The hormonal system is responsible for most aspects of the life of the body, starting with the reproductive function and ending with the processes of food digestion.
With a violation of the production and concentration of any hormone may develop a number of diseases and pathologies that threaten unpleasant consequences for health.
One of the most active hormones in the female body is estradiol - this chemical compound has a huge impact on the health, appearance and well-being of the fair sex.
So, hormone estradiol - what is it in women, and why is it so important to monitor its concentration?
What is estradiol?
Estradiol is a steroid hormone that is present in the body of people of both sexes, and is produced:
- the ovaries, the adrenal cortex and the placenta in women,
- seminal glands and peripheral tissues in men.
True, the representatives of the weaker sex, it is present in a much larger number, and determines the appearance of a woman - secondary sexual characteristics and the ability to conceive.
The normal content of estradiol indicates that the body functions without failures, and deviations from the mean values may indicate serious violations.
In the male body, estradiol plays an equally important role - it regulates the amount of calcium in the bone tissue, stimulates the metabolism processes and takes part in the production of sperm.
The role of estradiol in a woman's body
The main role of estradiol in the female body is the formation of secondary sexual characteristics, due to which a woman can be distinguished from a man.
Its effect contributes to the deposition of fat in certain places, as a result of which the waist is narrowed, the hips and buttocks are rounded, and the mammary glands are enlarged.
The skin is influenced by estrogen, it becomes smooth and delicate, with a small amount of hair, and the voice is high and thin.
Estradiol regulates sexual desire and the menstrual cycle of a woman, ensures the growth of the follicle on the ovary, and also prepares the uterus for a possible pregnancy - under its influence the thickness of the mucous membrane increases, so that the fertilized egg can attach to its walls.
In addition, estradiol helps to reduce the level of "bad" cholesterol, improve blood clotting, renewal of bone tissue and normalize blood pressure. Full hormone production provides the woman with an attractive appearance, normal well-being, good mood and resistance to stress, due to which the aging process of the body slows down significantly.
The concentration of estradiol in the body of women depends on the age, phase of the menstrual cycle, as well as external factors - the presence or absence of stressful situations, bad habits, food quality, climatic conditions.
On average, the values are as follows:
- newborns - 0 pg / ml,
- girls from 4 to 6 years old - about 22 pg / ml,
- pubertal period - 25-30 pg / ml,
- the first half of the menstrual cycle - 57-227 pg / ml,
- ovulation period - 127-476 pg / ml,
- the second half of the menstrual cycle - 77-227 pg / ml,
- menopause - 19-82 pg / ml.
In other words, the production of estradiol in the body of a woman of childbearing age occurs in waves. In the first half of the cycle, the hormone is produced in a relatively small amount, with the concentration gradually increasing, and when it reaches its maximum, the follicle breaks and ovulation occurs. After that, the level of estradiol is slightly reduced, and as a result there is a second rise.
The highest concentration of the hormone is observed in the body of pregnant women, and it is extremely important for the health of the mother and child.
The substance controls the blood flow in the placenta, thereby ensuring the normal penetration of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus.
In addition, it prepares the muscles of the perineum for childbirth, strengthening them and increasing elasticity.
The level of estradiol during pregnancy increases gradually, and from the first to the ninth month, fluctuates within 210-27000 pg / ml. After delivery, the concentration decreases, and after 4-5 days after the birth of the baby, reaches values that are noted before pregnancy.
An increase in the concentration of estradiol in the second phase of the menstrual cycle may indicate pregnancy, while a decrease in numbers indicates that conception did not occur.
Estradiol is responsible for the woman's femininity. If estradiol is reduced in women, it can affect both the appearance and the internal changes.
On the causes of low progesterone in women, read here.
Symptoms for which an excess of estradiol in women may be suspected are described in detail in this publication.
Indications for analysis
Violation of the production of estradiol (increase or decrease in its concentration) indicates diseases and pathologies in the body of a woman, which may manifest characteristic symptoms.
It is recommended to take a test for hormone levels in the blood in the following cases:
- cycle violations, lack of menstruation,
- uterine bleeding occurring in the middle of the menstrual cycle,
- hormonal imbalance
- premature sexual formation or its delay,
- dysfunction of the ovaries, adrenal glands and other glands,
- intense abdominal pain during or before menstruation,
- lack of conception with regular sexual activity during the year,
- disorders of the pituitary gland,
- osteoporosis, reduced bone density,
- suspected ovarian and adrenal tumors,
- preparation for the IVF procedure,
- during pregnancy - pathology of the placenta, the threat of miscarriage or premature birth.
An alarming sign is considered to be a significant increase in estradiol levels (provided there is no pregnancy), since this phenomenon may be a manifestation of oncological diseases of the ovaries or mammary glands. In addition, a high concentration of the hormone is observed in thyroid dysfunctions, liver cirrhosis, obesity, or alcoholism.
To check the level of estradiol, a woman takes blood from a vein, and to obtain accurate results, the fence is carried out on the 4-5th day of the menstrual cycle, and the control measurement is carried out on the 20th day. Blood is taken in the morning on an empty stomach after appropriate preparation.
- physical exercise,
- if possible, stop taking medications, especially those containing hormones.
The presence of any of these factors may lead to an increase in the concentration of estradiol, and, accordingly, to a false result.
Correction of hormonal background in case of violations of the production rate of this substance is assigned individually, and usually consists of drug therapy.
Under what circumstances and when to take estradiol for analysis to women, read on our website.
The indications for taking progesterone during pregnancy are listed on this page.
Indicators of insufficient production of estradiol can be increased fatigue, acne on the face, hair loss or body hair of the male type, swelling of the extremities.
Estradiol plays a key role in the work of the female body, so you should always remember about its function, monitor its level and be attentive to your health.
The main female sex hormone estradiol is included in the estrogen group. It is synthesized by the fermentation of the hormone testosterone (secreted by the endocrine system from cholesterol), produced by the ovaries, and the follicular apparatus and the adrenal cortex are involved in the mechanism. It belongs to the group of steroid hormones that play a key role in the regulation of metabolic processes. The analyzes are encoded by the symbol E2, which means that the formula of the compound contains two hydroxyl groups
Estradiol (estradiol) is synthesized by both female and male body - in boys and girls its indicators are at the same level, then, during puberty, the concentration of the hormone in women increases, while in men it remains at the same level. The main, but not the only function of estrogen is to ensure the normal functioning of the reproductive (sexual) system. Participation in the production of estradiol take follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, produced by the placenta and the anterior pituitary gland.
The role of estradiol in the body
The hormone estradiol in the body of an adult woman is responsible for stimulating the growth of follicles and the maturation of eggs. After pregnancy, this substance is responsible for preparing the uterus for implantation of the embryo. During puberty in girls, the reproductive system changes, the mammary glands and uterus increase, the body is prepared for regular menstrual cycles by increasing the concentration of the E2 hormone. Secondary sexual signs appear - the timbre of the voice changes, the hips expand, hair appears under the arms and in the groin area.
The effect of estradiol on a woman’s body is not only related to sexual function, although its concentrations on different days of the menstrual cycle regulate the power of sexual desire. The hormones of the estrogen group have a powerful effect on the psycho-emotional background, are responsible for a full sleep, activity during wakefulness, good mood, femininity and the level of sexuality. With their deficiency increases the likelihood of developing chronic fatigue syndrome, irritation, depression and other nervous disorders.
In the male body, the hormone is involved in oxygen metabolism, ejaculate secretion (sperm production), promoting blood clotting, improving the functionality of the cells of the nervous system, stimulating metabolic processes. The substance is synthesized as a result of a complex biosynthetic process for converting testosterone isolated from cholesterol and androstenedione.
The role of estradiol in the female body
Estradiol is a biologically active substance that, along with other types of estrogen (estrone and estriol), are produced in the ovaries from testosterone. Estrogen production is regulated by pituitary hormones (gonadotropins). Under the influence of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland) in the first phase of the menstrual cycle in the ovaries begins the maturation of follicles with eggs. The largest of them (dominant) produces estrogen. Their content reaches a maximum at the time of ovulation, that is, the release of the finished egg from the follicular membrane.
In the next phase of the cycle, under the influence of LH (luteinizing hormone of the pituitary gland), a corpus luteum forms on the place of the released egg in the follicle. It produces progesterone - a hormone necessary to ensure the normal course of the fertilization process. The predominance of progesterone leads to a decrease in the content of estradiol in the blood. If the pregnancy does not occur, then the endometrium (the mucous membrane of the uterus, designed to secure the embryo) is rejected. Menstruation occurs, after which the cycle repeats.
In the female body, this hormone performs the following functions:
- Ensures the normal development and functioning of the genitals. Under the influence of this substance is the formation of the endometrium and, accordingly, the flow of the menstrual cycle.
- Promotes the formation of the mammary glands, the formation of alveoli in them, ducts and the vascular system.
- Participates in the regulation of metabolism, the processes of assimilation of useful elements, the formation of bone, muscle, nervous and vascular tissues. Due to this, the formation of the female physique is formed, there are characteristic features of the physical condition and psyche that distinguish women from men.
- Strengthens attraction to the opposite sex. Increasing the level of this hormone at the time of ovulation contributes to the fact that during this period, when the probability of fertilization is maximum, a woman is the most sexually active.
- Regulates blood clotting, preventing the occurrence of bleeding during menstruation and childbirth.
On the content of estradiol in the body depends on how young and attractive woman looks, as well as her physical endurance, the state of the nervous system, the ability to bear children.
Blood estradiol levels
Normal is the average content of this hormone, in which the body functions normally in accordance with age, there are no deviations in sexual development and reproductive health. Each woman has individual hereditary features of physical development, which can affect the indicators of the norm of the content of hormones in the blood.
The rate of estradiol varies not only depending on age, but also during the month due to the flow of the menstrual process. In addition, during pregnancy, the normal rate increases significantly.
Estradiol in adolescents
This hormone begins to be produced in a girl after birth. By the age of 10-11, his level is already quite high, which leads to the appearance of the first sexual characteristics and the beginning of puberty. The girl begins the first menstruation, the mammary glands are enlarged, the shape changes, and sexual desire develops. If estradiol production does not correspond to normal values, this leads to impaired sexual and physical development.
Estradiol during pregnancy
If pregnancy occurs after ovulation, then the corpus luteum along with progesterone begins to produce intensely the estrogens necessary for the growth and development of the fetus and the preparation of a woman's body for childbirth. Until week 12, the corpus luteum plays a major role in the production of estrogens. Then it begins to be produced by the placenta, and at later stages - by the adrenal glands of the fetus. The content in the blood increases not only estradiol, but also estriol. By the end of pregnancy, the figure reaches a maximum.
The lack of estrogen during this period can lead to various complications, such as the appearance of edema, late toxicosis, retardation of fetal development, abortion. There is a decrease in blood clotting, which causes dangerous bleeding during childbirth.
Estradiol during menopause
With the onset of menopause, when the stock of eggs is depleted, the production of estrogen (estradiol and estrone) in the ovaries decreases markedly. This leads to the appearance of signs of aging (withering of the skin, deterioration of hair, nails, teeth), the gradual cessation of menstruation.
Symptoms such as bone fragility, a decrease in the thickness of the mucous membrane that protects the surface of the vagina from damage and creates a barrier to infection appear. There are symptoms of deterioration of the nervous system (hot flashes, headaches, insomnia), problems arise in the work of the heart and blood vessels, libido decreases.
Causes and signs of hormone deficiency
With a lack of this hormone, menstrual irregularities appear (menstruation may stop altogether), fertility decreases, appearance deteriorates, irritability appears, and a constant feeling of fatigue. Disruption of the hormonal background contributes to the occurrence of endocrine diseases. The probability of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genital organs increases.
The reason for the violation can be:
- Genetic abnormalities that cause underdevelopment of the genitals and mammary glands, the appearance of external signs of hormonal disruption (irregular structure of certain parts of the body, low growth). At the same time, hormone replacement therapy is used to make the face more feminine and to improve health.
- Sharp decrease in body weight. Fasting to lose weight often leads to beriberi, which primarily affects the pituitary and reproductive system of the body. Estradiol is also produced by adipose tissue, the absence of which leads to a drop in its level. After recovery of body weight, the state of the body returns to normal.
- Psycho-emotional stress, physical overload. They lead to the occurrence of hormonal failure. At the same time, the functioning of the ovaries is disturbed, and the maturation of the follicles is suspended. Estradiol production decreases sharply. Menstruation may stop altogether. Sharply reduced the probability of conception.
- Excess prolactin in the body (hyperprolactinemia). Prolactin is also produced in the pituitary gland; it can suppress the production of gonadotropins. This occurs when a pituitary tumor (prolactinoma) appears. Symptoms such as the formation of milk in the breast that is not associated with postpartum feeding, the appearance of facial hair, menstrual irregularities and infertility appear. Bromocriptine (a drug that suppresses prolactin production) is prescribed to correct the disorder. In some cases, the tumor is removed surgically.
- Impaired pituitary function after radiation therapy or exposure to infection. It occurs as a result of complete or partial cessation of blood supply to the pituitary gland, which leads to hormonal disorder. При этом прекращаются менструации, уменьшается размер молочных желез, выпадают волосы в области лобка и подмышек. Наблюдаются нарушения в работе различных органов.If the pituitary gland is partially damaged, replacement therapy is performed to correct hormonal levels.
- Early ovarian depletion. It may be of a genetic nature or occur after exposure to the pelvic organs. As a result, an early menopause occurs (at 35-38 years old) with all its inherent symptoms. Conception and birth of a child in a natural way becomes impossible. To relieve symptoms, estrogen therapy is given. And it is possible to have a baby only using the IVF method.
- Taking certain medications, such as hormonal drugs to suppress ovulation and COC, which inhibit the production of gonadotropic hormones, as well as drugs used during chemotherapy.
A warning: Smoking, alcohol abuse also leads to a drop in the level of estradiol in the blood and the emergence of its effects. The cause is the effect of toxins on the brain and organs of the endocrine system.
In some cases, with a lack of estradiol, it is recommended to change the nature of the diet, eat foods high in this hormone (legumes, grains, and others), as well as vitamins C, E, and group B, which improve the functioning of the ovaries and other endocrine organs.
Causes and signs of excess estradiol
Elevated estradiol is not a pathology only during pregnancy.
Signs of excess in the body can include dry skin and brittle hair, fatigue, obesity, uterine bleeding, tenderness of the mammary glands, irritability, inability to become pregnant, and disorders of the digestive system. The combination of such signs is the reason for the survey of women on the content of hormones in the blood.
Complications are depression, anemia, the occurrence of tumors of the ovaries and mammary glands. If an excess of estradiol occurs in girls, this leads to too early puberty. In the reproductive age, there are failures of the menstrual cycle, there are heavy bleeding. Late onset of menopause, the presence of bleeding after menopause, the absence of age-related signs of aging can also speak of such a violation.
Causes of excessive formation of estradiol are diseases of the liver and thyroid gland, a sharp increase in body weight with improper diet. Depletion of the body also leads to hormonal disorders. Treatment with estrogen-containing drugs or anticonvulsants causes similar effects.
Sometimes an excess of a hormone is formed when there are estrogen-producing tumors (carcinomas) or ovarian cysts in the body. It can be formed due to hyperandrogenism - an increased content in the body of a woman of male sex hormones, from which it is formed. The signs are baldness of the head, hair growth and the formation of a male-shaped body, lack of menstruation and infertility.
If necessary, reducing the level of estradiol in the blood takes into account the cause of the excess. Drug treatment with hormones or surgical removal of ovarian tumors.
Diagnosis of violations of the estradiol standard
If there are signs of violations of the norm, such as menstrual failure, infertility, improper puberty, the onset of early menopause, and others, an analysis of the content of estradiol in the blood is indicated.
For this, blood is taken from a vein. Women of reproductive age usually pass it on the 2-4 day of the menstrual cycle. Blood for analysis taken in the morning, on an empty stomach. Before the analysis for 2 days, it is prohibited to take any hormonal drugs and drugs that affect the production of estrogen. You must stop smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages.
The most important and active sex hormone belongs to the estrogen group. The main percentage of the important regulator produces the follicular unit of the ovaries, a small proportion - the adrenal cortex.
The concentration of steroid hormone in the cycle period reaches peak values twice: in the period from 24 to 36 hours before the onset of ovulation and on day 9 after the release of the mature follicle. Preparations based on the important sex hormone are used to eliminate negative symptoms in polycystic ovaries, dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea. A positive result was observed in the treatment of diseases developing on the background of insufficient production of estrogens.
Functions and role of the hormone
The high activity of the female hormone affects many systems and internal organs:
- strengthens the vascular wall
- responsible for the timely and correct formation of genitals,
- promotes good blood flow in the tissues of the uterus,
- supports optimal mineral metabolism in bone tissue, prevents the development of osteoporosis,
- stabilizes the nervous system,
- contributes to the formation of figures with characteristic female outlines,
- affects the thickness of the endometrium, provides an optimal growth of the cells of the inner layer of the uterus,
- normalizes blood clotting,
- provides for the accumulation of a sufficient amount of subcutaneous fat,
- maintains optimal water-salt balance,
- reduces the rate of accumulation of harmful cholesterol,
- enhances the regeneration of bones, blood vessels, muscles,
- maintains the proportion of hormones in all phases of the cycle.
What and how to treat adnexitis in women? View a selection of effective treatment options for inflammatory disease.
About the rate of progesterone hormone in women on the 21st day of the cycle, read about the causes and symptoms of deviation indicators at this address.
Norm in women
In childbearing age, the values of active estrogen depend on the phase of the cycle:
- the first days after the onset of menstruation, the period of maturation of the follicles - from 68 pmol / l to 1269 pmol / l,
- ovulation time - the level is higher than on other days: from 131 pmol / l to 1365 pmol / l,
- the period after ovulation, the second phase of the cycle - estradiol values range from 91 pmol / l to 861 pmol / l.
With the decline of sexual and reproductive function, the rate of estradiol decreases. In women during menopause, acceptable values are at the level of 71 pmol / l or less.
Causes and symptoms of deviations
When evaluating the results of the analysis, it is important to take into account the period of the menstrual cycle and the age of the woman. During menopause, the ovaries and adrenal glands function less actively, the production of hormones, including estradiol, decreases. During pregnancy, the values of the most active steroid hormone increase, which is the norm.
To understand why the level of estradiol is above or below the standard values should be a gynecologist. During the period of diagnosis, often consult a qualified endocrinologist.
An insufficient level of the female hormone negatively affects the menstrual cycle, the level of fertility, psycho-emotional balance, and the functioning of internal organs. Nervousness, mood swings, irritability, insomnia, excessive thinness, general weakness, fluctuations in the menstrual cycle are characteristic signs of a decrease in the indices of an important regulator. Passion for fashionable diets, a critical lack of fat in the body provokes serious problems with the functioning of the reproductive system, disrupts the brain.
- development of prolactinomas of the pituitary gland - a hormone-producing tumor,
- nervous and physical overload
- excessive carbohydrate intake, lack of fat in the diet,
- exhaustion with poor nutrition or active weight loss on the background of diets,
- rarely consumption of meat, eggs, fish,
- congenital abnormalities of the pituitary gland,
- violation of terms of puberty (later than normal),
- high probability of spontaneous abortion,
- malformations of the uterus and appendages,
- frequent fasting and diet.
High hormone levels
Some women believe that the more estrogen the body produces, the lower the risk of malfunction in the reproductive system. This opinion is erroneous: an excess of estradiol indicates a serious disturbance in the work of the ovaries, the thyroid gland, the tumor process in the appendages and the uterus. Elevated rates are normal only for pregnant women (from 2,000 to 26,000 pg / ml).
When there is an excess of active estrogen, pain appears in the mammary glands, sweating increases, weight rises rapidly, mood often changes, digestive organs suffer. A characteristic feature of increased estradiol in women is irregular menstruation, a change in the nature of monthly bleeding.
The reasons for the high rates of the most active estrogen:
- severe obesity
- malfunction of the ovaries, violation of the maturation of follicles,
- the development of severe liver disease,
- appearance of estrogen-producing tumors in the cavity of the ovaries and uterus,
- negative changes in the thyroid gland,
- a follicular ovarian cyst has formed,
- identified endometriosis.
Analyzes show elevated or decreased estradiol values? It is necessary to begin complex treatment without delay. It is important to change the way of life, review the diet, get rid of bad habits. Diets should remain in the past, the best option - a balanced diet.
Recommendations for increasing the concentration of estradiol:
- with a small deviation of the level of the hormone from the norm, a positive result gives the reception of plant means. A high percentage of phytoestrogens contain the following names: flaxseed, red clover, alfalfa, sage. It is useful to eat apples, meat, turkey, lean fish, peas, soybeans and beans. During therapy, it is necessary to sharply limit the consumption of fried foods, smoked meats, white bread, muffins, chocolates, halva,
- with a significant decrease in the important regulator, the doctor selects the hormonal compounds: Estradiol valerate and Estradiol dipropionate. A woman receives 1 or 2 mg of the synthetic component every 24 hours.
Recommendations for reducing estradiol levels:
- use coffee less often
- give up smoking and liquor,
- stabilize the work of the digestive organs,
- reduce anxiety and irritability, receive sedatives,
- use more foods high in fiber and valuable fatty acids. Useful olive and flaxseed oils, leafy greens, oatmeal, vegetables, red fish, flaxseed,
- to stabilize weight with the help of physical exercises, proper nutrition, normalization of psycho-emotional state, daily regimen.
View a selection of effective treatments for cyst in the ovary in women without surgery.
Read about the functions of the adrenal glands in the body, as well as the hormones produced by the steam gland, at this address.
At http://vse-o-gormonah.com/hormones/testosonon/preparaty-dlya-povyshenija.html learn how to increase testosterone levels in men with drugs.
When to take an analysis
The doctor sends a woman to the laboratory to clarify the nature of the pathology in the presence of negative manifestations:
- the patient complains of significant discomfort during menopausal or premenstrual syndrome,
- need to confirm or refute the suspicion of infertility,
- during pregnancy there are signs indicating a high risk of miscarriage,
- monthly bleeding irregular, too scarce or heavy,
- According to the results of ultrasound, the doctor detects negative changes in the tissues of the placenta,
- in the uterus or appendages the tumor process takes place,
- special tests and conducting densitometry confirms the development of osteoporosis,
- outside the menstruation period, a woman will observe uterine bleeding or minor bleeding,
- puberty began earlier or later.
The gynecologist sends to the laboratory for analysis on estradiol after the onset of ovulation, in the second phase of the cycle.
Preparing for blood sampling
- Do not use oral contraceptives for two weeks prior to analysis. The exact interval is determined by the gynecologist, taking into account the type of drugs and the condition of the woman,
- sex is prohibited for two days before the analysis,
- alcohol intake, heavy exercise is not recommended for 24 hours before the study,
- smoking allowed for 6-7 hours prior to analysis,
- it is desirable to exclude nerve overloads not only on the day of blood collection, but also on the previous day,
- from the evening you need to eat loosely, in the morning eating and receiving liquid is prohibited,
- tablets can also be drunk after taking venous blood,
- A visit to the laboratory is scheduled in the morning, not later than 11 hours.
More useful information about what is estradiol, what is the role and importance of steroid hormone for the female and male body, the rate and reasons for the deviation of active estrogen will tell a specialist in the following video:
What are the functions of estradiol
The biologically active substance is produced by both female and male body, the only difference is in concentration. Therefore, the functions of a substance can be divided into two groups: those that are performed in the body, regardless of gender, and those that are unique to the female body.
Common functions for women and men are:
- regulation of the circulatory system,
- bladder activity
- intestinal motility,
- skeletal muscle work
- ensuring the strength of the skeleton,
- stress relief
- participation in metabolic processes.
With the onset of puberty girls female hormone when it enters the blood, she begins to show secondary sexual characteristics: breast growth, roundness of the figure, high timbre of the voice, formation of the uterus, proper functioning of the sex glands. Estradiol in women is involved in the regulation of the menstrual cycle, affects the maturation of the egg, prepares the uterus for possible pregnancy.
Estradiol is rightly called hormone beauty. In addition to providing metabolic processes, performing reproductive function, it has a strong effect on the nervous system and skin condition.
Under the influence of the normal hormonal background, the female skin becomes soft, velvety, wrinkles are smoothed, the complexion improves, and the shine appears in the eyes. The female hormone improves mood, increases efficiency, helps the female body to resist stress.
What is the reason for the increase in estradiol
All hormones must be present in the blood in a certain amount, female hormone estradiol concentration not an exception. The amount of this steroid hormone depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle, age-related changes. The norm indicators are as follows:
- 57-227 pg / ml in the follicular phase,
- 127-476 pg / ml in the period of ovulation,
- 77-227 pg / ml in the luteal phase,
- 19-80 pg / ml during menopause.
If, after ovulation, the indicators remain maximum, it is likely that the pregnancy has occurred. In other cases, an increased concentration indicates pathological processes in a woman's body. Among them:
- liver disease,
- the presence of a tumor
- ovarian cysts,
- sharp decrease in body weight.
Increasing the concentration of a substance can be caused by drinking alcohol, prolonged medication. Long-term excess of the norm leads to complications in the form of depression, bleeding, tumors, infertility, anemia. With timely treatment of these effects can be avoided.
How is the decrease in the amount of estradiol
A prolonged decrease in the concentration of the hormone in the body of a woman of childbearing age also leads to serious disturbances in the body. First of all, they are associated with problems in the menstrual cycle, as a result of which pregnancy does not occur. Reducing the amount of hormone affects the state of the musculoskeletal system (bones become fragile), problems arise in the work of the cardiovascular system.
Low Estradiol Interpretation:
- luteal phase hormone deficiency
- pituitary nanism,
- viril syndrome,
- chronic inflammation of the internal genital organs,
- Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome.
A woman becomes irritable, she shows signs of premature aging (hair falls out, wrinkles appear, dry skin is observed). After testing, the appointment of hormone therapy by the attending physician, the concentration rises, and the rate is restored. This is facilitated by the organization of proper nutrition, vitamin therapy, sex life.
Research Material: Venous Blood
Control of hormonal levels will help to avoid deviations in the activities of the body and possible pathologies. To determine the hormone in the blood should be passed on an empty stomach venous blood. In order to obtain accurate results, it is necessary to refrain from physical overload, the use of alcoholic beverages, sexual contacts, smoking. Submission of the analysis should crawl for 3-5 days of the menstrual cycle or 20-21.
The effect of estradiol on the body weight of a woman
Estradiol is responsible for more than four hundred functions. Starting from a flowering appearance to normal sexual reactions and childbearing function. The hormone begins to function during puberty before menopause.
Often, the loss of a hormone leads to the fact that more fat is formed in the abdominal cavity and internal organs, and the ability to regenerate to muscles deteriorates.
In the young female body it is much more, with age, the amount of the substance decreases. К наиболее важным последствиям гормональных возрастных изменений относятся:
- the amount of adipose tissue increases significantly,
- muscle tissue loses tone and collapses
- the thyroid gland is disturbed,
- sleep disorder occurs.
Estradiol - important steroid hormone, which affects the health of women in general and the reproductive system in particular. Any deviation from the norm for a long time is an indicator pathological processes in the body, the cause of which must be sought through a comprehensive survey.
The only exception is pregnancy, upon the occurrence of which the level of the hormone rises. He performs over four hundred functions in a woman's bodytherefore, it is necessary to monitor the blood level of the biologically active substance with the help of a laboratory blood test.
Estradiol: the main tasks in the female body
Estradiol is extremely necessary for women for normal operation of both the reproductive system and the whole body. For example, estradiol helps to activate the contractile function of the myocardium, strengthen the vascular walls and reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood.
Also, this hormone increases the tone of the smooth muscle fibers of the intestinal wall and bladder, which improves the work of these organs.
In addition to smooth muscles, estradiol has a positive effect on the activity of skeletal muscles, contributing to their regular contraction and relaxation. Thus, endurance and resistance to stresses of a human body increases, and the body becomes elastic.
In addition to a good mood, estradiol helps women to be beautiful and sexy. This is explained by the fact that this hormone makes it possible to manifest secondary sexual characteristics, such as a rounded chest, steep thighs, thin waist, smooth skin, soft voice, etc. Also, significant significance of estradiol is noted in the formation of libido.
In the process of numerous medical studies, estradiol has been proven to help maintain a taut body shape and body weight. For example, in women of menopausal age, as a result of a decrease in the level of estradiol in the blood, there is often a problem of overweight and bone fragility.
The important role of estradiol plays a role in creating favorable conditions for fertilization, loosening the endometrium so that the successful implantation of the zygote occurs.
Estradiol and the menstrual cycle: the relationship
Estradiol is synthesized and released into the blood throughout the entire monthly cycle, only in different quantities. Its synthesis occurs in the ovaries, the cortical substance of the adrenal glands and adipose tissue, during pregnancy - in the fetal place.
During the follicular phase of the monthly cycle, estradiol is produced in a minimal amount, under the influence of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones. Before the ovulatory phase, the amount of the hormone increases threefold, after which it decreases, reaching a minimum level before the monthly ones.
Estradiol during the monthly cycle can turn into estrone and estriol.
Also, the level of estradiol in women varies with each hour of the day. The greatest amount of hormone is synthesized between 15 and 18 hours of the day, and the smallest - between 24 and 2 hours of the night.
Factors affecting the level of estradiol in the body
Once again I want to say that the norms of the hormone estradiol in women can change when exposed to various factors, namely:
- phase of the menstrual cycle
- climate change,
- weight fluctuation
- harmful environmental factors
- psycho-emotional shock
- bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking),
Each of these facts, as a rule, causes fluctuations in the level of estradiol in the blood within the permissible limits.
Blood test for estradiol
In the analysis of blood, the level of this hormone is usually displayed in picogrammes per milliliter (pc / ml), but this indicator can also be expressed in picomoles per liter (pmol / l).
A blood test for estradiol is prescribed by specialists in such cases as:
- hormonal failure in the body, resulting in a broken monthly cycle,
- lack of ovulation
- disruption of the gonads,
- recurrent uterine bleeding not related to the menstrual cycle,
- pronounced manifestations of premenstrual syndrome,
- failure of the pituitary gland,
- polycystic ovaries,
- bone fragility,
- ovarian neoplasms,
- adrenal neoplasms,
- preparation for in vitro fertilization.
In order for the result of a blood test for estradiol to be the most objective, in preparing for the study, it is necessary to adhere to the following recommendations:
- 2-3 days before the study is not recommended to pass,
- 24 hours before blood sampling, limit physical and mental stress,
- 24 hours exclude sex
- 24 hours before blood sampling it is forbidden to smoke and drink alcohol,
- If you are taking any medications, warn the doctor who prescribed the study. In this case, the issue of temporary discontinuation of drugs may be considered, since they may distort the results of the estradiol study,
- The last meal should be no later than 12 hours before blood collection. The analysis is carried out strictly on an empty stomach.
The optimal time for blood sampling is 8-11 am. Blood is taken from the cubital vein in the amount of 5-10 ml.
Waiting for the result of a blood test for estradiol can take from three to seven days. In case of emergency, the result may be ready five hours after blood collection.
Estradiol: the norm in women
Table of norms of estradiol in women by age.
In addition to age, phases of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy affect estradiol in the blood.
The norms of estradiol in the phases of the menstrual cycle are as follows.
- Follicular phase - from 68 to 1265 pmol / l.
- Ovulatory phase - from 130 to 1657 pmol / l.
- The phase of the corpus luteum is from 90 to 860 pmol / l.
When menopause, the amount of estradiol in the blood is lowered and averages 50 pc / ml.
The rate of estradiol in pregnancy depends on the trimester, namely:
- in the first - from 210 to 6300 pc / ml,
- in the second - from 800 to 19000 pc / ml,
- in the third - from 11,800 to 37,000 pc / ml.
Estradiol and testosterone: the ratio
When evaluating the results of a study on the sexual hormonal panel, experts evaluate not only the absolute values of the estradiol index, but also its relationship with other hormones (prolactin, progesterone, testosterone).
The most significant in assessing women's health is the ratio of estradiol and testosterone, which normally should be 10: 1, but also an acceptable ratio of 7: 1. That is, the result for hormones, in which the estradiol level is higher than testosterone by 7-10 times, testifies to the normal activity of the female body.
In cases where the estradiol level is higher than testosterone by only five times or less, then a similar condition in medicine is called hyperandrogenism.
Symptoms of hyperandrogenism can be the following:
- violation of the menstrual cycle,
- unreasonable weight gain,
- change in voice timbre from high to lower.
Also distinguish such a condition as hypoandrogenesis, when the level of estradiol is much higher than testosterone (12 times or more). The following signs are characteristic of a hypoadrogemia:
- manifestation of premenstrual syndrome,
- abundant periods,
- the appearance of bleeding in the middle of the cycle.
Estradiol with menopause
Climax in women falls on the age of 45-55 years, although it happens before.
When menopause in women, there is a decline in reproductive function and a decrease in estrogen levels, in particular estradiol, which manifests itself in disorders of the sexual sphere and the functioning of all body systems.
Among the climacteric signs most often occur such as:
- violation of the menstrual cycle with subsequent termination of menstruation,
- urinary incontinence,
- decrease in sexual desire
- dry vaginal mucosa,
- emotional lability
- bone fragility.
Also, with menopause, the appearance of hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular lesions and other diseases of the cardiovascular system.
When evaluating the result of a blood test for estradiol in a woman who is in menopause, the specialist considers the following factors:
- how old is a woman
- what is the duration of menopause
- health complaints
- the presence of diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, endocrine and other systems.
With menopause, all women have low estradiol levels in the blood.
Causes, Symptoms and Treatment of Low Estradiol
The most common reason for lowering estradiol levels is medication, including oral hormonal contraceptives and chemotherapy drugs. Most often, a similar adverse reaction is observed in the following drugs:
Also, a decrease in the amount of estradiol in the blood can be caused by a high-carb or low-fat diet, vegetarianism, alcohol abuse and menopause. Among the diseases that most often lead to a decrease in this indicator, it is necessary to distinguish polycystic ovarian disease and chronic inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs.
The symptoms of low estradiol in the blood are as follows:
- acne on the face
- dry skin
- constant feeling of tiredness
- feeling cold in the upper and lower limbs,
- appearance of hair on the face, chest, abdomen and buttocks,
- failure of the menstrual cycle
- anovulatory cycle
- propensity for diarrhea,
- breast tenderness,
- insomnia or sleepiness
- decrease in sexual desire.
The diagnosis and treatment of estradiol deficiency in women is performed by a gynecologist together with an endocrinologist.
Treatment of low estradiol in the blood of women of childbearing age is hormone replacement therapy. Estrofem, Proginova, Estradiol and Estderm TTS 25 are highly effective in this case.
In addition to drug therapy, experts recommend that you follow a diet with a predominance of protein foods and enhance their sex life.
Causes, symptoms and treatment of elevated estradiol
Estradiol is higher than normal during pregnancy. But also high rates of this hormone can be a consequence of various diseases, namely:
- benign and malignant neoplasms of the ovaries,
- polycystic ovaries,
- liver failure,
- chronic alcoholism,
- mammary gland neoplasms.
In addition, an increased level of estradiol is often observed as a side effect of some drugs, including hormonal oral contraceptives, anticonvulsants, and fungicides.
Suspected increased blood estradiol by the following features:
- too short or long periods,
- painful periods,
- breast tenderness and tenderness,
- sleep disturbance,
- hair loss,
- emotional lability
- violation of the bowel.
Treatment is primarily aimed at eliminating the cause, but if it is not normalized indicator of estradiol, then hormone preparations are prescribed. It is also important to normalize the regime of the day, enough to relax, protect yourself from stress and eat right.
Watch a video about estradiol.
What is the hormone estradiol in the female body? What is estradiol and why women need it.
The hormone estradiol performs important functions in the body and women often have a question about what kind of compound.
Why is it so important to control hormones and what signs may indicate disturbances in the endocrine system?
In girls, this element is produced in the ovaries. In the pubertal period, the hormone plays the role of a “builder”, due to it secondary sexual characteristics appear, and the uterus and ovaries develop in accordance with age.
Each hormone has its own specifics and a clearly defined role in the body. One of the main characteristics that determine hormones is that they bind to a specific cellular receptor to trigger a reaction. There is a close relationship between all components of the endocrine system working together in harmony sensitive and secretion of a hormone disrupting a particular will affect the entire system. Interestingly, most of these hormones that can be converted to other hormones depending on the needs of the body.
This is how nature supports hormonal balance. The entire endocrine system can have a significant impact on your ability to enjoy good health. Studies show that most adults have significantly lower levels of several major hormones around the age of 40 years.
It is also responsible for the functioning of the cardiovascular system and acts on smooth muscles.
The intensity of the production of the hormone estradiol in the body of a girl is directly dependent on the phase of the menstrual cycle.
In the first phase, follicular cells and ovaries are responsible for the production of estradiol (in insignificant volume). Adipose tissue is also involved in the production of a component in the body.
Each of them has a well-defined, but synergistic interaction with other hormones to form a sensitive balance. Over the years, these symptoms worsen, the relationship between them and hormone levels are becoming more and more obvious. Hormone levels affect visible physiological functions, sexual and cognitive, psychological complications often. Until recently, these changes were not accepted as part of “aging”.
Male Climax - Andropause
Traditional medicine tends to neglect hormonal imbalances that develop with age in men and women. The common denominator in all age-related symptoms? Decreased hormone levels. Both men and women feel the phenomenon of menopause. Male menopause is more subtle than the female counterpart. The decrease caused by androgens, male menopause usually begins at the age of about 40, testosterone levels have decreased by about 2% - 3% per year, at the age of 30 years.
In the second phase of the menstrual cycle, the indicators decrease and by the time of the onset of menstrual bleeding, the hormone concentration reaches initial values.
During the period when the baby is born, the level of estradiol in the mother's body increases, and the placenta also starts producing hormone from 2-3 weeks.
By the time of the natural outcome of pregnancy (childbirth), the content reaches the limit values, these indicators gradually return to normal within 6 months after the birth of the baby.
Both sexes struggle with the same symptoms: decreased interest in sex, vaginal dryness in women and facilities are weaker than men, cardiovascular problems, changes in body composition, weight gain, osteoporosis, cognitive decline, fatigue, depression, changes in emotional irritability and anxiety, pain and stiffness.
Reducing testosterone imbalance is most important for older people. Erectile disorders, reduced beard growth, accumulation of fat, muscle and bone mass reduction, and the appearance of the breast are all signs of low testosterone levels. In addition, with age, men of the body increase the conversion of testosterone to estrogen and often observe the following situation: a person, as a rule, found at the age of about 50 years, may have more estrogen than women of the same age, in postmenopausal women, this actually causes symptoms such as gynecomastia, decreased libido, loss of energy, loss of muscle mass and fat accumulation, emotional disorders, and an increased risk of developing cardiovascular pathologies.
Under the influence of changes occur in the body:
- the voice becomes high and more ringing,
- the figure acquires a feminine shape (buttocks and thighs, chest stand out),
- hair begins to grow in the groin
- libido increases,
- skin integuments become more vulnerable and sensitive
- blood clotting increases.
The presence of these manifestations ascertain women with normal and elevated levels of the hormone estradiol.
In men, testosterone levels can help reduce the weakness of the heart muscle. Testosterone is not only responsible for maintaining the synthesis of the protein of the heart muscle, but also contributes to the dilatation of the coronary arteries and helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels in the blood. Perhaps this is why a growing number of studies show the link between high testosterone levels and low levels of cardiovascular diseases in men.
Conventional medical approach
Traditional medicine recognizes that hormonal imbalances cause profound changes in the normal aging process and the approach is more likely to alleviate the symptoms without considering the causes, so traditionally you will not get the proper level of the hormone test. Standard references to the insulin and estrogen ranges are so great that most people are in the so-called “normal category”. Standard references to ranges indicate that dangerously high levels of insulin and estrogen are “normal” in older men.
This hormone is produced, regardless of gender, in equal quantities until puberty.
The decrease in the intensity of production of this hormone leads to irreversible consequences.
Therefore, we recommend a thorough evaluation with regular diagnoses. Our assessment as follows is precisely this diagnosis integrative approach. The focus is on detecting and uncovering the insufficiency of unique strengths. Completion of the questionnaire - includes items related to symptoms related to hormonal imbalance and decline, as well as issues related to lifestyle, nutrition and sports. We are looking for certain symptoms: loss of muscle mass, cardiovascular problems, fatigue, decreased libido, weight gain, mood changes, cognitive impairment, and erectile and chest disorders. Estradiol - the female hormone of fertility, is the main representative of estrogen. Under the influence of estrogen, girls become women during puberty, but they have many other roles in the body. Testosterone is essential for sexual function, but has many other roles. With receptors in the brain, heart, and body, this steroid hormone plays an important role for both men and women in maintaining body weight, skin elasticity, libido, immune system health, bone growth, and anabolic functions. Free testosterone is a biologically active fraction of testosterone Cortisol - "Stress Hormone", is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands. Among its functions: it affects the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, helps regulate blood pressure, improves the integrity of blood vessels and affects the activity of the immune system. Dehydroepiandrosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland. It has the function of the prohormone, which serves as a precursor to the sex hormones testosterone and estradiol, but it also acts as a hormone itself, which has a regulating effect on several areas of our metabolism. Thyroid hormones are hormones that are involved in almost every physiological process, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature and heart rate. Prostate-specific antigen is released into the bloodstream of the prostate, being the most important marker in screening for prostate cancer and is useful for screening and monitoring this condition. It is also very important for men. . You will receive a hormone profile report along with the test results and, if applicable, a recommendation to follow the age management program to help you get the situation under control.
If you suspect a change in hormonal levels, be sure to get tested.
After the onset of menstruation, the production of estradiol in girls increases.
Indications for examination
The doctor prescribes a laboratory test in the following cases:
- With instability of the menstrual cycle and the absence of ovulation for 2-3 months.
- If there is suspicion of the formation of ovarian tumors.
- The presence of violations in the adrenal glands.
- If you suspect female infertility.
A comprehensive examination is also required if the following pathologies are suspected or detected:
Regardless of your hormonal profile, a personalized hormone optimization program, individual nutrition, nutritional supplements and regular exercise will meet your specific needs. The synergy between the components of age management will lead to the physical, emotional and mental consequences not only of the andropause, but also the consequences of all the phenomena commonly called "aging".
Ovulation - the ovulation of the ovary - is the most important event of the fertile cycle. It occurs only once at a time in the cycle, even if several eggs are emitted. The ovulatory mechanism also produces two hormones of the ovary, estradiol and progesterone.
- Polycystic ovary.
- Pituitary failure.
- Fertility decline.
- Before conducting IVF.
Estradiol indicators differ not only in contrast to the period of the menstrual cycle, but also depending on the age and lifestyle of the girl.
Estradiol levels peak before delivery. Normal for the follicular stage, the indicators in this case increase 120 times.
Estradiol is produced only by the follicle, which develops before ovulation, It stimulates the cervix, and then secretes a certain type of mucus, which is necessary for sperm to compress the cervix and reach the egg. Estradiol also stimulates the growth of the endometrium of the uterus.
Cyclic changes in ovarian activity are controlled by the secretion of two hormones by the pituitary gland: follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinized hormone. Since the dominant follicle dominates ovulation, it produces more estradiol.
The highest symptoms of mucus production with fertile characteristics are observed on the day of the peak of estradiol, preceding the peak of symptoms of mucus and ovulation. The rapid change after mucus-like symptoms seems very close to ovulation and is associated with high progesterone production at this time. At the initial stage of menstruation in the absence of pregnancy is very predictable.
This condition is natural for a woman and does not require adjustment. On the contrary, the slow growth of this hormone in the period of carrying a baby is a cause for concern.
Hormonal background after childbirth normalizes on its own, special therapy is not required.
After ovulation, the luteal body, which is formed after the follicle breaks, produces progesterone and estradiol. Progesterone also prepares the endometrium prepared by estrogen for implantation of a fertilized egg. The Billings method uses changes in the production of cervical mucus, as the woman points out, to identify major events in the ovulatory cycle.
Novofem is indicated for postmenopausal women at least 6 months after the last physiological period. Norethisterone acetate is a synthetic progestogen that acts similarly to progesterone, another important female sex hormone. Relieve symptoms after menopause.
When to take the analysis - the doctor will tell.
How to pass the analysis?
Analysis of estradiol is important to pass in compliance with all the rules. The results of research can only be deciphered by a specialist, because the norms for women of different ages and with different health conditions are seriously different.
The concentration rate differs depending on the time of the cycle.
The amount of estrogen in a woman's body decreases during menopause. This can lead to the following symptoms: heat in the face, neck and chest. Novotem will only be prescribed for you if the symptoms of menopause seriously interfere with your daily life. After menopause, bones can become fragile for some women. Together with your doctor, you should discuss all available treatment options.
There are limited data on the use of this product in women over 65 years of age. Medical history and regular health check. Not enough data on the treatment of women with premenopausal women. Your doctor may decide to undergo a medical examination. This may include breast studies and intervention studies, if necessary.
Experts have different opinions on this: some argue that the analysis can be done exclusively on 4-6 or 20-21 days of the cycle, others assure that it is possible to determine the concentration of estradiol during the whole cycle, but during blood sampling the patient should check the exact day cycle.
Based on this, we can conclude that a lot depends on the clinic itself, which carries out the analyzes, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the features of the manipulation directly in the diagnostic institution.
According to the doctor's advice, a regular breast should be uncovered. If you have at least one of the following conditions. Breast cancer, You have or suspect you of cancer of the uterine mucosa or are suspected of having an estrogen-dependent tumor, You have unexplained vaginal bleeding, You had uterine mucous membranes, and you did not understand, You had or had a blood clot in leg or lung veins, you have a blood clotting disorder, you have had or had a history of a disease caused by blood clots in arteries, such as myocardial infarction, stroke or angina, you have had or had liver disease in the past, and liver function tests have changed were allergic to estradiol, norethisterone acetate or any other ingredient of this medicine, you have a rare family of blood diseases called porphyria. If so, you should consult with your doctor more often.
To obtain accurate indicators, it is essential to follow the main rules:
- 2-3 days before the analysis, you need to abandon the intense physical exertion.
- For the same period, rejection of sex is necessary.
- Stop eating fatty foods.
- Need to refrain from drinking alcohol.
- Restrict smoking.
To obtain accurate results, a woman is recommended to take an analysis on the 5-6 day of the cycle, and then repeat on the 20th day.
In case of an infectious disease, it is impossible to take such an analysis. Pathological process can cause distortion of indicators.
It is undesirable to pass the analysis after X-ray examination and isoterapevticheskogo procedures.
If such diagnostic techniques are necessary, you must first donate blood and then go for an examination.
Normal rates for women
The level of the hormone estradiol in women periodically varies in direct proportion to the phase of the menstrual cycle.
During the interpretation of the obtained indicators, it is necessarily taken into account on which day of the cycle an analysis was performed to check the content of the hormone.
Low hormonal levels are normal at the beginning and in the middle of the follicular phase, the indicators reach a maximum at the end of the cycle - the day before ovulation.
The indicators affect the time of day. The maximum values of the hormone appear between 15 and 18 hours.
Depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle, the data obtained during the survey may be as follows:
- follicular - 58-228 pg / ml,
- ovulatory - 129-477 pg / ml,
- luteal - 78-278 pg / ml,
- climax - less than 83 pg / ml.
During menopause, hormone production is significantly reduced. If estradiol is not produced in women, follicle formation slows down, eventually ovulation is absent.
This can lead not only to failures of the menstrual cycle, but also to the impossibility of conception.
Favorable outcome of pregnancy in this case is unlikely: with a low content of the hormone, the egg can not attach to the wall of the uterus, because of a miscarriage in the first weeks of pregnancy.
Deviations of indicators from the norm also lead to a violation of the psycho-emotional state of a woman.
The rate of estradiol in the blood during pregnancy is shown in the table:
What is Estradiol
Estradiol is a female hormone hormone. This type of hormone is in the group of steroid hormones, it has the greatest influence. The hormone estradiol has a special effect on the female body. It is because of it that girls have processes of formation of the reproductive system. In addition, it is necessary for the normal course of pregnancy and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. In men, the hormone balances testosterone, thereby ensuring balance. This hormone is synthesized mainly in the ovaries in women, the testes in men, and a small proportion, regardless of sex, is synthesized by the adrenal cortex. In addition, in pregnant women, this hormone is partially synthesized by the placenta.
Is estrogen and estradiol the same?
Many people who do not have sufficient medical knowledge believe that estrogen and estradiol are identical hormones, but this is not entirely true. Estrogens - the collective name of a whole set of steroid sex hormones, which consist of about twenty different hormones, while estradiol has a great influence. It is on the level of estradiol that doctors pay attention when treating patients with various violations of the cycle.
Not everyone knows that estradiol is responsible for:
- the formation and development of the organs of the female reproductive system,
- development of secondary sexual characteristics,
- adjustment and regulation of the menstrual cycle,
- egg growth,
- preparation of reproductive organs for pregnancy,
- stress resistance,
- maintaining youthful skin
Estradiol Content Analysis
In order to determine the amount of hormone in the body, it is necessary to examine the venous blood. Since the hormonal level in the body of a woman is different and depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle, it is customary to determine its content on the sixth - seventh day or the twentieth - twenty-first, with a standard 28 day cycle. If the duration of the menstrual cycle varies and does not have a fixed time, then the doctor will determine the optimal time for blood donation.
As with any blood test, it is necessary to properly prepare before giving blood for estradiol levels.
To do this, follow a number of rules:
- A few days before the analysis should exclude sex, heavy physical exertion, exercise.
- A day before the expected blood donation, stop drinking alcohol, food should be easily digestible, and nutrition balanced.
- Twelve hours before the analysis, exclude the use of any food. Allowed to drink water.
- The analysis should be carried out in the morning.
How to determine the rate of hormone
In order to evaluate the result obtained, it is necessary to compare the obtained indicator with the limits of the norm. You should be aware that the established normal values of estradiol are different for women of certain age groups who are in a certain phase of the menstrual cycle. Separate indicators allocate for pregnant women in different trimester of pregnancy.
The increased value of estradiol for quite a long time can be a symptom of serious diseases and conditions, for example:
- development of tumors in the body,
- cystic formations of the ovaries,
- liver diseases.
Sometimes, a high level of hormone is observed as a result of a sharp reduction in body weight. This situation is found in girls who follow a strict diet or have high physical exertion.
Symptoms of high estradiol in women:
- a sharp increase in body weight
- excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands,
- the appearance of acne,
- sweating, hair loss,
- unreasonable swelling,
For men, the increase in the hormone E2 leads to baldness, contributes to the appearance of fat on the chest, waist, hips, decrease in sexual activity.
The lowered level of E2 can be suspected by the following features:
- development of osteoporosis,
- excessive dryness of the skin and hair, alopecia, acne,
- lack of menstruation, or failure in the duration of the menstrual cycle,
- the appearance of edema,
- nervous system disorders, sleep disturbances, mood swings, aggressiveness, irritability,
- reducing the size of the uterus, mammary glands,
- development of persistent infertility.
For men, a low level of estradiol leads to the development of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, chronic prostatitis, and infertility.
How to normalize estradiol levels in women and men
A normal indicator of estradiol in men is considered to be the level from 16 to 72 pg / ml. When a patient’s blood test reveals a greater or lesser deviation from the norm, the doctor will choose the appropriate treatment tactics, which will depend on the reasons for this violation. Adjusting the level of estradiol is possible through the use of hormonal drugs, folk medicine, lifestyle changes.
To increase estradiol in women will help medication containing synthetic estradiol. The attending physician, on the basis of the results of the analyzes, will select the required concentration of the medicinal product, usually in their practice, doctors use such drugs as Proginova, Femoston, Kliogest, Divina. They are prescribed as replacement therapy for menopause, and the restoration of the required hormone concentration after oophorectomy - an operation to remove the ovaries.
Worth remembering! Independent use of hormonal drugs can lead to serious health problems and poor health.
In addition to traditional medicine, to increase the level of estradiol, popular methods of treatment are widely used, such as aromatherapy, intake of infusions and decoctions of medicinal herbs. Among them, receiving the decoction of sage, raspberry leaves, red clover, plantain seeds and cuff has the strongest effect.
When taking a variety of decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs, caution should be exercised, since the risk of allergic reactions is high.
In addition, with small deviations of the hormone level down, it is effective to carry out aromatherapy with lavender, anise or sage oils.
Также для нормализации гормонального фона необходимо пересмотреть образ жизни, а именно следует отказаться от приема алкоголя и табака, пересмотреть рацион в сторону увеличения доли растительной пищи богатой фитоэстрогенами. In addition, it is necessary to eliminate physical inactivity moderate, regular exercise, contribute to the normalization of hormonal and psychoemotional background.
General concepts about estradiol
The hormone estradiol belongs to the group of steroids, it produces the ovaries. The connection determines the formation and maturation of the reproductive system, the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics in women. In childhood, the quantitative indicators of the hormone in boys and girls are the same. However, as they grow older, its concentration in women increases significantly. Normally, in the stronger sex the amount of estradiol should remain at the same level.
So laid by nature that some regulatory compounds stimulate or block the synthesis of others. Aids in the production of estrogen are follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
Role in the body of estradiol
Hormone estradiol: what is it responsible for and what processes it affects? This compound has a truly huge impact on the female body. Under its influence changes occur in the reproductive system during puberty. At this stage, the mammary glands and uterus are enlarged, preparing for menstruation.
Under the influence of the connection, the girl has secondary sexual characteristics: the timbre of the voice increases, the waist becomes thinner, the hips increase, the hair in the groin and armpits grows, the skin changes - it becomes thinner and transparent. Often, estradiol is called responsible for beauty.
It has a huge impact on the reproductive function of women. Under his influence, the follicle forms and matures. And also with the help of estradiol, the uterus adapts to the embryo introduction: the epithelial layer of the organ proliferates (thickens), the vessels dilate, and blood circulation increases.
The hormones of the estrogen group have a powerful effect on the psycho-emotional state of a woman. Thanks to them, the mood improves, the efficiency increases. Coupled with testosterone, they are responsible for sexual attraction to the opposite sex. In the case when the level of these hormones decreases, depressions, frigidity, chronic fatigue, apathy or irritation over trifles can begin, from what the woman had not even paid attention to before.
In addition to these functions, estradiol lowers the concentration of cholesterol in the body, improves blood clotting. It enhances the metabolic processes in the bones, stimulating their growth.
In men, the body also has estradiol affecting the development of the female reproductive system, for which it is responsible, what role it plays, science is not known. Its testicles are produced, but the concentration of this compound is normally minimal.
Norm estradiol in the body
There is no clear limit for normal hormone levels in the blood. Values change depending on the phase of the menstruation cycle. If you do the analysis on the first day of your period, the level will be the lowest. Further, it gradually increases, reaching a high point several days before ovulation. After the egg leaves the follicle, the amount of estradiol gradually decreases until the next menstruation. In the case of pregnancy, there is no reduction.
If you look in more detail, estradiol varies depending on the phase of the cycle:
- follicle formation - from 57 to 227 pg / ml,
- ovulation - from 127 to 476 pg / ml,
- the phase of the corpus luteum - from 77 to 227 pg / ml.
Estradiol in men normally shows values in the range from 40 to 160 pg / ml.
If pregnancy occurs, the level of the hormone rises, the function of its production takes the placenta. The ovaries, directly their corpus luteum, at this time are occupied with the formation of progesterone. The concentration of estradiol with each week increases several times: at the beginning of pregnancy is 300 pg / ml, and by the end of the child's birth, its number is already 22 000 pg / ml.
After childbirth, the concentration of the hormone in the blood decreases sharply, and as a result, women often have depression.
During menopause, estradiol levels do not rise above 100 pg / ml, which is what caused the main changes in the body during this period.
Indications for determining the level of estradiol in the blood
The doctor may refer the patient for analysis to determine the concentration of estradiol in the blood in such cases:
- violation of the menstruation cycle,
- suspected tumors of the reproductive system,
- risk of miscarriage,
- uterine bleeding,
- endometrial growth (endometriosis),
- pathological development of the placenta,
- impaired puberty
Men can also be assigned to this analysis. Usually it is done in the case of gynecomastia - modifications of the male breast according to the female type.
The most correct way is to take blood in the morning, between 8 and 11 o'clock. After lunch, the hormone level increases, and the analysis will give a false result. The blood must be surrendered on an empty stomach, the day before smoking, alcohol, fatty foods, sexual contact and physical exertion are completely excluded. The day of taking the analysis is prescribed by the doctor. If the doctor does not have special wishes, blood is donated for 2-4 days of the cycle, and repeated for 20 days.
The importance of estradiol for women
Estradiol is the main hormone of women's health and beauty. It maintains the elasticity and smoothness of the skin, contributes to the deposition of adipose tissue on the female type (chest and thighs), the growth of the mammary glands and the formation of a thin waist.
Estradiol in women is responsible for the development of sexual characteristics. It contributes to:
- normal development of the vagina, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, mammary glands,
- growth in the fallopian tubes of the ciliary epithelium and its further full activity required for the fertilized egg to enter the uterus,
- the formation of "milk" ducts in the mammary glands,
- replacement of the cubic type epithelium in the vagina with a mature multilayered epithelium,
- pigmentation of the nipples and external genital organs,
- proper distribution of adipose tissue and hair growth on the female type,
- the rapid growth of long tubular bones and the further closure of their epiphyses,
- the establishment of the menstrual cycle
- shaping the female voice timbre.
In adult women, estradiol is responsible for:
- condition of hair and skin (its elasticity, smoothness and elasticity),
- slowing the aging process
- maintaining bone health (preventing early development of osteoporosis) and cardiovascular system (due to estrogenic activity in women before menopause, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, etc.) are usually not found,
- recycling the "bad" cholesterol NP and ONP ,
- an increase in the body's "good" cholesterol VP, responsible for maintaining the high elasticity of blood vessels and preventing the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels,
- stimulation by the liver of the synthesis of plasma coagulation factors,
- inhibition of excessive antithrombin synthesis,
- suppression of the adhesive properties of platelets, preventing blood clots in the vessels,
- normalization of the protein synthesis of the liver and the synthesis of special carrier proteins necessary for the transport of thyroid hormones,
- the formation of sexual desire,
- emotional stability
- vaginal lubrication,
- normal menstruation cycle
- normal maturation of the egg, full ovulation and the onset of pregnancy.
What determines the rate of estradiol in women
- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
- luteinizing hormone (LH),
At this stage of the cycle, estradiol contributes to a gradual decrease in the level of follicle-stimulating hormone in a woman’s blood. This interaction between hormones is due to negative feedback to the pituitary gland.
The maximum elevated estradiol is observed at the end of the follicular phase and the transition to the ovulatory phase.
At this stage, estadiol in women begins to increase the level of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in the blood (that is, there is a positive feedback).
At the end of the cycle, the estradiol concentration is significantly reduced, and will remain at this level until the next follicular phase.
The level of estradiol in women also largely depends on:
- body weight (obesity can lead to an increase in estrogen),
- the presence of disorders in the ovaries,
- adrenal glands
- HGS (hypothalamic-pituitary system).
Estradiol is reduced in women. Symptoms
The main symptoms of estrogen deficiency in women are:
- skin problems (acne, severe dryness, peeling, unhealthy complexion),
- constant drowsiness,
- depressive states
- emotional imbalance
- addiction to hysteria
- severe premenstrual syndrome
- the appearance of convulsions
- violation of microcirculation (constantly cold hands and feet),
- poor cold tolerance,
- the appearance of climacteric tides,
- abdominal pain and mammary glands.
Low estradiol also leads to:
- female masculinization (coarsening of the voice, breast reduction, hirsutism, etc.),
- violation of the menstrual cycle,
- lack of ovulation and the inability to get pregnant,
- decrease in sexual desire.
Lack of hormone also leads to constant vaginal dryness, frequent recurrences of vaginosis and thrush.
In girls, the lack of estrogen leads to a delay in puberty.
Hypoestrogenism should also be suspected with the development of osteoporosis or cardiovascular diseases in women.
Symptoms of increased estradiol in women
- prolonged heavy menstruation
- the appearance of uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women,
- development of edema,
- profuse sweating,
- painful breast engorgement,
- the appearance of benign tumors in the mammary glands, uterus, ovaries.
Indications for estradiol hormone testing
Analysis of estradiol is carried out when a woman:
- impaired puberty (too early or late)
- symptoms of increased or decreased estradiol,
- menstrual disorders (too scanty or heavy menstruation, lengthening or abrupt shortening of the cycle, severe premenstrual syndrome, the appearance of interblock bleeding),
- dyscirculatory uterine bleeding ,
- often recurrent bacterial vaginosis,
- neoplasms (both benign and malignant) in the mammary glands, ovaries, uterus,
- vaginal dryness
- pain during intercourse, decreased sexual desire, frigidity,
- atrophy of the external genital organs,
- hirsutism (male-patterned hair): women start to grow mustache, hair appears on the chest and abdomen, body hair becomes tough and spiny, etc.,
- severe acne and rosacea,
- early osteoporosis, atherosclerosis of ischemic heart disease, heart attack, stroke,
- symptoms of hypogonadism.
Also, estradiol analysis is performed if necessary, the appointment of oral contraceptives, monitoring of hormonal therapy, evaluation of the functioning of the FPC (fetoplacental complex).
Causes of test abnormalities
- dominant follicle (persistence) in the ovary and hyperestrogenia,
- endometrial cysts or hormone-secreting ovarian tumors,
- cirrhosis of the liver,
- chorionepithelioma in the uterus (malignant estrogen-secreting neoplasm),
- of pregnancy.
Estrogen-containing contraceptives, anabolic steroids, treatment with nafarelin, carbamazepine, cimetidine, clomiphene, ketoconazole, mifepristone, phenytoin, tamoxifen, troleandomycin, valproic acid also leads to an increase in the level of the hormone.
Estradiol is reduced by:
- excessive physical exertion
- exhaustion, drastic weight loss, adherence to strict diets and fasting,
- vegetarian food
- long-term or chronic inflammation of OMT (pelvic organs),
- hypogonadism, pituitary ganosis or hyperprolactinemia,
- adrenogenital syndrome
- Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome,
- conditions after removal of the ovary (posthysterectomy syndrome),
- LF deficiency (luteal phase) of the menstruation cycle,
- the threat of spontaneous abortion in pregnant women.
Also, a decrease in the amount of estradiol can result from chemotherapy, treatment with megestrol, mochemite, nafarelin, mifepristone, nandrolone, pravastatin, cimetidine, cyproterone, danazol, dexamethasone, oral contraceptives.
How to increase estradiol in women
Common to all patients are recommendations for the correction of lifestyle:
- quitting smoking and drinking alcohol
- normalization of body weight
- full, healthy food,
- taking multivitamin complexes
- active lifestyle,
- regular sex life.
If necessary, and in the absence of contraindications, herbal preparations (phytoestrogens), herbal infusions and teas (oregano, mint, red brush, pine-wood uterus, licorice, valerian, etc.) can be recommended.
In case of pronounced hormonal disorders, oral hormonal contraceptives are prescribed (Clayra, Logest, Regulon, Jess, Novinet, etc.).
Patients after removal of the ovaries or postmenopausal women (severe menopause, osteoporosis, rapidly progressive atherosclerosis, etc.) are given hormone replacement therapy (Livial, Klimene, Femoston, etc.).
In the early postoperative period, estrogen-containing patches can be used (Estderm TTS50).
If necessary, symptomatic therapy is prescribed (taking sedatives, antidepressants, etc.).