fall, some women experience PMS (premenstrual syndrome), a group of physical and emotional symptoms such as abdominal distension, breast tenderness, changes in appetite, fatigue, depression and anxiety during the week or two before their menstrual period. period
Natural remedies for menstrual cramps
If you experience symptoms of menstrual cramps, it is important that your doctor correctly diagnoses the causes. Although some natural remedies show some hope, at the moment there is not enough research to conclude that they are effective.
Here are some of the most commonly used tools:
Omega-3 fatty acids
Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish, such as salmon, mackerel, sardines and anchovies. They are also available in fish oil capsules, which may be the preferred form, as many brands filter out any contaminants in fish, such as mercury and PCBs.
At least eight studies involving a total of 1097 women investigated the relationship between diet and menstrual cramps and found that consumption of fish oil appears to have a positive effect on menstrual cramps.
Animal studies show that two compounds in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce prostaglandin levels.
In one small study, 21 young women took fish oil (containing 1080 milligrams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 720 milligrams of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 1.5 milligrams of vitamin E) daily for two months, after which they took placebo tablets for two months . Another 21 young women took a placebo for two months, followed by fish oil for two months. The results showed that women experienced significantly less menstrual cramps when they took fish oil.
Capsules for fish oil are sold in pharmacies, health food stores and on the Internet. Look for the active ingredients EPA and DHA on the label.
Fish oil capsules can interact with blood thinning drugs such as warfarin (coumadin) and aspirin. Side effects may include dyspepsia and bleeding. To reduce fishy taste, it should be taken immediately before meals.
Magnesium is a mineral naturally found in foods such as green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. It is also available as food additives. Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions. It helps regulate blood sugar levels and is essential for normal muscle and nerve function, heart rate, immune function, blood pressure, and bone health.
In 2001, researchers from the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed three small studies that compared magnesium and placebo for the treatment of dysmenorrhea.
Overall, they found that magnesium was more effective than placebo for pain relief, and the need for additional medications was less when using magnesium.
There was no significant difference in the number of side effects or adverse effects between magnesium and placebo in the studies.
High doses of magnesium can cause diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure, irregular heart rate and confusion. It can interact with certain medications and diseases, such as osteoporosis, high blood pressure (calcium channel blockers), as well as some antibiotics, muscle relaxants and diuretics.
Acupressure is a traditional medical practice based on the same principles as acupuncture. Instead of applying needles, pressure is applied to the acupuncture points.
The point, which is often recommended by acupuncturists for menstrual cramps, is called Point 6. Although there are only preliminary studies on acupressure for menstrual cramps, this is a simple home remedy that is often recommended by alternative practitioners.
To find the point, acupuncturists offer to feel the bone point of the inner ankle. From this point on, draw an imaginary line from the knee to the inner ankle. This is about four finger widths from the inner ankle. It is not on the bone of the leg, but just beside it to the back of the knee.
Apply gradually increasing pressure with the thumb or middle finger at an angle of 90 degrees to the skin. Wait three minutes. Pressure should not be painful or uncomfortable.
Acupressure should not be done if you are pregnant. This should also not be done with damaged or infected skin.
Other natural remedies for menstrual cramps:
Although many supplements have been proposed to alleviate the symptoms of PMS, currently only calcium has demonstrated consistent therapeutic benefits.
In one of the largest calcium studies for PMS, published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, calcium supplementation was studied in women with moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms. Study participants took either calcium or placebo for three months.
The researchers found that women who took calcium had a 48 percent reduction in their total number of symptoms.
In another analysis published in Archives of Internal Medicine, researchers analyzed data from 1057 women who developed PMS during 10 years of observation and 1968 women without PMS. They found that women who had high calcium intake from dietary sources had a significantly lower risk of PMS.
Approximately four servings per day (equivalent to about 1200 mg of calcium) of low-fat cottage cheese or milk, enriched orange juice, or defatted other dairy products, such as yogurt, were associated with a lower risk of PMS.
Interestingly, the calcium from supplements was not associated with the risk of PMS.
High calcium foods include:
- Milk products
- Sesame seeds
- Leafy green vegetables
The study also showed that women who had a high intake of vitamin D (a vitamin that regulates calcium absorption and metabolism) from food sources corresponding to approximately 400 IU per day had a lower risk of PMS.
A later study, published in the journal BMC Women's Health, assessed vitamin D levels in the blood (25-hydroxyvitamin D) and found that vitamin D levels are not associated with the risk of PMS in general, but were inversely proportional to the risk of specific menstrual symptoms, such as breast tenderness, diarrhea or constipation, fatigue and depression.
The most common recommendations for a diet are to limit sugar intake and increase consumption of complex carbohydrates. Some people may benefit from reducing sodium intake, which can help reduce bloating, water retention and breast swelling.
Caffeine restriction is another common change in diet due to the association between caffeine and PMS symptoms, such as irritability and insomnia.
Herbs from PMS
Common tree berries (Vitex agnus-castus) are often recommended as a herbal supplement to help with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
For example, a study published in Phytomedicine studied the use of agnus castus (in three different doses) or placebo in 162 women with PMS. After a three-month period, women who took 20 mg per day improved symptoms compared with those who took placebo or 8 mg.
In a study published in Planta Medica in 2013, researchers reviewed previously published studies on the use of this supplement for female reproductive conditions.
They found that five of the six studies showed that agnus castus supplements are more effective than placebo.
Despite this, there may be side effects, and this may be unacceptable for some people (for example, people with certain medical conditions or people taking medications), so if you plan to take agnus castus, it is important to consult with your doctor first.
If you have PMS, you should make certain lifestyle changes to improve your symptoms and help bring your hormones back into balance. Talk to your doctor who can help you choose the approach that suits you.
Due to the lack of research support, it is too early to recommend any natural remedy as a treatment for menstrual cramps. Supplements have not been tested for safety and due to the fact that food additives are mostly not regulated, the content of some products may differ from what is indicated on the product label. Also keep in mind that the safety of alternative medicine in pregnant women, nursing mothers, children and people with diseases or taking medication has not been established.
Additionally, how to reduce ICP:
- Food - a diet rich in complex carbohydrates
- Exclusion of products that can make symptoms worse, such as caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, salt, and refined sugar
- Take supplements and / or increase the intake of dietary sources of vitamins and minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, B6 and vitamin E
- Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine or sertraline, as well as a number of other
- Anti-anxiety medication
- Diuretics, such as spironolactone for fluid retention and / or abdominal bloating
- Short-term therapy that lasts no longer than six months with GnRH agonists (anti-estrogen drugs), such as lupron combined with estrogen or estrogen-progestin therapy.
Finally, while exercise is not a treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding, they often effectively relieve the symptoms of PMS and PMDD, and also help to reduce menstrual cramps, as mentioned earlier. In fact, resorting to a 20- to 30-minute walk only three times a week provides a number of benefits, including your health in the ICP.