With such a problem as a violation of the menstrual cycle, faced by a lot of women. Moreover, this phenomenon does not depend on age, it can be observed both in young girls, in whom menstruation has just begun, and in mature women due to hormonal failure, trauma, the occurrence of the disease.
Usually the first periods in the life of a girl come in about 12-14 years. During the first year, the menstrual cycle is only established. On average, in 12 months a girl has at least eight cycles. If a girl over the age of 14 does not start her period, she should visit a doctor for an examination.
The normal duration of the menstrual cycle is 21-33 days. It is necessary to begin counting from the first day of the next monthly before the beginning of the next. A regular cycle is an indicator of a woman’s health. Bleeding should last no more than a week, and the volume of blood lost should be no more than 100 milliliters. Menstruation that does not meet this norm is a violation.
Regardless of the nature of the menstrual disorder, this can cause problems with the functioning of the reproductive or endocrine system. For this reason, any failure in the cycle should be a reason for prompt treatment to the gynecologist and undergo the necessary examinations.
This phenomenon should be taken very seriously, because if you do not receive treatment in a timely manner, in the future you may be faced with the impossibility of becoming pregnant and giving birth to a healthy child.
In most cases, menstrual disorders due to changes in hormonal levels. And it’s not a fact that the reason lies precisely in the ovaries: a disruptive factor in the functioning of the thyroid or adrenal glands can be a triggering factor.
According to WHO statistics, the most common causes of menstrual disorders are:
- Inflammation or other damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary region.
- Ovarian failure.
- Abnormalities of the uterus.
- Increased levels of prolactin in the blood.
In addition, cause inflammation of the menstrual cycle, affecting the pelvic organs. When the provoking factor is eliminated, the cycle is normalized. The same applies to sexually transmitted diseases.
Such common diseases such as rubella or chickenpox, adversely affect the process of follicle formation in the ovaries. The result of this may be felt after a few months, and sometimes years after recovery.
Disruption of the menstrual cycle sometimes indicates the presence of severe pathologies:
- uterine fibroids,
- oncology of the pelvic organs.
In addition, the usual cycle of menstruation can be shot down due to adverse conditions, which include:
- adherence to strict diets
- climate change,
- physical overstrain
- psycho-emotional stress
- excessive passion for alcoholic beverages,
- sexual abstinence over time
- the use of certain drugs.
It should be remembered that the problems with the stability of the menstrual cycle can be caused by a hereditary factor.
Is it dangerous?
In any case, such a problem as a failure of the menstrual cycle should not be left without proper attention, since this phenomenon can lead to extremely adverse consequences:
- the inability to get pregnant and bear the child,
- the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia,
- changes in hormone levels, which in turn can trigger the development of other pathologies,
- education in the uterus of benign and malignant tumors.
How to recover and restore a broken menstrual cycle
Treatment should be appointed by a competent specialist. Therapeutic measures will depend on the identified cause of the cycle failure. For accurate diagnosis, the following measures will be taken:
- A survey of a woman in which it turns out what kind of lifestyle she leads, what diseases she has suffered, etc.
- Examination by a gynecologist, which also includes an analysis of STDs and a smear on the flora.
- Ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs and thyroid.
- HSG (hysterosalpingography) is a method of x-ray diagnostics of diseases of the uterus and fallopian tubes, which is based on the introduction of contrast agents into them.
- Hormonal screening, which determines the level of sex hormones in the patient's body.
- Radiography of the head (including the Turkish saddle), this procedure will help identify the hypothalamic-pituitary disorders.
Based on the results obtained during the examinations, the doctor will prescribe the appropriate treatment, which may consist of the following:
- lifestyle correction,
- drug therapy using hormones,
- taking medications - uterotonics, which reduce blood loss,
- curettage of the uterus,
If in time to seek medical help, the chances that the menstrual cycle is fully restored, and, consequently, the disease will recede, will be quite high.
It should be noted that even with a broken menstrual cycle, a woman can conceive and carry out a child. Medication with the use of drugs that stimulate ovulation will help to get pregnant.
What to do if a girl has a problem in her teens
When a teenage girl has a cycle failure, accompanied by juvenile bleeding, a dysfunctional discharge from the uterus, the treatment is carried out in two stages.
First, hormonal drugs are used, as well as hemostatic drugs - Ditsinon, Vikasol.
If the bleeding is still quite strong and long, and the girl is disturbed by symptoms such as obvious dizziness, passivity and lethargy, a decrease in hemoglobin level, a curettage procedure can be prescribed. Then a histology scraping is performed.
A doctor can prescribe hormonal medications (Novinet, Mersilon), but only if the hemoglobin level is not lower than 80 g / l.
If necessary, they will be treated against iron deficiency anemia (blood transfusion, red blood cells, reopolyglukine). Iron supplements are discharged.
In adolescence, the duration of hormonal drugs should not exceed three months. Anemia therapy is performed until the hemoglobin values are normalized.
With a mild degree of impairment, therapy with the use of vitamins in phases of the cycle is applied. Funds in this case are taking a doctor-prescribed scheme to stimulate the production of hormones in the ovaries. Such treatment involves taking in the first phase of the menstrual cycle vitamins of group B, in the second - vitamins A, C, E, folic acid.
What should a girl do if a problem appears in childbearing age
In this situation, the treatment regimen will be similar to the treatment of menstrual disorders in adolescents. Regardless of age, with severe bleeding, the curettage procedure is performed. This is done both for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.
Then therapy is carried out using hormonal agents. A woman will have to take combined oral contraceptive drugs according to the standard scheme. Directly in case of a defective second phase of the cycle, the doctor may prescribe products containing progesterone - Duphaston or Utrogestan.
Since cycle disorders can lead to the impossibility of conception, women in reproductive age are sometimes prescribed Pergonal or Choriogonin, drugs that are aimed at stimulating the formation of active follicles. Clomiphene is prescribed to stimulate ovulation.
How to treat bleeding with menopause
If severe bleeding is observed during menopause, the uterus is necessarily scraped out by the woman, since this phenomenon can signal dangerous diseases, including the onset of atypical hyperplasia, as well as the development of a cancerous tumor.
In severe cases, the doctor may decide to perform a hysterectomy - a gynecological operation, during which the uterus is removed. The procedure is usually carried out with a malignant tumor of the uterus, as well as the cervix or ovary.
In case of disorders of the menstrual cycle, treatment with the help of traditional medicine is possible. However, before using them, you should consult a doctor.
The choice of remedy will depend on the type of disorder:
- For rare menstruation (oligomenorrhea), an agent is used that is prepared as follows: ½ tsp. chop the parsley seeds to a powder. Drink three times a day with half a cup of clean water, in which a little honey is added.
- In the absence of menstruation for a long time, for example, for several menstrual cycles (amenorrhea), an agent based on wormwood is used, which must be thoroughly crushed. The resulting raw materials pour one cup of boiling water, and then just put in a water bath. After 20 minutes, remove from heat, cool and strain. Ready to drink broth 100 ml three times a day before meals.
- If the monthly prolonged (more than 7 days) and abundant (over 100 ml), you can use the following recipe: take the following medicinal plants in the same amount: raspberry leaves, oak bark, silverweed gooseberry, strawberry leaves, yarrow. Next you need a tablespoon of the resulting collection pour a glass of cold boiled water. It remains to insist the drug for four hours. Then put on the stove, bring to a boil, after 5-7 minutes, remove from heat, let cool and strain. Prepared to drink during the day. The duration of the course of therapy is at least five days.
- Also, a means prepared on the basis of horsetail will help to normalize a long cycle and reduce blood loss. This plant has long been used for medical purposes, thanks to its hemostatic properties. A spoonful of raw materials should be poured 500 ml of boiling water, insist and continue to drink only a tablespoon with an interval of two hours until the bleeding stops. Then, for therapeutic purposes, spoon three times a day.
- When excessively painful menstruation helps herbal collection, consisting of birch leaves, valerian root, mint, buckthorn bark, blackberry leaves, yarrow. Thus, a tablespoon of the composition pour 250 ml of boiling water, at least 20-30 minutes. insist, strain well, drink a little during the day.
For surgery in the treatment of menstrual disorders resort extremely rarely and only in such cases:
- when there is severe bleeding, which cannot be stopped by other means,
- if the patient is over 35 years old.
- In this situation, the procedure is curettage of the uterus.
- Visit a gynecologist for a routine examination at least once every six months.
- Carefully follow the rules of personal hygiene.
- Follow the schedule of the day (to rest in a timely manner, not to allow increased loads, eat a balanced diet).
- Maintain the menstrual calendar - this will allow to detect failure in a timely manner.
- Live a mobile lifestyle (exercise, walk more in the fresh air).
- In time to treat the arisen diseases of other systems and internal organs.
A bit about the monthly cycle of women
Basically, the onset of menstruation occurs in girls 12-14 years old. However, early maturation is possible, and menstruation comes at 9-11 years old. If the monthly began earlier than 9 years, then this indicates the presence of the disease and should show the child to a specialist. There is also a possibility of pathology, if in 15 years there is no vaginal bleeding yet.
The climacteric period in women is characterized by a gradual cessation of menstruation and a decrease in ovarian function. On average, the period of menopause begins at 45-55 years. Delay of menstruation during menopause is the first sign that makes you think about old age.
Women's monthly cycle can be divided into 3 stages:
- Follicular phase - during this time estrogens are produced that affect the maturation of the follicles.
- Ovulation - lasts only about a day, at this time the release of the egg occurs.
- Luteal phase - if the egg is fertilized, the endometrium is prepared for engraftment. If fertilization has not occurred, the production of progesterone falls, the endometrium begins to be torn away.
The course of menstruation is influenced by the physiology and general health of a woman.
Irregular menstruation is one of the main signs of most gynecological diseases. No need to ignore the signals that the body gives you, because it can lead to the development of a serious pathology.
Why are menstruation disturbed?
Frequently, the monthly cycle is disturbed due to the presence of diseases, hormonal imbalance, and also if a woman is under stress and overworked. All reasons are conventionally divided into internal and external.
The internal causes of menstrual disorders are as follows:
- genital infections
- various diseases of the reproductive organs,
- pathologies of the endocrine system,
- congenital malformations of the genital organs,
- brain diseases
- hormonal imbalance
- medication and surgery.
The most common internal cause is hormonal failure, which can also be congenital. Hormonal imbalances can occur as a result of past infectious diseases.
Endocrine diseases, frequent stress and constant fatigue can also affect hormone levels. Very strongly on the hormonal background of the female body is affected by abortions, which are carried out by curettage of the uterus.
External causes are:
- diets - while losing weight, the body does not receive the necessary vitamins, useful elements and is under severe stress,
- increased physical activity, fatigue and lack of sleep,
- nervous exhaustion and depression
- climate change.
If the cause of the disturbance is external, in most cases, to stabilize the cycle, you need to remove the factor that affects the critical days and drink vitamin E.
Symptoms of menstruation
Classification of menstrual disorders:
- Hyperpolymenorrhea - the cycle remains the same, but during critical days severe bleeding is observed.
- Amenorrhea - when there are no periods for more than six months. It can be primary and secondary. The primary cycle is characterized by violations of the cycle from the onset of the first menstruation, and for the secondary cycle, after the establishment of a normal monthly cycle. Also, amenorrhea is physiological - observed during pregnancy, breastfeeding and during menopause.
- Opsomenorrhea - a small amount of discharge is released and menstruation stops after 1-2 days.
- Oligomenorrhea - menstruation occurs 1 time in 3-4 months.
- Dysmenorrhea - there are delays in critical days, or they start earlier.
- Menorrhagia - menstruation occurs for more than 10 days and is characterized by heavy bleeding.
- Algomenorrhea - menstruation failure occurs, which is accompanied by pain, nausea and bowel problems.
- Proomenorrhea - the monthly cycle is less than 21 days.
- Metrorrhagia - the occurrence of bleeding, both during menstruation and in the middle of the cycle.
- Algomenorrhea - the regularity of menstruation does not change, but during critical days a woman experiences very severe pain and bleeding, which causes deterioration of health and a decrease in working ability.
If you have symptoms of menstrual irregularities, you should visit the doctor and be examined for the decision of an accurate diagnosis.
How is the diagnosis
It is quite difficult to establish the true cause of menstrual irregularities. To correctly determine the cause of this problem, you need:
- collection and analysis of medical history,
- general and gynecological examination
- general blood and urine analysis
- cervical smear,
- the level of hormones in the blood is determined, a blood test is performed for infections and a biochemical analysis,
- Pelvic ultrasound,
- endometrial aspiration biopsy - conducting a pipe biopsy allows you to get a sample of tissue from any part of the uterus, during the procedure there is practically no pain, however, after the pipe you may have slight pulling pain in the lower abdomen,
Through a combination of medical history, clinical manifestations and the results of the analyzes, the attending physician can more accurately determine the cause of the menstrual disorders, as well as select the right medicine.
Treatment of disorders in adolescents
Even the most "scary" menopause can be defeated at home! Just do not forget two or three times a day.
In most cases, irregular periods in adolescents are regulated exclusively by the correct lifestyle and diet. However, there are rare exceptions.The most dangerous disorders in the menstrual cycle of adolescents are juvenile bleeding, based on an imbalance in the synchronization of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovarian systems. Such failures must be treated.
As a rule, this is a comprehensive treatment, in which the doctor may prescribe:
- contraceptive use
- surgical removal of cysts that accompany the disease in 99%
- antianemic therapy.
How long the medication will last depends on the type of treatment. Hormone therapy lasts at least 3 months, and non-hormonal drugs for anemia are taken only to stabilize hemoglobin levels.
Treatment of menstrual disorders in women of childbearing age
Women of this age category are often concerned with heavy periods, accompanied by pain and bleeding in the middle of the cycle. The patient must be scraped, which stops the bleeding and determines the cause of the violation.
After receiving the results of the histology, the attending physician prescribes the treatment of menstrual disorders:
- hormonal therapy
- if the problem is a disorder in the first phase of the cycle, the doctor prescribes progesterone,
- if the scraping did not give positive results, endometrial burning or hysterectomy is performed,
- taking iron supplements and vitamins
- when menstrual irregularities in women are accompanied by infertility, hormone preparations are prescribed.
Treatment during menopause
Violation of the menstrual cycle with menopause is a natural process, but it can also be a sign of a serious pathology.
Various neoplasms may appear, which are accompanied by bleeding, at the same time, quite often curettage is required and after the procedure, the resulting material is sent for histological analysis.
In women with menopause, most problems are resolved by hormonal treatment.
Often during a climax, doctors prescribe the following remedies:
Treatment with homeopathic medicines
Homeopathic remedies in violation of the menstrual cycle are applied for 2-3 months. During treatment, the balance of hormones stabilizes, immune protection is activated and the risk of infertility is eliminated.
The result from the use of these funds is longer and deeper. Homeopathy does not treat the symptoms and manifestations of the disease, but helps the body to regulate the process itself.
Despite the natural components of homeopathic remedies, only the attending physician selects the drug and draws up the treatment regimen.
Treatment of folk remedies
In folk medicine there is a great experience of treating disorders of the female cycle with prepared infusions and decoctions of plants. Basically, these products are milder than medical pills, they can be taken for a long time, and they show a good result. It is very important, using traditional methods of treatment - not to be mistaken in the selection of a plant that will help, and not aggravate the situation.
Traditional medicine for amenorrhea and opsomenorrhea recommends the use of plants that help improve metabolism and restore immunity. These qualities are St. John's wort, lovage, root tenla.
If oligomenorrhea is diagnosed, parsley seeds help. With heavy menstruation, infusion of yarrow, oak bark, raspberry leaves, cinquefoil goose and strawberry leaves is used.
The beaver stream restores the female cycle, removes pain and spasms during critical days, stabilizes hormonal balance and resolves cysts. When vaginal bleeding and heavy menstruation, occurring for more than 10 days, it is effective to apply horsetail.
Prevention of menstrual disorders
Any disease is always easier to prevent than to cure. Very often, vitamin E helps to solve the problem with irregular periods. Any pills are harmful to women's health.
Prevention of menstrual disorders contains the simplest actions:
- visit a gynecologist twice a year,
- observe personal hygiene,
- adhere to the daily regimen, eat right, eat vitamins, eliminate increased loads, rest in time,
- to live an active lifestyle,
- timely treat other diseases.
Violation of the menstrual cycle occurs when the appearance of the slightest negative factors. Sometimes to eliminate enough to drink vitamin E, and sometimes requires serious treatment. Even with minor violations, you should contact a specialist, do not need to thoughtlessly take the pills recommended by your friends, or just wait and hope that everything itself normalizes.
Outside the climacteric period, a violation of the menstruation cycle is a consequence of the disease, so it is important to promptly determine and prescribe treatment for the underlying disease.
Only by removing the cause of the violation of menstruation can stabilize the female cycle.
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Various violations of the menstrual cycle
Disruption of the menstrual cycle, the concept is more than wide, involving several types and degrees.
- Hypomenorrhea - a reduced amount of menstrual blood.
- Hypermenorrhea - an excessive amount of discharge.
- Oligomenorrhea - monthly for less than three days.
- Polymenorrhea - continuation of menstruation for more than seven days.
- Opsomenorrhea - regular periods, but less than 35 days.
- Proomenorrhea - menstruation more often than after 24 days.
- Menorrhagia - the cycle is preserved, but a large amount of menstrual blood is lost.
- Metrorrhagia - erratic, chaotic uterine bleeding.
- Menometroragiya - excessive and prolonged, irregular uterine bleeding, arising from any organic lesion of the genital tract.
- Amenorrhea - the complete absence of menstruation.
There are still varying degrees of severity, the presence or absence of pain and other related symptoms. A cycle may break due to various factors.
Causes of menstrual disorders:
- diseases of other organs and systems (kidneys, liver, endocrine glands),
- Burdened family history
- unfavorable perinatal history,
- infections and intoxication caused by them,
- head injuries (bruises, head injuries),
- lack of vitamins
- stress and emotional stress
- taking certain groups of medications (hormones, tranquilizers),
- lack of body weight.
The menstrual cycle violation is most often accompanied by hormonal changes, as a result of changes in the regulation of the pituitary-hypothalamus-ovaries.
Amenorrhea is considered the most complex form of menstrual dysfunction, implying the complete absence of menstruation for six months. This may occur due to various factors.
The causes of amenoria can be:
- infections and inflammatory processes,
- genetic abnormalities
- prolonged intoxication,
- various damaging factors.
Failure of the menstrual cycle accompanied by pain syndrome is called dysmenorrhea. The frequency of occurrence equals seventy percent and is observed everywhere, regardless of the social status of the woman and race. The reasons can be many factors ranging from inflammatory diseases of the pelvis and ending with cancer pathology, with fibroids.
Most often, patients suffer from hormonal disruptions. As a rule, this pathology disrupts their relationship, as a result, the amount of estrogen is too high, and there is not enough progesterone. Such a problem can go away in the case of a woman performing the fertility function.
Menstruation begins with the period of puberty, from 11-15 years and continues at the childbearing age of 50 years. The normal monthly cycle is 21-35 days, the monthly periods themselves go within 3-7 days and do not exceed the volume of 120 ml over the entire period. Violation of the menstrual cycle in 40 years and older can be perceived as preparation for the extinction of this function.
For correct calculation and easier orientation, it is recommended to keep a calendar in which you need to mark the beginning and duration of the monthly. Ovulation conditionally take for 14 days, provided that the cycle is 28 days. Ovulation implies a period of the most likely conception. But she can shift depending on various factors affecting a woman.
To determine it clearly, you can do ovulatory tests, they work on the principle of pregnancy tests. Another, more budgetary option is to measure the basal temperature throughout the month. This refers to the temperature in the rectum, which rises during the period of ovulation and is more than 37 degrees. When plotting within a month, the period of ovulation and the chances of pregnancy are clearly visible.
To determine why failure occurs, various techniques are used, ranging from measuring basal temperature and examining cervical mucus to more modern laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. In addition, they determine the level of hormones in the blood and carry out various hormonal tests. In order to correct the diagnosis, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist.
To exclude some pathologies, instrumental methods such as ultrasound diagnosis, MRI and computed tomography are used. They are completely safe for the health of women, and do not entail any consequences.
The treatment process itself is aimed at resolving the primary disease that caused the subsequent breakdown of the menstrual function. Therefore, this or that therapy may differ from each other, so there is no single panacea.
Therapy is conditionally divided into drug treatment, physiotherapy, homeopathy and surgical treatment. As a rule, surgical intervention is resorted to in cases where other techniques have not had the expected effect.
Drug treatment involves the correction of hormonal drugs. In medical practice using a variety of different drugs.
- Duphaston affects the endometrium, prepares it for normal function.
- Utrozestan increases the amount of pituitary hormones and has a beneficial effect on the further formation of the endometrium of the uterus.
- Lindinet is one of the oral contraceptives that are also used to correct menstruation. Its mechanism is to increase the viscosity of the cervical mucus, which is why fertilization becomes unlikely in preparing the endometrium for rejection.
- Buserelin reduces the level of estrogen hormones.
All medicines are selected individually depending on the factor causing the problem of violation of the cycle. Dosages and treatment regimens are also selected, referring to the history, diagnosis and the root cause why the menstrual cycle fails.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be used in two cases. First, in the complex treatment of concomitant possible sexually transmitted diseases. Secondly, in order to eliminate the pain that may accompany the violation of menstruation. In addition, the drugs in this group reduce the tone of the uterus and reduce its reduction. Such drugs include Aspirin, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Naproxen.
An important point in the systematic intake of such medicines is that they adversely affect the state of the stomach. With the chaotic excessive intake, complications are possible in the form of a peptic ulcer, perforation of an ulcer, penetration, malignancy. Therefore, it is necessary to comply with therapeutic doses and treatment regimens.
Physiotherapeutic methods in treatment
The greatest advantage of such treatment is their safety and strengthening the overall health of the woman. Treatment of disorders of the cycle is recommended balneotherapy, which consists in taking baths according to specially developed techniques, besides it gives positive emotions, which is important.
Galvanization involves the use of electric current for therapeutic purposes with minimal force by means of an electrode. This procedure improves blood circulation and lymph outflow, fights against inflammatory reactions in the body.
Sunbathing or heliotherapy is the use of solar radiation within therapeutic doses, temporary areas. It is recommended to take such baths until ten in the morning and after five in the evening.
Ultratonotherapy is a technique based on the use of high-frequency current of minimal strength and high voltage. Beneficial effect on the vessels of the whole body, improves their tone. This technique can be applied intravaginally and superficially.
Electro-stimulation of the cervix uteri is a method of physiotherapy, using impulses resembling vibration. The procedure takes no more than five minutes, and the course of treatment lasts about two months. In some cases it may take a year.
The menstrual cycle can be perceived as a specific indicator of women's health. Its violations can signal different pathologies not only of the genital tract, but also of other organs and systems. The problem of disturbed menstruation remains relevant in pediatric and adult gynecology. When anxiety symptoms appear, it is necessary to promptly seek medical assistance in order to receive adequate and effective treatment and stabilization of the condition.